outline and evaluate feminist contributions to our understanding of gender
E) Outline and evaluate Feminist contributions to our understanding of gender. Before the rise of Feminism in the 1960's, the popular view in sociology was that the biological differences between men and women were the things that determined their role in life. Functionalists assumed that men were biologically suited to heavy work (instrumental roles) and as women bore children, they were therefore biologically suited to the role of mother and carer, the expressive role. In the late 1960's Liberal Feminist Ann Oakley argued the case and said that gender roles were not 'nature' but were in fact nurture. She felt that gender roles were down to socialisation and even if there were biological tendencies, they could be overridden by cultural factors. She did several cross cultural studies; each one seemed to strengthen her case. For example, she found 14 cultures where women did the lumbering and 38 cultures where men and women shared cooking duties. Since the emergence of Feminism, there have been several different Feminist perspectives and although they do not all agree about the origins of gender issues, each one has added its own valuable contribution to the understanding of these issues and heightened women's, and men's awareness of the inequalities that exist. Feminists have challenged the relationship of men and women as one where women belong to one group and men belong
How far do you agree that Jane Austens novel Pride and Prejudice is no more than an entertaining study of the surface of polite society and its trivial doings?
How far do you agree that Jane Austen's novel 'Pride and Prejudice' is 'no more than an entertaining study of the surface of polite society and its trivial doings'? In 'Pride and Prejudice there certainly is a great deal of comedy, and will appeal to many readers for what Claire Tomalin calls 'its good-humoured comedy, its sunny heroine, its dream denouement'. The two main characters appear to be part of what Vivien Jones calls a typical 'rags-to-riches love story', maintaining happiness after a series of vicissitudes, which might incline readers to think it rather superficial. The critic talks about the surface trivia of Austen's society, which seems to comprise only of balls, scarlet coats and Muslin gowns, but she probes beneath the surface of her society, and concerns herself with the real confinement of the lives of women in her period. Jane Austen explores how women were victims of a patriarchal society, by presenting the unfairness of the entail. She presents Mr. Collins as a fool, by bluntly stating through the critical objective narrative that he 'was not a sensible man'. By this we see that it is ridiculous that such an imbecile should be able to turn out the two rational sisters Jane and Elizabeth from their own home, since should they not be married they could be facing the same options as Jane Fairfax in Austen's 'Emma', left to 'the governess trade', with it's
For my Travel and Tourism coursework I have chosen Marbella as my European destination
AO1 - Marbella Ronda is a beautiful town that lies within the Serranía de Ronda mountain range 48km away from Marbella at an altitude of 739 meters. The town is split into two different sections by a 100 meter deep gorge called El Tajo and is joined by the Puente Nuevo (which stands for New Bridge). The bridge was built in 1751 and took a total of 42 years to build; this is a key tourist attraction that brings many tourists to Ronda year in year out. Iglesia Mayor de la Encarnacion is a historical church in Marbella that was originally built in 1505, however most of the building was raised in 1712 and is now claimed to be the city's most important church which makes it popular for tourist visits. Alcazaba Wall (Marbella town's castle) and the 16th century town hall in the centre of town are two of Marbella's nicest buildings; these are opened up for visits and excursions and therefore help to attract more tourists to the area. Constitution Park, La Alameda Park and Arroyo de la Represa are three of Marbella's main local parks. Constitution Park which was once a garden of private residence is now used for concerts and plays throughout the summer whereas the Alameda Park and Arroyo de la Represa park are mainly used by the old Spanish locals and tourists to relax and talk in the quiet tropical gardens. For my Travel and Tourism coursework I have chosen Marbella as my
Analyse how the music, camera angles, special effects and presentation of characters create a dramatic fight scene in the Baz Luhrmann version of Romeo and Juliet
Analyse how the music, camera angles, special effects and presentation of characters create a dramatic fight scene in the Baz Luhrmann version of Romeo and Juliet Baz Luhrmann's version of Romeo and Juliet uses various aspects of Act 3 Scene 1 to create a dramatic fight scene. This film, from 1996, displays the Shakespearian play in a modernised world, with the film set in Los Angeles, and various modern props are used, such as guns and cars. This film, like the play, presents the rebellious feud between two rival families: the Montagues' and the Capulets. This leads to conflict created by the younger members of the families and, with the introduction of modern weaponry, creates a more violent action scene. Luhrmann tries to emphasise the significance of this pivotal scene through his choice of soundtracks, camera angles, special effects and presentation of characters. Firstly, Baz Luhrmann creates a dramatic fight scene through the ways the characters are depicted along with their costumes. The first character shown in this scene is Mercutio who, at this point, is shooting bullets into the sea, which could convey that he is the troublemaker who starts the brawl between the Montagues and the Capulets to create a dramatic fight scene. Although his actions convey acts of trouble, his shirt emphasises his innocence. Mercutio wears a plain white unbuttoned shirt, displaying his
The chivalry thesis claims that women will be treated more leniently for committing certain crimes, generally shoplifting is often associated more with females than males, but the statistics suggest that males commit many more acts of theft than women, an
Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the value of 'chivalry thesis 'in understanding differences in crime. gfg Pollak (1950) was of the opinion that police and magistrates tended to be more 'chivalrous' and 'lenient' towards female offenders, resulting in sentence disparities, and as a result, criminal statistics underestimate the amount of female offending. (Item A). Pollak (1961) argued that men - namely in this case police officers, magistrates and judges, are socialised to be protective towards women and thus are less likely to chare or prosecute them, and are also treated more leniently in court. Pollak goes further to argue that women are accustomed to deceiving men, for example in faking orgasms during sex, or lying in a relationship to gain material wealth. This skill in deceit mean that their crimes, such as poisoning and infanticide, are less easily uncovered (item A) leading to women being underrepresented in criminal statistics. The chivalry thesis claims that women will be treated more leniently for committing certain crimes, generally shoplifting is often associated more with females than males, but the statistics suggest that males commit many more acts of theft than women, and this may be because females are let off with a warning rather than a conviction. This could be because the statistics of crime are so male dominated, a police officer may
Critics suggest that Wuthering Heights is a novel concerned with boundaries. Explore the effect of these boundaries in relation to the relationship of Catherine and Heathcliff.
Critics suggest that 'Wuthering Heights' is a novel concerned with boundaries. Explore the effect of these boundaries in relation to the relationship of Catherine and Heathcliff. Throughout 'Wuthering Heights', physical and metaphorical boundaries are crucial in communicating Emily Brontë's moral messages about the position of women in 19th Century society and the barriers separating individuals of different social status. Both of these themes are conveyed by the relationship between Catherine and Heathcliff as Catherine is forced to forsake her true love and instead marry Edgar Linton because he is socially acceptable, "And he will be rich, and I shall like to be the greatest woman of the neighbourhood, and I shall be proud of having such a husband" and Heathcliff is of lower social standing, "It would degrade [Catherine] to marry Heathcliff". The social barrier between Heathcliff and Catherine manifests itself in a myriad of ways during the novel and is eventually broken by Hareton and Cathy- the new generation of residents on the moors. This conclusion was clearly a statement of intent from Emily Brontë which suggested the oppressive boundaries of the 19th Century patriarchal society would ultimately be eradicated by a new generation of Britons- a view which was vindicated after Brontë's tragic death, as the Suffragettes earned women the right to vote and various
How does Zeffirelli portray the characters of Gertrude and Ophelia?
How does Zeffirelli portray the characters of Gertrude and Ophelia? Franco Zeffirelli's 1990 production of Hamlet has Glenn Close and Helena Bonham Carter cast as Queen Gertrude and Ophelia respectively. He has the luxury over a stage production of being able to add scenery, mood and vibrant close up of character to his film. These added advantages allow us to examine the players in a closer, more intimate way and so we can look at the figures of Queen Gertrude and Ophelia with different perspective. Right from the start the audience most definitely depicts Gertrude as the queen and the primary female of the cast, however there is no malice or grim intention portrayed. We open the film feeling sorry for her at her husband's funeral yet the speed of her re-marriage makes us question her morality and quality. The audience is made to question her character by her physical nature both with Claudius and Hamlet, particularly with Hamlet. Their relationship is portrayed as intensely Freudian, from the very beginning with Gertrude constantly touching Hamlet. Zeffirelli dresses Gertrude in a gown with a simple pale design yet trimmed with gold and subtle jewellery and her hair is worn like a regal crown, always perfect and obviously made by attendants. Herein we see her position but unlike other plays her queenly status is not overbearing. Zeffirelli quite obviously dressing
Compare "The Drum" by John Scott and "Vitai Lampada" by Henry Newbolt.
Pre 1914 War Poems The two poems that I am going to compare are "The Drum" by John Scott and "Vitai Lampada" by Henry Newbolt. The poems have greatly contrasting views of war. "The Drum" has a negative perception of war whereas "Vitai Lampada" portrays a very positive image of war. A drum is a musical instrument that was used during war times to recruit men to sign up and join the army. The drum would be banged to get people to notice that the army was recruiting outside, people would then leave their houses and 'sign up' in the street. The first line of the poem tells the reader about the poet's view on war, "I hate that drum's discordant sound". Discordant - meaning disagreeing, at variance in respect to sounds. The word "hate" meaning to dislike intensely used as the second word in this poem, showing the strength of the feelings about war felt by the writer John Scott. The beginning of "Vitai Lampada" is very different to the beginning of "The Drum". "There's a breathless hush in the Close tonight - Ten to make and the match to win". There is no strong negative or positive emotive word like the word "hate" used at the start of "The Drum". The word "Close" is given a capital letter, implying that it might be the name of a stadium or pitch, not just the literal meaning of the word "close" - an enclosed space. "Vitia Lampada" starts by describing the tense atmosphere of
The Impact of ICT - the advantages and disadvantages of different types of ICT
The Internet This software is a program that allows people to stay in contact and complete processes otherwise un-doable. It was originally made so American scientists could communicate across the country with ease. This has affected billions, with over 1 quarter of people having access to it. Advantages - Easy information access - Many applications for everyone Disadvantages - Unsecured, and some information false - Easy for fraudsters. Television- Television is a method of sending and receiving visual and aural data. People also use CCTV (closed circuit television) to capture the aforementioned. TV has been used and advanced since the late 1930s. Advantages - Many attachments for it. - Advanced and is a worldwide used product Disadvantages - Can be very pricey - Peoples lives revolve around it. iPod iPods are MP3 players made by the computing company, Apple. They are much higher in price than other MP3s, possibly because of the brand and compatibility of the products. Now there are so many of this specific brand, from the 'nano shoots video' campaign advertising the new iPod Nano, to 'the funnest iPod ever', the new iPod touch with it's massive selection of games and applications. Advantages - Music on the go - Many interactive features Disadvantages - iPods are associated with many road accidents - Very expensive Computers Computers are machines
I aim to find out if the mass of an object affects the speed at which it falls.
Falling Objects Plan I aim to find out if the mass of an object affects the speed at which it falls. I predict that the mass will not alter the speed, as it will reach terminal velocity. I think that all the results will stay roughly the same even though I have changed the mass. When something falls, its potential energy is changed into kinetic energy. Therefore the only thing in this experiment that could alter the speed at which it falls is the air resistance and the height. (These would change the time at which the object is in the air). Theoretically, as I am keeping these the same, the speed should not change. The scientist Galileo proved this. This is a quote taken from the Galileo Timeline. (http://es.rice.edu/ES/humsoc/galileo/galileo_timeline.html) "1589-1592 Teaches mathematical subjects at the University of Pisa (salary 160 scudi per year). Some tracts--lecture notes--written during this period have survived. In On motion Galileo uses the Archimedian approach to motion: the speed of falling bodies is proportional to their density, not their weight as Aristotle had maintained. According to Vincenzo Viviani Galileo demonstrated his conclusions by dropping weights from the leaning tower of Pisa." I will drop the object, which will be a small container, from a height of 30cm. I will measure the speed of the object using a light gate, which will make my results