Measuring National Income Circular Flow of Income Model In the circular flow of income model there are two sectors: households and firms. Households are the ones who buy the country's output of both goods and services and own all of the economy's factors of production. They are the suppliers of these factors of productions and receive payment for supplying these factors to firms. Firms hire factors of production from households and use these factors to produce the country's output of goods and services. A table of the factors of production and the income received can be seen below. Factor of production (provided by households) Payment to the factor (provided by firms) Labour Wage Land Rent Capital Interest Entrepreneurship Profits This is the basis for the circular flow of income two-sector model. Households provide factors of production and in turn, receive income. They then buy these goods and services which have been produced by the firms. These products have been produced using the income received and in this way the income is circulating throughout the economy. Leakages and Injections However, households do not spend all of the income that they receive, as illustrated by the above diagram, which is simply a simplified model of an economy. Households are also able to save part of their income. Saving is the foregoing of current consumption to allow for
Explain the main features of the behaviour of firms which operate in an oligopolistic market (10) An oligopolistic market is one which has several main firms that dominate the market and the labour supply is concentrated around them. All firms are interdependent and the actions of one firm will directly affect another, all products are differentiated but there are close substitutes to them. Within the market there are high barriers to entry and exit and collusion may occur. A firms behaviour in an oligoplistic market is much dependant on that of the other firms. As there is no competition on price they must compete on other aspects of the marketing mix such as place and promotions, this means that firms will have to invest into Research and Development in order to improve their product and make it seem more attractive to consumers. In an oligoplistic market there are no diseconomies of scale due to the L shaped average cost curve as firms cannot compensate for them because of the kinked demand curve. Firms have to behave in this way as there is no room for price reductions as soon as one firm puts its prices down the other firms will lower their prices and this can lead to a price war. The kinked demand curve model assumes that a business might face a dual demand curve for its product based on the likely reactions of other firms in the market to a change in its price or
Stating your assumptions carefully, outline the likely impact of an increase in taxation on the interest rate.
Stating your assumptions carefully, outline the likely impact of an increase in taxation on the interest rate. Before discussing the effects of increased taxation on the interest rate, it is important to distinguish what type of taxation is being increased. Taxation is defined as any compulsory payment from an individual or institution to central or local government. There are two main types of tax - direct and indirect taxes. Direct taxes are taxes on income (a percentage of a worker's wage), profits (a percentage of a firm's profits) and wealth (for example a percentage of somebody's inheritance). Indirect taxes are taxes on consumption, for example Value Added Tax, which is a percentage of the price of a good sold. An increase in the rate of any of these taxes will have a similar effect on the economy as a whole. However the government can use taxation to target certain parts of the economy for taxation revenue. For example to reduce investment spending it could increase corporation tax. If the government were to increase income tax, the effect on the economy would be that the level of aggregate demand would fall, assuming that all other factors remained constant (ceteris parabus). This has the effect of reducing the economy's expenditure. This would have the effect of shifting the IS curve inwards, to the left, reducing the level of income and output in the economy. If
Price Discrimination is the practice of charging different consumers a different price for the identical good or service for example charging children, university students and old aged pensioners lower prices than other cinemagoers. There are three types of price discrimination, first degree, second degree and third degree price discrimination. The first price degree discrimination, involves charging each consumer the price they are individually prepared to pay. In first degree discrimination the seller or the firm would have captured the entire consumer surplus and this will now be producer surplus, thus a firm or seller earns a higher level of profit than simply charging a single price to all of its consumers. Second degree price discrimination involves charging different prices for different amounts consumed. Third degree price discrimination involves charging different prices to different groups of people such as charging students, children and the elderly different prices. The firm of a market where this type of discrimination occurs is capable of differentiating between consumers, such as student or senior discounts. A student or senior consumer will have a different willingness to pay than an average consumer. Thus the firm sets a lower price for that consumer because that consumer has a more elastic price elasticity of demand. In third degree price discrimination
Explain the main factors which might determine the elasticity of supply of labour to an occupation such as computer specialist (10)
Explain the main factors which might determine the elasticity of supply of labour to an occupation such as computer specialist (10) The elasticity of supply of labour measures how a change in wage rate will affect the amount of labour supplied to a given market in this case computer specialists, it shows how flexible a labour market is to enter and exit. Both elastic and inelastic labour markets are shown below. As you can see a inelastic labour market has a steeper supply of labour curve as it is not easy to enter the market usually due to the high skill levels needed and how long the investment in human capital will take before the economic agent can enter the market with the required skill, however an elastic labour market has a much less steep labour supply curve showing that the market is easier to enter and exit due to the lower levels of skill needed and is usually jobs such as waiting or shop assistants. An increase in wage rate in an inelastic labour market will have little effect on the amount of labour supplied however in the elastic market a small wage increase leads to a large increase in the quantity if labour supplied. Elastic Labour Supply Inelastic Labour Supply The main factor that affects the elasticity of supply in the computer specialists market is the amount of training and education needed in the market these cause large barriers to entry within
External influences Economy Interest rates Most businesses will need to borrow money. The interest rate will affect how much it costs
External influences Economy Interest rates Most businesses will need to borrow money. The interest rate will affect how much it costs a business to borrow money. If the interest rate is high the money a business owes is more than before. A 20% interest rate rise would affect Cadbury's; they would have to pay extra money towards the loan. This too would affect Sainsbury's in the same way. Any interest rates that go up will affect a business because the business needs to make up the costs and the only way to do this is to higher the prices of their service or products. The company might have to borrow more money to pay for the interest rate going up. Competition Competition is where rival businesses aim their products at the same customers and try to win and keep their custom. Sainsbury's main competitors are tescos, Asda and Morrison's. They all sell food and household goods. Asda could sell more food than them so Sainsbury's would get less customers, Cadbury's main competition is Masterfoods, coca cola, Walkers and Rowntrees. If Cadbury in the next year didn't release any more chocolates or sweets and rowntrees released different sweets even though people would still buy Cadburys old ideas they would buy rowntrees new products. This way Cadburys would loose money and they would loose customers buying their products to the other companies. If Sainsbury's had a dyer
What is Inflation? Effects Inflation has on the Trafford Centre. How does The Bank of England control Inflation?
Inflation What is Inflation? Inflation is a general and progressive increase in prices, usually measured over a period of a year; in inflation everything gets more valuable except money. There are two types of inflation- RPI (Retail Price Index) and CPI (Consumer Price Index), the only difference between both of these types of inflation, is that RPI is an average measure of change in the prices of goods and services- and includes house prices and the CPI is the same as the RPI- except it excludes house prices. The Bank of England Monetary Policy Committee tries to keep inflation steady at the Government's 2% target, although this target isn't always met, What Causes Inflation? Several aspects cause inflation, for example, inflation can happen when governments print an excess of money to deal with a crisis. As a result, prices end up rising at an extremely high speed to keep up with the currency surplus. Another common cause of inflation is a rise in production costs, which leads to an increase in the price of the final product. For example, if raw materials increase in price, this leads to the cost of production increasing, this in turn leads to the company increasing prices to maintain profits. How is Inflation calculated? Inflation is calculated by selecting thousands of prices for goods and services, known as the 'basket of goods, and then they are analyzed to check
Karolina Duda 2F Explain the components of AD (aggregate demand) and evaluate the extent to which an increase in AD is beneficial for the economy. Aggregate demand is the total demand for goods and services in the economy at a given price level during a specific time period. An aggregate demand curve is the sum of individual demand curves as it shows how much all consumers, business and government are willing to spend on goods and services at given price levels and it outlines the relationship between income or output and the price level. Aggregate demand curve is downward sloping (higher the price, lower the demand). There are four major components of aggregate demand: consumption (C), investment (I), government expenditure (G) and net exports (NX), which is the imports and exports balance (X-M). According to this, the equation for aggregate demand is: AD = C + I + G + NX. Factors forming AD: ** CONSUMPTION is the demand by households and unattached individuals for durables and non-durable goods. It is expressed as function of disposable income (amount of money left to consumers after taxes are paid), which is income - taxes (Y-T). It is because only that amount of money can be spent on goods. ** INVESTMENTS is the demand by business firms and some individuals, for new factories, machinery, computer software, education, housing, other structures and inventories.
Economics "Using demand and supply diagrams explain recent changes in the price in coffee" Introduction A market exists wherever there are buyers an sellers of a particular good. Buyers demand goods from the market whilst sellers supply goods onto the market. Demand is the quantity of goods or services that will be bought at any given price over a period of time. The demand curve is downward sloping, showing that the lower the price, the higher will be the quantity demanded of a good. Demand curve Supply in economics is defined as the quantity of goods that sellers are prepared to sell at any given price over a period of time. The supply curve is upward sloping, showing that firms increase production of a good as its price increases. This is because a higher price enables firms to make profit on the increased output whereas at the lower price they would have made a loss on it. Supply curve If in a market there is more supply than demand there is then a surplus of this good. A rise in the price of this good leads to a rise in the quantity supplied shown by a movement along the supply curve. The change in supply can be caused by a change in production costs, technology and the price of other goods. At a lower price some firms will cut back on relatively unprofitable production whereas others will stop production altogether. The demand for a good will rise or fall if
Demand and Supply for housing The determination of prices in local and regional housing markets is a classic example of microeconomics in action! We are seeing the interaction between buyer and seller with prices being offered and agreed before a final transaction is made. In this section we focus on the demand and supply side factors that determine the value of properties in a market. Each housing transaction in the UK depends on (a) The price that the seller is willing to agree for their property with the prospective buyer (b) The actual price that the buyer is willing and able to pay. Buyers place offers for a property that the seller can either accept or reject A Sellers Market When the market demand for properties in a particular area is high and when there is a shortage of good quality properties (i.e. supply is scarce) then the balance of power in the market shifts towards the seller. This is because there is likely to be excess demand in the market for good properties. Sellers can wait for offers on their property to reach (or exceed) their minimum selling price. A Buyers Market Conversely when demand both for new and older housing is weak and when there is a glut of properties available on the market, then the power switches to potential buyers. They have a much wider choice of housing available and they should be able to negotiate a price that is