#### Explain how economists model how an increase in government expenditure can lead to a greater increase in national income.

Explain how economists model how an increase in government expenditure can lead to a greater increase in national income. Ans. National income is the total amount of wealth that accrues to the permanent residents of a country as a result of the production of goods and services within a country during the course of a year. It is important to measure national income because it shows whether the standard of living in a country is rising or falling and it can be used as a means of comparison between other countries. It is also useful to measure income against past income in the same country to see whether the economy is growing or declining. An increase in government expenditure is an injection in the circular flow on income. An injection is an addition to the circular flow of income. The diagram above illustrates some of the injections and leakages in the economy. It is however very important to find out exactly what will be the effect on the economy from an increase in injections. Economists do this by calculating the multiplier effect of the increase in the government expenditure on the economy. The multiplier indicates how many times that the injection of original spending circulates through a local economy. As a result of re-spending, it benefits the local people. The formula for calculating the multiplier effect is 1/(1-MPC). When there is an increase in the

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• Word count: 373
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Business Studies

#### The Importance of Being Earnest - 'We live, as I hope you know, Mr Worthing, in an age of ideals' what are these ideals in the context of the play in Act One, and how does Wilde present them to the audience?

'We live, as I hope you know, Mr Worthing, in an age of ideals' what are these ideals in the context of the play in Act One, and how does Wilde present them to the audience? In 'The Importance of Being Earnest', ideals are a dominant theme, and to that end are critical in determining the actions of the characters. Wilde is typically subtle in his presentation of these ideals, and consequently many of them come to be used as a means for satirising the society depicted. It is important to establish from the outset that Wilde's presentation of ideals utilizes the different characters as bastions for the various ideals, and in doing that subjects them to scrutiny when ridiculing their respective characterizations. One of the most important ideals presented is fittingly one of the first to become apparent; that being the division of the classes and the social status that they entail. On line 1 of the play, Algernon asks Lane, after playing the piano in the adjoining room: 'Did you hear what I was playing. Lane?' Lane's response: 'I didn't think it polite to listen, sir' is indicative of various aspects of his position. Firstly, his butlership requires that he should abstain from partaking in any activity considered to be distracting to his duties, of which listening to the piano would be one. Secondly, his position in society, that of one of the lower classes, demands utter

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• Word count: 1196
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: English

#### paper cones investigation

Investigation Report Aim Theory When an object is dropped in air, it accelerates. If it is allowed to drop far enough then it can reach its terminal velocity. This is the maximum velocity of the object during its fall and occurs when the upward force of air resistance acting on the object equals the weight of the object. So at terminal velocity... (P.31, Complete Physics, 1999, Pople, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-914734-5) (P.33, Physics 1, 2000, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-78718-1) Looking for a formula for air resistance... F = force of air resistance ? = density of air = 1.2kgm-3 c = coefficient of drag for the object / dimensionless A = cross-sectional area of object hitting the air / m2 v = velocity of the object / ms-1 (http://damonrinard.com/aero/formulas.htm) Looking for a formula for the weight of an object... W = m.g W = weight / N m = mass / kg g = acceleration due to gravity, 9.81Nkg-1 (P.55, Physics, 1991, Robert Hutchings, Nelson, ISBN 0-17-438510-2) So putting these formulae together... From the Physics AS course, v = velocity x = displacement t = time so References to the specification Forces and Motion 2821 Forces, Fields and Energy 2824 Aim of your investigation The aim of this work is to investigate the relationship between the time taken for a paper cone to fall and the mass of the cone. Variables

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• Word count: 2095
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Explain how twin and adoption studies attempt to distinguish genetic and environmental factors underlying the onset of schizophrenia within families. Review the studies and discuss two limitations of this.

Psychology Essay Explain how twin and adoption studies attempt to distinguish genetic and environmental factors underlying the onset of schizophrenia within families. Review the studies and discuss two limitations of this. Schizophrenia is the label applied to a group of disorders characterised by severe personality disorganisation, distortion of reality, and an inability to function in daily life. Symptoms are mainly disturbances of thought processes, but also extend to disturbances of emotion and behaviour. There are two symptom categories - acute schizophrenia characterised by positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and delusions; and chronic schizophrenia, characterised by negative symptoms such as apathy and withdrawal. However, DSM-IV has now moved away from these definitions and classified schizophrenia into three main sub-types: paranoid, disorganised and catatonic. Understanding Schizophrenia More research has, probably, been devoted to trying to understand the nature of schizophrenia than any other mental disorder. Somatogenic approaches have focused on the role of genetic mechanisms influencing the propensity to develop schizophrenia, while psychogenic approaches emphasise the effect of adverse childhood experiences, particularly abnormalities in family interaction in the aetiology of the disorder. Twin studies Twin studies offer a

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• Word count: 1708
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Science

#### Compare and contrast the Functionalist and Marxist views of society.

Compare and contrast the Functionalist and Marxist views of society. Sociology has been classified as the last in a long line of emerging scientific disciplines which people have developed and explored in order to make sense of their world. Early theories such as the positivist approach of Comte, the functionalist views of Emile Durkheim and the conflict perspectives of Karl Marx have offered a view of why human beings behave as they do and how they fit together in society. Each theory has to some extent been shaped or influenced by the approach of others and many sociological explanations have comparisons or contrast that can be made. Browne once said "sociological perspectives centre on how much freedom or control the individual had to influence society" He goes on to comment on the two main approaches "structuralism is concerned with the overall structure of society and the way social institutions act as a constraint, or limit and control individual behaviour". Structuralism offers a view of the individual being controlled by the society they live in, Marx and Durkheim are similar in that they can both be described as structuralists, however their individual ideas are somewhat different. Functionalism was developed by Emile Durkheim, he believed like Comte that sociology should be viewed as a precise science and that society should be studied objectively. Durkheim

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• Word count: 949
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: Sociology

#### You have been stranded on a desert island. Describe your first 24 hours alone on the island.

Hannah Greenslade Y10 Coursework Assignment 2 5/11/01 Option 3 Task; You have been stranded on a desert island. Describe your first 24 hours alone on the island. The first thing that hit me was the smell. Even before I opened my eyes, I knew where I was. The tantalizing scent of washed-up waves and bananas all rolled into one. I felt the millions of grains of sand, hot against my fingers and the cool breeze against my face, - a relief from the sweltering sun. I heard the sea crawling onto the sand and, further away, the same monster dashing against the rocks. As I opened my mouth to take in a gulp of air, I tasted salt in my throat. Not the same taste as on Brighton Pier, when you look over into the sea, but a fresh, clean one, as if taking in pure oxygen. Only then, when my four other senses had taken in their share of my surroundings, did I allow myself to open my eyes. I was amazed at how easily fantasy and reality intertwined at that moment. It was like continuing a dream after waking up. As I lifted my eyelids, as the barrier between my imagination and actuality was removed, the accuracy of my prediction astounded me. As I sat up and looked around, I realized that I must have been asleep for a long time, as my sopping wet clothes were completely dry. I could just see the island on which I had been staying, a strip of land on the contrasting horizon. The rubber

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• Word count: 1357
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: English

#### Tennessee Williams wrote in a letter that It (Streetcar) is a tragedy with the classic aim of producing a catharsis of pity and terror and in order to do that, Blanche must finally have the understanding and compass

Tennessee Williams wrote in a letter that "It ('Streetcar') is a tragedy with the classic aim of producing a catharsis of pity and terror and in order to do that, Blanche must finally have the understanding and compassion of the audience. This without creating a black-dyed villain in Stanley. It is a thing (misunderstanding) not a person (Stanley) that destroys her in the end." In your opinion, to what extent has Williams succeeded in his aims. Although there are many different viewpoints on a conventional tragic heroine, Aristotle made his views clear that a hero must fall from fortune and power, due to a tragic flaw, allowing an audience to feel catharsis at the end of the play. It can be argued that Stanley causes Blanche's downfall, however, it is clear that Blanche had brought this upon herself by creating a conflict between them and ensures her own downfall by other means such as her promiscuity and flux into fantasies. Williams makes it clear that a misunderstanding destroys Blanche in the end. This misjudgement can be seen in her aggressive teasing of Stanley and her uncomfortable belonging in multi-cultural New Orleans. From the beginning of the play, Williams makes it clear that 'the Kowalski and the DuBois have different notions' with Blanche withholding the Southern Belle attitude of 'Belle Reve'. However, it is clear that Blanche cannot cope with the stark

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• Word count: 1760
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: English

#### Comment supprimer le dopage dans le sport franais?

Comment supprimer le dopage dans le sport français? Le dopage évoque le mauvais côté du sport. Au top niveau, il y a des sportifs qui pensent ne pas pouvoir s'améliorer sans utiliser de produits dopants. A mon avis, ce sont de véritables tricheurs et ce n'est pas bon pour le sport. J'écris au sujet des tricheurs au top niveau mais aussi au sujet des amateurs qui veulent gagner même s'il faut se doper. Je propose de considérer tour à tour l'étendue du problème, les effets du dopage et les solutions éventuelles. Mais tout d'abord il est nécessaire d'examiner ce que signifie le terme 'dopage'. Il est difficile de définir le dopage parce que la frontière entre l'aide à la préparation des sportifs et le dopage est parfois ténue. Le président du Comité international olympique a spécifié " le dopage est quand la vie du sportif est en danger " mais un ministre australien a réagi en se référant à la définition plus orthodoxe: " ...avoir recours à des procédés ou substances interdits par les textes. " J'entends prêter ce dernier sens au terme 'dopage' dans ma discussion. C'est lors du Tour de France de 1998 que le dopage a été le plus médiatisé. De nombreux reportages à l'époque ont révélé que les équipes Festina et TVM l'auraient même institutionnalisé. Un sondage de 1997 montrait que 92% des français considéraient le dopage dans le

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• Word count: 1194
• Level: AS and A Level
• Subject: Modern Foreign Languages

#### Was Nicholas II responsible for his own downfall?

Was Nicholas II responsible for his own downfall? Nicholas II acted as an autocratic monarch rather than a constitutional leader, and this was a factor in his eventual downfall and abdication. Other factors included, him leaving Russia in the incapable hand of his wife, Alexandra, who herself was greatly influenced by Rasputin. The 'Holy Man' Rasputin was becoming more and more popular with Alexandra for helping their only son, Alexis's with his haemophilia, and his strange but powerful brand of spirituality certainly affected both Alexandra and Nicholas. It could be argued that Nicholas was himself responsible for allowing the power of Rasputin to extend so far and to influence his political decisions. Historians are in agreement that Nicholas lacked the necessary skills and qualities to rule a rapidly changing country. There were however factors outside of Nicholas' control, including his son's illness, that he could not be held directly responsible for. Indeed Russia was a huge country which was very hard to govern even for the most competent Tsar. One of the first factors which Nicholas was responsible for was his weak character and the fact that he allowed Alexandra to be so dominant. She encouraged him to hold on to his absolute power when a change in his style of leadership may have been a more politically useful tactic. A very significant contributing

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• Word count: 1914
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: History

#### Catholic discrimination in Northern Ireland in terms of Housing and Employment

There has been a long history of violence, prejudice, and discrimination between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland, particularly highlighted throughout the 1960s, when Catholics were discriminated against by the Protestant Stormont Government in both employment and housing. Hence, in order to understand in what ways and how much it occurred, both these areas must be investigated. Firstly, one must look at how the Catholics were discriminated against in terms of employment, and to what extent this occurred. In the public sector, Catholics suffered great difficulties being employed, as there appears to have been some bias towards employing Protestants, especially in senior levels of the civil service. For example, in a report by the Cameron Commission in 1969, it is stated, "[As of October 1968] In County Fermanagh, no senior council posts, (and relatively few others) were held by Catholics" and according to the Sunday Times, in the same county, in 1961 "322 of the [370] posts, including the top ones, were filled with Protestants. This shows how during the 1960s, the Catholics in Fermanagh did not have many jobs at a high level in the public sector. This is particularly interesting because the majority of people in Fermanagh were Catholics, hence highlighting the extent of their discrimination. The Sunday Times also wrote that in Derry "of 177 salaried employees,

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• Word count: 1152
• Level: GCSE
• Subject: History