Experiment to Determine Ethanol Content of Wine The purpose of this experiment is to determine the ethanol content of each of the wines and compare the value determined to the value quoted on the label. These results can then be used to conclude which region is more accurate in quoting the value of the ethanol content of the wine. This experiment takes advantage of the fact that ethanol is less dense than water in solution. The density of ethanol at 20°C is 0.789 g/cm3 while the density of water at the same temperature is 0.998 g/cm3. It then follows that different solutions of ethanol and water will have different densities also, because the relative volume of ethanol increases and water decreases so the density of higher percentage ethanol solutions will be less than the density of lower percentage ethanol solutions. This occurs because water molecules are much smaller than ethanol molecule, meaning more water molecules can "pack" into a smaller volume than ethanol molecules, meaning there is more mass per unit volume of water compared to ethanol, meaning it has a higher density. In this experiment, solutions of ethanol in water were made up, going from 0% to 20%. These were then weighed, and the density of the ethanol was calculated. From this, a graph of percentage ethanol solution against density was made. This graphs later compared to the density of the wine, so
How the structure of cells is related to their function. All living things are made up of cells, whether its plants, humans or even bacteria. There are two different types of cells one is the prokaryotic and the other is the eukaryotic. The name cell was used by an English man who in 1665 use the first microscope and reported seeing what he described looked like the sleeping chambers in the monasteries that were called cells, in a piece of cork.1 The first of the two types is the Prokaryotic cell, the pro meaning before the nucleus as this cell has no true nucleus.2 Prokaryotic cells are surrounded by a cell wall and a cells membrane, and in some ways this makes them similar to a plant cell which is eukaryotic, but they have no nucleus or organelles inside, but they do have flagella's and cilia on the outside. The flagellum is a long whip like tail attached to the end of the prokaryotic cell which helps with its movement. The cilia are small spiked hairs that help to transport fluid in and out of the cell and for protection against harmful substances. They are also found in abundance in the eukaryotic cells in the human trachea where they collect dirt, they either by moving it down into the stomach or push it back up into to the mouth to spit it out.3 One of the most common prokaryotic cells would be bacteria, they are the smallest cellular organism, and each human being
Las Disqueras (internacionales): Estructura de las grandes disqueras: La producción musical es una actividad sumamente compleja. Hay que componer las canciones, tocarlas, grabarlas, mezclarlas y masterizarlas, promover el disco, hacerle publicidad y, por último, hay que venderlo. Para poder hacer todo esto de manera eficiente las compañías discográficas están estructuradas en diversas divisiones y departamentos. Las grandes corporaciones del mundo del entretenimiento (Sony, Universal, EMI, AOL- Time Warner y Bertelsmann Music Group) poseen, cada una, un conglomerado de empresas subsidiarias y asociadas, muchas las cuales son sellos disqueros que, a su vez, tienen a otros sellos de menor envergadura asociados a ellos, etc. Esta cadena puede llegar a ser realmente larga, pero en términos de estructura organizacional son los grandes sellos disqueros lo que se encargan de mercadear y vender los discos de los sellos más pequeños. Las grandes corporaciones del entretenimiento están organizadas como cualquier otra corporación: tienen un CEO, un COO, un CFO etc. Luego, cada gran sello disquero que pertenezca a la corporación, tiene un presidente. Por ejemplo, en AOL- Time Warner hay un presidente para Warner Brothers Records, otro para Reprise Records, otro para Atlantic Records etc. Debajo de los presidentes de las disqueras se encuentran los vicepresidentes,
A Foreboding Night Ian sat on the curb, his hands buried deep inside the pocket of his jeans. Puddles of rain filled the gaps between the uneven concrete, reflecting the eerie glow of the streetlamps. The oppressive night air never failed to release its grasp on him. The hairs on his arm tingled as the chilling wind breathed into his face, whispering unnerving secrets into his ear. He glanced at his wristwatch. At last, with its headlights flashing, a taxi broke through the end of the street. Ian sprang up and waved frantically at the car. The tires screeched as it skidded to a halt. Ian opened the door and felt a rush of relief as he plopped himself onto the worn-out leather seat. A faint yellow glow emanated from the lights on the peeling ceiling. The taxi driver peered at him through the rearview mirror. His eyes were bloodshot, devoid of all emotions. "Where to?" he rasped. Ian glanced around uneasily. "Where do you want to go?" the driver repeated. The harshness of his tone struck Ian into silence. His throat felt tight as he struggled to think of a place. Sweat began to trickle down his neck. Something wasn't right. Trees, bushes, and streetlamps whirred by as the car sped along the streets, its headlights piercing through the wilderness of night like the eyes of a wolf. Spilling out its light onto the ribbon of slick concrete, the crescent moon followed the car and
How does Shakespeare challenge the conventional role of women within the patriarchal society of Much Ado About Nothing.
How does Shakespeare challenge the conventional role of women within the patriarchal society of 'Much Ado About Nothing'. 'Much Ado About Nothing' is set in a patriarchal society in the late 16th century. In a patriarchal society, men are the dominating sex and women are the oppressed ones. The title of the play also plays a part in showing how things are overly based on sexual relationships between men and women. The play takes place over a course of three days. As so much happens during these three days, the events take place rapidly and can create confusion and misunderstanding. 'Much Ado About Nothing' is a play of wit, deception and slander. It is full of darkness just as much as it is full of light. For Beatrice, a pre-occupation with death arises from her entrapment within a court whose practices she does not admire. She constantly tries to oppose the views of her society with which she doesn't agree. The treatment of gender issues in 'Much Ado About Nothing' would have been central to its impact on Elizabethan audiences. Women, stereotypically, were expected to be silent, gentle, passive and submissive. Independent women were regarded with suspicion and interest. In the first three scenes, the male characters continually criticise the females. Benedick voices the traditional patriarchal ideology through his constant criticism of women's actions and sexual
How is the conflict between duty and desire explored in these texts? Desire is a term conveying a longing for a certain object, person or outcome. It is an emotion from the heart and is unaffected by social opinion. Duty, in contrast, is a moral obligation to an act, which is perceived to be selfless. The decisions made regarding these emotions are significant throughout 'Jane Eyre' and 'Wide Sargasso Sea'. However, these definitions were more extreme during the time that Brontë and Rhy's texts were written. In the 19th century, it was considered a completely selfish act for women to show desire, it was a vulgar emotion that women were expected to control and conceal. The female role during the 1800's was limited; they were expected to be passive and were passed from father to husband, similar to a possession. To perform one's duty to society was regarded as an unspoken rule imposed on all women, therefore, women never truly had the chance to express their true identity or gain real independence. The 19th century conflict between duty and desire was a key topic written about by many authors, predominately women, who illustrated personal experiences and beliefs through the characters and their decisions. In both Bronte's and Rhy's novels the authors illustrate the limitations imposed on women, society's views and expectations concerning the conflict, and the importance of
Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development Freud advanced a theory of personality development that centred on the effects of the sexual pleasure drive on the individual consciousness. The following five stages are based around the notion that with each stage, the child's libido becomes centred around certain erogenous zones. The Oral Stage The oral stage begins at birth, when the oral cavity is the primary focus of libidal energy. The child, of course, preoccupies himself with nursing, with the pleasure of sucking and accepting things into the mouth. The oral character who is frustrated at this stage, whose mother refused to nurse him on demand or who truncated nursing sessions early, is characterized by pessimism, envy, suspicion and sarcasm. The overindulged oral character, whose nursing urges were always and often excessively satisfied, is optimistic, gullible, and is full of admiration for others around him. The stage finishes at the weaning stage. The stage lasts approximately one and one-half years. The Anal Stage At one and one-half years, the child enters the anal stage. With the advent of toilet training comes the child's obsession with the erogenous zone of the anus and with the retention or expulsion of the faeces. This represents a classic conflict between the id, which derives pleasure from expulsion of bodily wastes, and the ego and superego, which
Relate the structure and function of cell organelles Cells are like cities with intricate organelles 'living and working' in it. There are basically two kinds of cells, namely Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic. Both plant cells and animal cells are eukaryotic while prokaryotic cells are simplier organisms that possess non-membrane bounded organelles. In most cells they contains the following organelles which carry out unique functions and allow cells to work properly. To start off with, nucleus is a large roundish organelle enclosed by a double membrane with numerous openings, namely nuclear pores, for nuclear traffic. It contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli. Nucleolus is a spherical site where ribosomes are formed. Chromosomes contain DNA which tends to be packed in form of chromatin. Only during interphrase (a stage before a cell divides in a cell division process), chromosomes will be unravelled for easier replication. Tiny, hollow cylinders of protein called centrioles form a network of spindle fibres in the nucleus during nuclear division to pull chromosomes apart. The inner membrane of nucleus will break down and allow chromosomes lying freely in cytoplasm. DNA contains the genetic information and control the synthesis of protein. Each cell contains millions of ribosomes. They are very tiny, non-membrane bounded organelles made of protein and RNA which consist of
Outline and evaluate research into obedience (12) In Milgram's original obedience to authority study, his aims were to set up a situation in which single individuals were ordered to act against a stranger in an inhumane way and to see at what point they would refuse to obey the order. Milgram advertised for male volunteers by placing an advert in a local paper, which offered $4.50 as payment for taking part in a study of 'punishment and learning'. 40 respondents from a range of backgrounds were selected and were told to attend the laboratory in Yale University. They were greeted by the experimenter, and were introduced to a 'supposedly' participant, Mr Wallace, but actually he was a confederate. They were both experienced to a role-assignment but it was rigged so that the real participant was the teacher. The experimenter explained to the teacher that it was his job to teach the learner a series of word pairs and then test their recall. If an error was made in the answer, an electric shock was made, starting from 15V working upwards each time. As the shocks became higher, the learner screamed and became more dramatic, and complained of a weak heart at around 180V. The participants showed signs of extreme tension, even showing nervous laughing fits, but they were still told to 'please go on' even though they didn't want to continue. Along side that, when the teacher refused
Compare how the past reveals feelings about a place in Nothings Changed with the ways another poet reveals feelings about a place or places in one other poem.
Essay Question: Compare how the past reveals feelings about a place in "Nothing's Changed" with the ways another poet reveals feelings about a place or places in one other poem. Nobody can help have feelings- they are a part of everyone. We feel differently towards an issue as different things happen to us. Feelings do not change with time. What we feel as a child stays with us even when we are older. Feelings can be positive or negative. The poets Tatamkhula Afrika and Grace Nichols are both trying to deliver a similar message about feelings. In the poem Nothing's changed, the poet is feeling anger towards the white people even though the Apartheid had been finished. "District Six. No board say it.... And the hot, white, inward turning anger of my eyes." This shows that the poet is feeling ferocity towards the People in District Six. This can be said because "District Six" has been written as a short, expletive sentence, which is full of anger. "No board says it: but my feet know" This shows that even though Apartheid has ended and all the boards which differentiate the black community from the white community have been removed, the poet still feels secluded from the community. "And my hands, and the skin about my bones, and the soft labouring of my lungs, and the hot, white, inward turning anger of my eyes." This shows that as he is walking along, his anger is