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AS and A Level: Work & Leisure
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The transition which began in the mid eighteenth century, from hand tool manufacture to mass production by machine, although generally viewed as progress, also had some dire consequences. Along with mass production came Capitalism. The invention of machines to speed up and increase production also took away the livelihood of many craftsmen and agricultural workers and with it their control over their own means of subsistence. The new way put control squarely in the hands of those who owned the means of production; the wealthy industrialists who owned the factories and the machinery therein.
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Slaves had everything important to them viciously taken. Stripped from their families, their homes, and their peaceful lives, they were placed in a world where they were powerless in society. As horrific as these memories are, they can't be overlooked. The thoughts and images that go hand and hand with these atrocious events must be used as the will, the want, and the motivation for success. After all, understanding the past is the key to unlocking the future! Education is a crucial factor in success.
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Using material from item B and elsewhere assess the strengths and limitations of group interviews for investigating anti-school subcultures.
observation would be ideal. A covert observation is a primary research method in which the sociologist (identity and purpose are kept secret) studies a group by taking a role within it and participating in its activities. The main practical advantage of covert observation is that it reduces the risk of altering peoples? behaviour. Due to the rapport and the trust that James Patrick had established with the Glasgow gang he was studying, he was able to observe the genuine behaviour of the members and hence, draw conclusions about the group.
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We can all visit the same shops, but some can afford more choices than others; some leisure activities are not accessible to all. A postmodernist researcher called Baudrillard says we live in a media saturated society - in a globalised popular culture the mass media presents us with massive choice of leisure, lifestyle, images and identities drawn from across the world. Others like Lyotard (1984) argue metanarratives (an explanation for everything that happens in a society) no longer explain the identities people adopt. Rojeck (1995)
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Slowlywomen working also declined as they had to stay at home and look after the children. Hence the economic dependency of women and children were on men. As time passed, men had competitors like women doing jobs. But there were certain jobs only for men like mining etc. So all these made the women depended on men. So Oakley concluded that now man have been seperated from domestic household activities, and increasing dependency on men have taken place. Now in the modern society, the act of meritocracy have brought equality amongst everybody. It is where everybody is treated equally and also given the same opportunity and chance.
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Using the pre-release material and your wider sociological knowledge, explain and evaluate the use of semi-structured interviews to research the importance of work in shaping peoples identity.
First of all, when researching the importance of work in shaping people?s identity the researcher attempts to build a rapport, with the interviewee which allows them to create some sort of relationship bonding which enables them to trust one another. The interview therefore becomes like a flowing conversation, in Nayaks study: he wasn?t able to communicate/have access to the Charver Kids as ?their school attendance was so poor?, Nayak was the able to use ?his position as a resident in a rundown estate, near to one of the schools, which was associated with high unemployment and those labelled Charver kids?.
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In What Ways Did Popular Culture and People’s Pastimes Divert the Working Class Away From Socialism?
Pubs were more popular than ever, and the ease of travel brought on by the development of railways meant that standardised holiday trips were sold as commodities. The entrepreneurs responsible for commercial entertainment in the mid to late 19th century, according to Chris Waters, used the same style of language as the reformers, who advocated rational recreation. This was to get the critics on their side and also to promote their forms of mass entertainment as wholesome, morally uplifting pursuits.1 Their promotional techniques were evidently working, and socialists had their work cut out from the start, if they were to provide alternatives to paid-for mass entertainment.
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