Developmental Psychology - Key Assessment Task a) Outline the development of attachments An attachment is a powerful bond between an infant and its caregiver. Infants form attachments because they are helpless at birth and so need caregivers to provide for and protect them. There are many long term effects of attachments, for example an attachment gives a foundation for emotional relationships e.g. the infant is learning how to form an emotional or "love" relationship. Schaffer and Emerson believed that infants form attachments by three stages, this argument was based on a large scale study of 60 infants in a working class area of Glasgow over 2 years. The first stage of attachment Schaffer and Emerson believed a child to go through happens when they are 0-6 weeks old, this is known as the Asocial Stage and involves the infant smiling and crying but not directing these emotions at individuals. The second stage of attachment is known as Indiscriminate Attachment and happens when the infant is 6 weeks to 7 months old; this involves the child seeking attention from different individuals. The last stage of attachment is Specific Attachments and happens when the infant is 7-11 months old, this stage shows a strong attachment to one individual, with good attachment to others following afterwards. b) Describe the procedures and findings of one study of individual difference in
Does General Haig deserve the title 'Butcher of the Somme'? In this essay I will discus whether General Haig deserves to be remembered as 'the butcher of the Somme'. General Haig's title of 'the butcher of the Somme' originated after the First World War, when, due to large number of casualties Britain suffered from the war and mostly the Somme. The people of Britain wanted someone to blame. This was a coping mechanism in which people could deal with the loss of the 'lost generation'. Arguably Haig does deserve his nickname. This is because Haig sent thousands of men to their deaths continuously after his war efforts seemed not to be working. For instance 60,000 soldiers died in the first day alone in the battle of the Somme. The reason that so many people died was that Haig ordered his men to walk across no-mans land. They were easy targets for the German machine guns. However Haig assisted Britain in winning the war and although he did so with tremendous loss of life, these men did not die pointlessly. They died to protect their families and everyone else on the home front, and they died to prevent Britain from becoming a German Nation. Haig was also faced with an almost impossible task of winning the war in the quickest means possible. Haig was under constant pressure from the government to have a large victory to boost morale. This factor as well as the fact that
Outline and evaluate two social psychological theories of aggression. (24 marks) Bandura believed that the potential for aggression may be biological, but the expression of aggression is learned. The social-learning theory (SLT) states that learning occurs through observation of a model. Imitation of an observed behaviour is more likely if the model is someone we aspire to or identify with or if they are rewarded. This is vicarious reinforcement. A child forms a mental representation of an event, including the possible rewards or punishments of the behaviour. When a child imitates an aggressive behaviour, they gain direct experience, and the outcome of the behaviour influences the value of aggression for the child. If they are rewarded they are more likely to repeat the behaviour. Children develop self-efficacy, which is confidence in their ability to successful carry out a behaviour. If aggressive behaviour is unsuccessful for a child, they will have a lower sense of self-efficacy so are less likely to behave this way in future. There is strong empirical evidence to support the SLT. For example, Bandura's Bobo doll studies found that children who observed a model behaving aggressively to the Bobo doll behaved more aggressively than those who observed a non-aggressive model and also imitated specific aggressive acts. This supports the theories claims that behaviour can be
Aim Investigate the water potential of celeriac. Apparatus Celeriac - this is the specimen that we will be finding the water potential of. .00 mol dm-3 sucrose solution - this will be placed in the test tube in which the experiment will take place. We will dilute the solution to produce a range of concentrations. 0.0ml Graduated Pipettes (x2) - I had a choice of 5.0ml, 10.0ml and 20.0ml graduated pipettes. I chose this size pipette because it is time efficient and accurate at the same time. It is an accurate piece of equipment because as opposed to standard pipettes, this graduated pipette has 0.1ml graduations to ensure the utmost accuracy. One pipette will be used for water and one will be used for sucrose solution. 250ml Beakers (x2) - these will be used to hold water and the 1.00 mol dm-3 sucrose solution in a safe environment. Cork Borer - this will be used to cut the precise shape of the celeriac. This will also ensure that the surface area to volume ratio is constant throughout the experiment. Razor - this will be used to cut the pieces of celeriac to a precise length. Ruler - this will be used to measure the length of celeriac that will be used in the experiment. Scales - they will be used to measure the mass of celeriac before and after the experiment with accuracy. Therefore, the mass increase/decrease can be calculated after the experiment. These scales
How does Sujata Bhatt show that identity is important in from Search For My Tongue? Compare the methods she uses with the methods another poet uses to show that identity is important in one other poem.
How does Sujata Bhatt show that identity is important in 'from Search For My Tongue'? Compare the methods she uses with the methods another poet uses to show that identity is important in one other poem. 'Search For My Tongue' ('SFMT') and 'Hurricanes Hit England' ('HHE') both share a common theme of identity and how it influences our day-to-day life. 'SFMT' and 'HHE' together show show your cultural identity is within you; it's not constricted to a certain place. However, the two poets show this in different ways. In SFMT, Bhatt's emotional response to the language shows its importance. Whereas in HHE, Nichols' final conclusion of 'the earth is the earth' and her response to this epiphany show importance. Language is a method used in both poems to show identity's importance. Both poems use a physical thing metaphorically, too. In SFMT, it's her tongue. Whereas in HHE, it's the hurricane.In SFMT, the two tongues (languages) conflict in her (both physically and metaphorically). The two toungues would be squashed; there's clearly not enough room in someone's mouth for two tongues. This reflects her struggles on knowing two languages: the 'mother tongue' and the 'foreign tongue'. This is effective in showing Bhatt's dilemma and concerns. As a reader, I empathise with her as I understand that it must be difficult and frustrating. Additionally, the metaphor of the language being
Date: 11/10/2011 Exp. No.: 23 Title: Preparation of propanone from propan-2-ol Aim: The aim of this experiment is to prepare propanone by oxidizing propan-2-ol with acidified potassium dichromate solution. Introduction: Ketones and aldehydes are important series in preparation of other compounds and they are commonly prepared by oxidizing alcohol which is done in this experiment. The experiment is an oxidation reaction where a secondary alcohol (propan-2-ol) is oxidized by acidified potassium dichromate. The reaction does not need to be heated but should be placed in an iced water bath as the reaction is highly exothermic. The product is propanone and no catalyst is needed for the reaction. The propanone is serparated from the reaction mixture by simple distillation and is purified using anhydrous cacium chloride. The equation of this reaction is as follow: Chromic acid is produced in situ by adding potassium dichromate (VI) with sulphuric acid and water. K2Cr2O7 + H2O + 2H2SO4 ? 2 H2CrO4 + 2 NaHSO4 The term chromic acid is usually used for a mixture made by adding concentrated sulfuric acid to a dichromate, which may contain a variety of compounds, including solid chromium trioxide. Chromic acid features chromium in an oxidation state of +6. It is a strong and corrosive oxidising agent. Apparatus and chemicals: Apparatus: Quick-fit distillation setup,
Shawna Danielson Kellie Clemmer Psych 1110 23 February 2009 Is Beauty the Key to a Better Life? . What am I being asked to believe or accept? Attractiveness plays an important role in whether or not an individual will be successful- both at home and in the workplace. Some individuals argue that attractiveness can hinder a persons chance for a successful relationship and can belittle their talents and intelligence. Others argue that attractiveness can improve an individual's chances of having a happy, successful relationship, and that beautiful people earn more, live longer, and have better lives. 2. What evidence is there to support the assertion? Our American culture looks to a women's body, and physical appearance, as a way of determining femininity (Kalof, 1999). There is evidence that suggests that physical attractiveness influences others perceptions and evaluation, treatment afforded by others, and overt behavior and self-perception. This occurs throughout an individual's lifespan, in both men and women, and in other cultures as well (Baron, Markman, & Bollinger, 2006). For centuries, beauty has been equated with having positive qualities. Beautiful people are perceived as having elegant homes, expensive cars, and successful lives. They are also expected to be healthy, wealthy, ad wise (Van Leeuwen & Macrae, 2004). They are also perceived as being more
Act Three, Scene Three - Othello Choose a scene which you consider to be a turning point and explain in detail and with some reference to the rest of the play why it is dramatic and significant. Refer to language, themes and characterisation. A turning point is a time in a plot where actions cause a character to develop from their prior persona. A classic example of this is Act Three, Scene Three of Shakespeare's 'Othello'. This scene is crucial to the play, as it conveys the change in the moor, Othello's personality as a result of Iago's manipulation. In this essay I will describe this scene's dramatic nature and significance with reference to language, themes and characterisation. I will begin by describing Othello before Iago had interfered with his relationship. I will then give an overview of the structure and state why it is effective. I shall explore the key moments in manipulation and discuss how a climax is created. In conclusion, I shall relate the scene to the rest of the play, whilst discussing why it is dramatic with reference to the main themes portrayed, and its overall significance. Othello is a man of many complexities. Having being cast into a world of civilised Venetians, he is seen as an outsider; a 'black ram', 'The Moor'. His ethnicity is foreign to the people, and so it can be seen in his simple dialect. Yet, referred to as "noble Othello",
Rules of Causation Case. Jess throws paint in Sams eyes. Sam had to go to hospital to have paint removed from his eyes. On the way home, just before his sight was fully recovered, he tripped on the kerb and fractured his skull.
Jess throws paint in Sam's eyes. Sam had to go to hospital to have paint removed from his eyes. On the way home, just before his sight was fully recovered, he tripped on the kerb and fractured his skull. - Outline the rules of causation and briefly discuss whether Jess caused Sam's fractured skull (7 marks) Once it has been established that the defendant performed the act, the prosecution must prove that it was the defendant's conduct which caused those consequences to occur. The prosecution has to show that the defendant's conduct was the factual cause of that consequence, the defendant's conduct was in law the cause of that consequence and there was no intervening act which broke the chain of causation. There are two types of causation, factual causation, the defendant can only be guilty if the consequences would not have happened but for this act. An example of this is, R v Pagett, the defendant used his girlfriend as a human shield against police fire. He shot at the police, they fired back, killing his girlfriend. But for his actions she wouldn't have died. This relates to the scenario because but for Jess throwing paint in Sam's eyes, he would not have been partly sighted and tripped on the kerb resulting in a fractured skull. Causation in law, the defendant's actions must be the operating and substantial cause. An example of this is, R v Smith, two soldiers were
The comparison of antibacterial properties of herbal products and standard antibiotics Introduction: This is As biology coursework, studying the area of microbiology the main investigation contains the comparison of antibacterial properties of herbal products and standard antibiotics. Aim: The aim is to investigate the effect of herbal products against standard antibiotics on bacteria growth. To examine the extent to which the herbal products (tea tree oil and peppermint oil) and the standard antibiotics (penicillin and streptomycin), reduce bacteria growth of E.coli and M.luteus. This will be discovered by measuring the growth of bacteria on the agar plates and comparing the results. Background information: The proposed aim surrounds the study of bacteria growth and various other products, which can have an affect on the growth rate; it is therefore necessary to look deeper into the topic criteria to get a wider understanding and to help design an appropriate hypothesis. From self-knowledge antibiotics are chemicals produced by microorganisms, which are designed to inhibit and destroy specific pathogens when used at low temperatures. Antibiotics release chemicals, which inhibit bacterial growth and work on a specific action site. The first founded antibiotic was penicillin discovered accidentally by Alexander Fleming in 1928 from a mold culture. It can be