Explain how economists model how an increase in government expenditure can lead to a greater increase in national income.
Explain how economists model how an increase in government expenditure can lead to a greater increase in national income. Ans. National income is the total amount of wealth that accrues to the permanent residents of a country as a result of the production of goods and services within a country during the course of a year. It is important to measure national income because it shows whether the standard of living in a country is rising or falling and it can be used as a means of comparison between other countries. It is also useful to measure income against past income in the same country to see whether the economy is growing or declining. An increase in government expenditure is an injection in the circular flow on income. An injection is an addition to the circular flow of income. The diagram above illustrates some of the injections and leakages in the economy. It is however very important to find out exactly what will be the effect on the economy from an increase in injections. Economists do this by calculating the multiplier effect of the increase in the government expenditure on the economy. The multiplier indicates how many times that the injection of original spending circulates through a local economy. As a result of re-spending, it benefits the local people. The formula for calculating the multiplier effect is 1/(1-MPC). When there is an increase in the
Experiment to investigate the effect of different antibiotics on the bacteria Bacillus subtilis: Aim: To see which antibiotic (Chloramphenicol, Erythromycin, Fusidic Acid, Oxacillin, Novobiocin, Penicillin, Streptomyan and Tetracycline) reacting with the Bacillus subtilis has the largest zone of inhibition in mm (+/- 0.5mm) and so which has the biggest effect on the bacteria. Introduction: Gram -positive bacteria are bacteria that are dark blue or violet when gram staining. Gram-positive organisms are able to keep the crystal violet stain because of a high amount of peptidoglycan in the cell wall. This makes up about 90% of the thick, more than 20 layers of peptidoglycan together. Gram-positive organisms normally do not have the outer membrane, whereas Gram-negative organisms do. Gram-positive bacteria include many well -known genera like Streptococcus and Bacillus. Most pathogenic bacteria in humans are Gram-positive organisms and these are used to manufacture antibiotics. Bacillus subtilis, also known as the hay bacillus or grass bacillus is a Gram- positive bacterium, which is mostly found in soil. Bacillus subtilis is not a human pathogen and it can contaminate food but rarely causes food poisoning. Bacillus subtilis spores can survive the extreme heat during cooking and Bacillus subtilis is responsible for causing a sticky, stringy consistency in spoiled bread
How does Priestly present the character of the Inspector? Inspector calls was written by J.B.Priestly in 1945.The play was set in 1912 which is also linked with 1945 as it is about 1912.the play is about a family who are in a cosy room celebrating their daughter's engagement, when a harsh figure of an inspector cross-examine the family cording to a suicide of a young working class women when to that each member has a shameful secret which is linked to her death. The arrival of the inspector is show as he enters the room as priestly had stage description that there is to be felt an immediate presences as he enters. "The INSPECTOR need not be a big man but be creates at once an impression of massiveness, solidity and purposefulness." And has also wrote the Inspector is meant to be like "He is a man in his fifties, dressed in a plain darkish suit of the period. He speaks carefully, weightily and has a disconcerting habit of looking hard at the person he addresses before actually speaking." The inspector has a way of getting information out of each member of the family even by using quite harsh words on them. I believe that the inspector meant to be seen as someone who has no time for the people he talks to and is shown when gets impatient with Mr Birling as he says "Don't stammer and yammer at me again man. I'm losing all patience with you people." Sometimes the
Factors that affect learning for different individuals. The factors that currently influence my learning do have a strong impact; my chosen lifestyle means that I need to be employed and work a minimum of sixteen hours per week in order to pay the bills.
Task 2: Factors that influence learning vary between individuals, so factors that affect me may not necessarily affect others. David Kolb observed that "personal habits and routines, beliefs, cultural customs, values, motivation and career aspirations are all influences because they can affect attitudes to study and its priority over other demands on an individual, such as home life or work." (B. Stretch, M. Whitehouse. BTEC Nationals Health and Social Care Book 1: 279) The following diagram shows a range of influences that affect learning. The factors which are identified in the diagram that have the most impact on my learning are: time, friends, aspirations, employment, lifestyle and motivation. Some of these factors influence me negatively and some positively; although I have found that with experience and change in my surrounding environment that these factors differ. I have also found that with experience I have developed ways to overcome the barriers that influence my learning. The factors that currently influence my learning do have a strong impact; my chosen lifestyle means that I need to be employed and work a minimum of sixteen hours per week in order to pay the bills. The time that I spend at work means I have limited time to complete any college work so therefore I need to be motivated continuously to attend college, work and complete assignments. Not only
The Importance of Being Earnest - 'We live, as I hope you know, Mr Worthing, in an age of ideals' what are these ideals in the context of the play in Act One, and how does Wilde present them to the audience?
'We live, as I hope you know, Mr Worthing, in an age of ideals' what are these ideals in the context of the play in Act One, and how does Wilde present them to the audience? In 'The Importance of Being Earnest', ideals are a dominant theme, and to that end are critical in determining the actions of the characters. Wilde is typically subtle in his presentation of these ideals, and consequently many of them come to be used as a means for satirising the society depicted. It is important to establish from the outset that Wilde's presentation of ideals utilizes the different characters as bastions for the various ideals, and in doing that subjects them to scrutiny when ridiculing their respective characterizations. One of the most important ideals presented is fittingly one of the first to become apparent; that being the division of the classes and the social status that they entail. On line 1 of the play, Algernon asks Lane, after playing the piano in the adjoining room: 'Did you hear what I was playing. Lane?' Lane's response: 'I didn't think it polite to listen, sir' is indicative of various aspects of his position. Firstly, his butlership requires that he should abstain from partaking in any activity considered to be distracting to his duties, of which listening to the piano would be one. Secondly, his position in society, that of one of the lower classes, demands utter
Zaineb Sefiani MK 170 02/15/2005 Case Study Analysis The purpose of this case study is to evaluate different issues concerning a beach bag. Mary Ricci, an entrepreneur, has hired a consulting company to study this new product concept she is willing to introduce to the market. I have chosen to look at the strengths and than the weaknesses. At the end of this case study analysis, I will give some recommendations to help the company do better. The Strengths The first and the most important thing to point out is that Ricci is "creative, optimistic, enthusiastic, flexible, and motivated." I think that it is extremely important to have someone who is devoted and creative. Therefore, Ricci seems to have all the necessary skill to be a successful entrepreneur. Concerning the product, I think that it has some advantages. The first strength about this product is the number of pockets. I think it is important to have a lot of pockets in a beach bag because it allows one to be organized. Another advantage is that Ricci want to provide her customers with a variety of colors. The will allow her to satisfy potential customers that differ in tastes. This strategy will also give Ricci a competitive advantage in comparison to her competitors that offer at most three different colors. Finally, the online selling seems to be a good idea to start with regardless the disadvantages it might
How is Curley's Wife presented in 'Of Mice and Men'? Do you find her portrayal a sympathetic one? In of mice and men, Curley's Wife is presented in many various ways. At first impression, she comes across as the seductive, troublemaker the ranchers see her as. However, as the story progresses, we learn that this is only one of many sides to a very lonely woman. The readers sympathy for this character also changes throughout the novel, as her secrets are revealed and the real Curley's Wife is found. Curley's Wife is a very complex character. The reader's first impression of her is created before she actually appears in the book. We find out what the workers think of Curley's Wife through Candy when George and Lennie first arrive at the ranch. Candy, who considers Curley's Wife to be the reason for everything wrong in the whole of Soledad, creates an image of Curley's Wife in the reader's mind as a flirtatious tramp who's "got the eye." Candy calls her a "tart" and warns George against her, causing George, Lennie and the reader to see Curley's wife through Candy's eyes on their first encounter. When she finally appears for the first time, she certainly seems to live up to the image the reader expects from Candy's gossip. "She had full, rouged lips and wide spaced eyes, heavily made up. Her fingernails were red.... She wore a cotton house dress and red mules, on the insteps of
What are the codes and conventions of the Western? In this essay I shall examine the various codes and conventions which are present in the Western film. I shall examine three films. These are The Searchers, a film which includes as its hero John Wayne playing the part of Ethan, A Fistfull of Dollars, in which Clint Eastwood plays the part of the hero with no name, and Stagecoach, in which John Wayne is also present, acting the part of The Ringo Kidd. I shall examine the first sections of all three films, as to perform a detailed analysis of all of the three films is a task beyond the scope of this essay. Beforehand, however, I shall describe some common aspects of cinematography. . . A high camera angle is used to make the audience appreciate the significance of a character in the Western. This camera angle is used to make the person look ordinary or common, inferior to another character, or small in relation to another character in the script. A low camera angle is used to stress the importance of the dominant character. The person's status within the film is very easily measured by how large they appear to be to the viewer at one particular time. If the camera follows one character in a film for example, this could provide a link between scenes in the mind(s) of the viewer. If the camera stays in a static position, and the person walks away for example, this could
How useful are Databases for Businesses to day? I am going to plan an investigation into how useful databases are for a company in the 21st century. Firstly I am going to explain what a database is. A database is a collection of data that can be used as information. It is understandable as information because of the headings and structure used in the database file. -A FILE is the information given in a subject e.g. Patients records. -A RECORD is a set of information about one given thing e.g. one patients record would contain just information about that person. -A FILE is one piece of information in a record; it also gives meaning to a list of, otherwise meaningless, information e.g. the field heading 'First name' gives meaning to a list of words such as 'Emma', 'Joe', 'Frank' and 'Tom'. -A QUERY is a search of the database for a certain piece of information that could be useful to you, e.g. if you want to sell a platinum credit card then you could do a search for people living in a certain area and then send the information to those people using a mail merge. Alternatively, if you worked in a doctors surgery you could do a search of people who needed a booster jab. -A MAIL MERGE is a letter containing the results of the query sent to certain people who would possibly be interested in that certain information. The type of information that a business might want to
Why was the Weimar Republic so unpopular with many Germans between 1919 and 1923? After The War a new type of government was set up in Germany. This was the Weimar Republic. Between 1919 and 1923 it had to deal with many problems. 1919 saw the Spartacist Rebellion and the new government was forced to agree to the unpopular Treaty of Versailles. In 1920 the Kapp Putsch succeeded in taking over the government for a while. In 1921 Germany began to pay reparations and inflation began to get out of control. Two years later France and Belgium invaded the Ruhr and the hyperinflation was now out of control. The NSDAP, led by Adolf Hitler and General Ludendorff, tried to take over the government at this time. This bad start had three main causes. The First reason why the Weimar Republic started badly was that there were political problems. Some people were very upset that the Kaiser had been forced to leave. This was a politically a bad start because it showed that some people would have preferred to have had the previous political system. The communists disliked the new republic because not much would change. The workers would still be poor and the rich would still be rich. They wanted the workers to have power. This contributed to the Weimar Republic's early unpopularity because there are a group of people (the communists) who know that they will not agree with the key policies