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AS and A Level: Work & Leisure

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  1. Assess the claim that the nuclear family as a dominant form of family structure has been replaced by a wide variety of types of families

    Both perspectives will be examined in this assignment. In 1982, RN & R Rapoport [The Rapoport's] conducted a study known as 'Families in Britain'. It identified five different types of family diversity in contemporary Britain including life cycle diversity, class diversity, cultural diversity, cohort diversity and organisational diversity. Firstly, life cycle diversity refers to the difference in family life which occur as the result of the life cycle, for instance a family with teenagers and older parents is very different to families with an 'empty nest'.

    • Word count: 1226
  2. Participant Observation Exercise

    He was slightly on the outside and had to make a conscious effort to be more involved, this made him feel vulnerable as he was making more of an effort that Dave and Tony, therefore to help combat the vulnerability he employed a classic defensive posture. Of course, he may indeed have simply been cold or had a stomach ache, but the atmosphere was fairly warm and he had not complained of a stomach ache. The posture could be down to a lack of confidence and a fear of being judged by the people around him, he doesn't want to appear to others as though he is out of the conversation, he is very much conscious of what others think.

    • Word count: 1570
  3. Functions of the family for individuals and for society

    According to Marxist-feminists, women serve in the family to support the interests of capitalists by : looking after the male workers, rearing children and acting like a reserve pool of labour. In general, Marxism demonstrates how the family functions to support and maintain capitalism. This is explained in the base/superstructure metaphor that Marxists believe. This is where the base which is the economy, shapes and determines the ideological super structures that are around it. These consist of capitalism education, politics and laws.

    • Word count: 691
  4. Religion can both be a conservative force and an initiator of social change. To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view of religion?

    Without this, there would be no social order, social solidarity or co-operation. Religion reinforces the collective conscience through the process of collective worship, whereby individuals come together to express their shared values and become united together. Religion therefore inhibits social change, as it maintains social solidarity and stability within society. In maintaining social solidarity, religion acts as a conservative force; when it fails to perform this function, new ideas may emerge that become the new religion. Durkheim uses communism and nationalism as examples of the new religions that have taken over from Christianity. Functionalists argue that religion itself does not change -its form does- but what does not change is its function.

    • Word count: 2428
  5. The recent rise in support for NRMS comes mainly from an increased desire to reject mainstream religious values. Evaluate this claim

    World-rejecting groups are often millenarian - expecting divine intervention to change the world. For example, The Moonies reject the world as evil, and have strong moral rules such as no smoking or drinking. Over recent years, the general public has viewed world-rejecting groups negatively. This is largely because of mass suicides that have taken place. For example, the mass suicide of Jim Jones's people's temple in Guyana 1987. Wallis sees World-rejecting NRM groups as sects. He also argues that they have "an authoritative locus for the attribution of heresy" and are hostile to the state and non-members.

    • Word count: 1906
  6. Free essay

    This essay discusses the functionalist and Marxist approach to the relationship between education and economy.

    There are three related allocation roles: which are the socialisation role, the allocation role and the vocational role. The socialisation role argues that schools and training acts as a form of secondary socialisation that follows primary socialisation within the family. Both Durkheim and Parsons claim that education functions to maintain social stability and cohesion by transmitting socially agreed norms and values through both the "formal" and "hidden" curriculum. For example, schools insist on a "work ethic" into individuals and provides them with basic skills of numeracy and literacy that are essential for a modern industrial economy. The vocational role outlined a variant of functionalism called human capital theory.

    • Word count: 974
  7. Marxist and functionalist perspective on education

    The education system helps to generate social solidarity by conveying society's shared beliefs and values from one generation to the next, for example, the teaching of history provides social continuity. Functionalists also believe that schools act as 'society in miniature' preparing individuals for life in the wider society, for example in school pupils are encouraged to work as a team this would help in the wider society since we live in a democracy. Durkheim sensed that social rules should be enforced in schools (school rules)

    • Word count: 1430
  8. Q. Describe the employment opportunities for women at the outbreak of war in 1914?

    So if a girl wanted higher education it either meant paying school fees or winning a scholarship. The other problem facing young women was that society thought that a woman's job was to get married and have children and because they didn't need an education for that they thought that it was not necessary. After all that if a young woman decided to further herself and won a scholarship, her parents would still refuse because it meant that they would lose the wages that she got.

    • Word count: 720
  9. The Aims of Education

    Life itself is a process of education, and its lessons may be well or badly learned. The various processes of teaching and learning can be inferred from the nature of education. Education is concerned with character development. The aims of education should be determined by the needs of the individual. Education can be either formal or non-formal. The family constitutes the main source of knowledge as it has the greatest influence on the children in their early stages of acquiring knowledge and mother tongue.

    • Word count: 414
  10. Describe the employment oppurtunities for women at the outbreak of the war in 1914...

    Domestic Service employed thousands of unmarried women, but a few women had better paid jobs, like factory or shop work. Domestic service employed many of the working class in the early 20th century. The job provided a very clear career structure; you could start off as a scullery maid, and progress to a lady's maid, who would be at the beck and call of the mistress, or perhaps eventually to house keeper who would organize the other staff. The advantages of working in domestic service were that all your meals and accommodation came with the job.

    • Word count: 709

    A second contribution schools make to the smooth running of the society is through 'sifting and sorting' people into different occupational roles. Those who do well in the education system are rewarded by being able to reach occupations that have high pay and high status. In effect, schools identify students' skills and abilities, selecting the more able for more challenging and advanced studies and guiding others towards courses and work more suited to their abilities. This has been described as meritocracy.

    • Word count: 900
  12. Action Aid talk on eathiopia

    Their partners range from small community support groups to national alliances and international networks seeking education for all, trade justice and action against HIV/AIDS. There work has influenced government's decisions On august 30th more than 600 people died and as many as 50,000 people have been displaced by severe flooding in nine of Ethiopia's eleven regions. Action Aid helped to bring help to most of the regions that were affected I am now going to tell you about a few of the people we have helped We were sent this photograph of a young girl 'Tsehay Tsegay' year of birth estimated at 1992, with a brief background history.

  13. Feminist Theory Studies in America

    (Business and Professional Women/USA) Each year the National Committee on Pay Equity (NCPE) organizes the national observance of Equal Pay Day to raise awareness about unfair pay in America. This year it was observed on Tuesday, April 16, 2002. Tuesday is symbolic of the point into the new week that a woman must work in order to earn the wages paid to a man in the previous week. (National Committee on Pay Equity) The statistical data in the Table 1-4 below reflects the harsh reality of the unfairness of earned income for women.

    • Word count: 1361

    likely than middle-class children to find themselves in the then grammar schools, top streams and examination classes, or staying on past the official school-leaving age. Explanations for this phenomenon were sought in the characteristics of different children, their upbringing and environment, and in the selection procedures and underlying assumptions which were employed by teachers and schools. Schools were seen to be reflecting and reinforcing the social class divisions of the wider society. The Education Act was repealed in 1979 on the election of the Conservative Government.

    • Word count: 2742
  15. women pre world war

    They were generally less paid than men due to them being considered inferior to men. Upper class women didn't work before or after the war but working class women had to too support their families. Working class women made up most of the 29% of women who worked. They were employed in the less skilled areas of working life. For example domestic service; which is made up of cleaning, working as a servant or cooking. They also worked in the textile industry or secretarial work.

    • Word count: 720
  16. Christallers theory states that larger settlements have a great sphere of influence

    The settlements I am going to investigate include: Enniskillen, Lisnaskea, Brookeborough, Maguiresbridge, Newtownbutler, Fivemiletown, Clones, Smithborough and finally Monaghan. Enniskillen and Monaghan have the largest population of the lot so therefore the should both offer a wider range of services and offer a better selection of H.O.G. I include maps of my route and town maps of Monaghan and Enniskillen, see appendix fig 1. In order to carry out my work and to prove my point I am going to need to design a quick and easy way of recording the number of services offered by a settlement, record the number of services and I will also need to design a questionnaire which will be able to give me

    • Word count: 787
  17. Describe the employment opportunities of women in Britain between 1914 and 1918

    Many women took up difficult and stressful jobs during the war period such as nursing in and out of the army. An example of a nursing job outside of the army was the Voluntary Aid Detachment. Again, lots of these women had never worked before and found the work challenging: "We never stopped for one single instant," Countess of Limerick. Women also faced sexual discrimination and harassment from both sexes at work. Established nurses disliked women who learnt about nursing "on the job" rather than training for a long time.

    • Word count: 945
  18. Describe the employment opportunities of women in Britain in 1914 at the outbreak of World War 1

    They often had to work in very bad conditions and they slept in the attics of houses usually sharing with other servants in cold, cramped rooms. Although servants who lived in their own homes were better paid, the pay was still low. This particular job attracted young women because the school leaving age during that period was only twelve. Girls and sometimes boys went into domestic service as soon as they were legally old enough to leave school. They were forced to do this because their family needed the money to feed the younger children, as families were usually large.

    • Word count: 1880
  19. Examine the ways in which educational policies may reproduce and justify social class inequalities

    Teachers evaluate pupils in terms of an ideal student by looking at appearance, personality, speech and social class. It was also found that students from higher classes were put into top bands at schools as they were more highly regarded by teachers. This is simply reproducing the Marxist ideology of education creating further social divides and limiting the opportunities of lower class students when they leave education and enter the workforce, preventing them from moving up the social ladder of stratification. Although labelling is not an actual educational policy it is an indirect result of such policies, particularly the Education Act introduced by the Government in 1944.

    • Word count: 1328
  20. The immigrants

    To understand other culture is one of the important things that immigrant should adopt when they arrive to the country because people who belong to other culture have different ways of doing things and solve problems. For instance, when I first went to school here in America, students were not just from here, they were from all nation.

    • Word count: 481
  21. Identify and explain three ways in which, according to Marxism, the education system is said to "mirror" the workplace.

    The relationships people form with one another in school also replicates the relationships that are formed at work. At school everyone is arranged in a hierarchy or importance. The head teacher has the most authority over anyone else in the school. At a workplace the manager has the most power over anyone else in the organisation. Teachers have authority over the students and older students are superior to younger ones. This is exactly like the workplace where head of departments have authority over workers with a lower status. Another major similarity is that the education of a boy is seen as more important than the education of a girl.

    • Word count: 612
  22. Assess the Marxist view that education is a form of social control

    Marxist Louis Althusser believed that education teaches working class children to accept their place in society amongst the middle class. This shows social control as it makes students believe that the capitalist system that is present is fair and equal to everyone, also it prepares people for the later exploitation they experience in life. This can be done in three ways which are, the hidden curriculum, alienation of school work and textbooks. The hidden curriculum means that students are following instructions, rules and regulations from people above them in the education system, without asking many questions.

    • Word count: 639
  23. Within this essay, I will be examining the view that education re-creates the class system. Theories such as Marxism, Internationalism and feminism, would agree with each other in

    They believe that the education system works against the ideas of the working classes. In their 'correspondence theory' they argued that there was a correspondence between social relationships in the classroom and the work place. By this, they meant that the hierarchies, certificates, and discipline systems that can be found in schools are actually very similar to the world of work. In school you are paid with certificates, where as on the other hand in work you are paid with wages.

    • Word count: 536
  24. Describe the employment opportunities of woman in Britain in 1914 at the out break of the war

    Enid Starkie, writing in 1941, remembers her childhood at the turn of the century (from A Lady's Child). "My father seemed to me to be a very important person ... In my mother's opinion everything he did was right ... She considered it right that the life of a wife, that the life of ail women in the household, should revolve around its male head. Nurse, the maids and even Lizzie the cook, accepted this attitude without question." The upper class and the middle class women were better educated, but it was considered scandalous for wealthy women to work since they did not need to earn a living.

    • Word count: 1019
  25. Compare and contrast Marxists, Feminist, Functionalists, Third Way and New Right views of the welfare state

    social security system providing income security from the "cradle to the grave"(Beveridge 1942), through a range of benefitsfrom child allowances to old age pensions. The philosophy behind the Beveridge reforms was strongly influenced by the experience of the war years, when state planning and the allocation of resources through rationing of food and clothing provided. Feminists argue that the welfare state is a sexist institution that is biased against women and claim that there are a number of factors that cause this.

    • Word count: 1019

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