Explain how economists model how an increase in government expenditure can lead to a greater increase in national income.
Explain how economists model how an increase in government expenditure can lead to a greater increase in national income. Ans. National income is the total amount of wealth that accrues to the permanent residents of a country as a result of the production of goods and services within a country during the course of a year. It is important to measure national income because it shows whether the standard of living in a country is rising or falling and it can be used as a means of comparison between other countries. It is also useful to measure income against past income in the same country to see whether the economy is growing or declining. An increase in government expenditure is an injection in the circular flow on income. An injection is an addition to the circular flow of income. The diagram above illustrates some of the injections and leakages in the economy. It is however very important to find out exactly what will be the effect on the economy from an increase in injections. Economists do this by calculating the multiplier effect of the increase in the government expenditure on the economy. The multiplier indicates how many times that the injection of original spending circulates through a local economy. As a result of re-spending, it benefits the local people. The formula for calculating the multiplier effect is 1/(1-MPC). When there is an increase in the
Econmoic Concepts behind the uk oil industry
.Explain the following economic concepts in the context of the UK oil industry: a) Economic Resources b) Specialisation c) Money and Exchange d) Markets A. There are four types of resources available for use in the production process. These are land, labour, capital and enterprise or entrepreneurship. These resources are called the factors of production. With land it doesn't only deal with the actual land itself but all the natural resources about and below the land and sea. Land is split up into two types of resources, these are renewable and non-renewable, which then filter down further into sustainable and non-sustainable resources. Renewable resources are resources which once used are able to be renewed. For example fish stocks and forests. These are then only sustainable if even with economic exploitation, like fishing and commercial logging, the number of fish and trees don't diminish or run out. If for example it was found out that under the forest there is a large amount of oil then the forest would be totally cleared to make way for people to dig and collect for the oil. In this case the forest would have ceased to be a sustainable resource. Non-renewable resources are non-renewable in the fact that once used, will never be replaced. Oil is an example of a non-renewable resources as once it has been used, say for fuel for your car, there is no way to again use
Would It Be Economically Beneficial to Britain to Introduce An Obesity Tax?
Would It Be Economically Beneficial to Britain to Introduce An Obesity Tax? Although obesity is a worldwide phenomenon in the 21st century, its impact varies between countries. Across the Channel in France less than one person in ten is obese, while in Japan it's less than one in twenty (see Figure 1 below). In England, at present 1 in 4 of all Britons have been declared medically obese - with obesity rates for both men and women surging in recent years (see Figure 2 below). It has recently been predicted by several tabloid newspapers and the BBC that - "Britain is an Obesity Time bomb"- 30th August 2009 (Sunday Express) with "Half of Britons Obese by 2050"-17th October 2007 (Daily Mail). However in this piece of coursework I intend to look at what has caused the rise in obesity over the last 50 years and whether an 'Obesity Tax' is a viable option. Ali Muriel - Taxing the Fat - 2005 - www.ifs.org.uk The Cause So why are the obesity rates in the UK rising at such an alarming rate? Many factors have been blamed such as the press, fast food outlets, TV's and a lack of exercise. However the implication seems to be that either people are getting hungrier (eating more) or they're getting lazier (exercising less). It is true that if you do less exercise and eat more calories then you will put on weight, therefore since more people are putting on weight it must mean that they
Devaluation By Rughoobar Chidanand
Devaluation I. Introduction Devaluation, in economics, official act reducing the exchange rate at which one currency is exchanged for another in international currency markets. A government may choose to devalue its currency when a chronic imbalance exists in its balance of trade or overall balance of payments, which weakens the international acceptance of the currency as legal tender. The lowering of a currency value by devaluation occurs when a country has been maintaining a fixed exchange rate relative to other major foreign currencies. When a flexible exchange rate is maintained-that is, currency values are not fixed but are set by market forces-a decline in a currency's value is known as a depreciation. II. Causes The free-market value of a national currency is determined by the interaction of supply and demand. If the quantity of the currency demanded is greater than the quantity supplied, a nation will experience a balance of payments surplus. A balance of payments deficit exists when the quantity of currency supplied is greater than that in demand. The demand for a nation's currency depends on the amount of its exports, domestic investments, and assets held in domestic currency. A nation's currency supply on world markets depends partly on the amount of imports, investments abroad, and assets held in foreign countries. Ultimately, the supply of a currency
Explain the main features of the behaviour of firms which operate in an oligopolistic market (10)
Explain the main features of the behaviour of firms which operate in an oligopolistic market (10) An oligopolistic market is one which has several main firms that dominate the market and the labour supply is concentrated around them. All firms are interdependent and the actions of one firm will directly affect another, all products are differentiated but there are close substitutes to them. Within the market there are high barriers to entry and exit and collusion may occur. A firms behaviour in an oligoplistic market is much dependant on that of the other firms. As there is no competition on price they must compete on other aspects of the marketing mix such as place and promotions, this means that firms will have to invest into Research and Development in order to improve their product and make it seem more attractive to consumers. In an oligoplistic market there are no diseconomies of scale due to the L shaped average cost curve as firms cannot compensate for them because of the kinked demand curve. Firms have to behave in this way as there is no room for price reductions as soon as one firm puts its prices down the other firms will lower their prices and this can lead to a price war. The kinked demand curve model assumes that a business might face a dual demand curve for its product based on the likely reactions of other firms in the market to a change in its price or
Stating your assumptions carefully, outline the likely impact of an increase in taxation on the interest rate.
Stating your assumptions carefully, outline the likely impact of an increase in taxation on the interest rate. Before discussing the effects of increased taxation on the interest rate, it is important to distinguish what type of taxation is being increased. Taxation is defined as any compulsory payment from an individual or institution to central or local government. There are two main types of tax - direct and indirect taxes. Direct taxes are taxes on income (a percentage of a worker's wage), profits (a percentage of a firm's profits) and wealth (for example a percentage of somebody's inheritance). Indirect taxes are taxes on consumption, for example Value Added Tax, which is a percentage of the price of a good sold. An increase in the rate of any of these taxes will have a similar effect on the economy as a whole. However the government can use taxation to target certain parts of the economy for taxation revenue. For example to reduce investment spending it could increase corporation tax. If the government were to increase income tax, the effect on the economy would be that the level of aggregate demand would fall, assuming that all other factors remained constant (ceteris parabus). This has the effect of reducing the economy's expenditure. This would have the effect of shifting the IS curve inwards, to the left, reducing the level of income and output in the economy. If
Concept of Supply
Describe factors affecting Supply and with the aid of diagrams, give scenarios of each case. There are many factors affecting supply and they must all be isolated and analyzed individually and under the ceteris paribus assumption; that is; all other factors remain constant. The determinants of supply can lead to contractions or expansions if supply depends on the price of the good itself, or increases and decreases if any other factor than supply. The market price of the good/service will influence the producer's ability and willingness to supply it. If the price of that good is too low, producers would not be able to cover costs of production and thus would not supply item. Generally, according to the law of supply, as price rises, quantity supplied rises and as price falls, quantity supplied falls. These contractions and expansions in supply are characterized by movements along the supply curve. The Price of other goods/service is another determinant of supply. The quantity of a good or service supplied at any time will be affected by prices of other goods and services. For example, if the price of a motorbike remained the same, while the price of scooter increased, it would become more profitable to produce scooters. Hence firms will be willing to supply fewer motorbikes and start producing and supplying more scooters. Future expectations will also influence the
The Advantages and Disadvantages of a Command Economy or Free Market Economy
The Advantages and Disadvantages of a Command Economy or Free Market Economy There are many aspects and views how the government should control the economy and how much involvement they should have in the economy. In the UK we have a mixed economy which is when the government take control on various factors of the economy such as education, the National Health Service, and many others. Countries such as Cuba, North Korea, and China have command economies which are economies based on the government controlling the activities of the economy and allocating resources. For China this has proved to be a very successful method as China has one of the fastest growing economies in the world at present. The main advantages of a command economy is that services and goods provided are for the benefit of community and not to make profit and also these services or goods are accessible to anyone. Consumers benefit largely from a command economy as they have fixed prices and as it is all government run, it is operated securely, which is very reassuring to the public as they know they will not be deceived when buying good or services. Another advantage is having a low unemployment rate as the government can provide jobs which will increase GDP along with taxation revenue. However, there are also disadvantages to this type of economy, the major one is that there will be no competition as
Cigarettes are demerit goods which cause negative externalities. B
COMMENTARY COVERSHEET Economics commentary number: SL Number 4 Title of extract: K.C. to vote on smoke-free law Source of extract: http://www.ljworld.com/section/smoking/story/187733 Date of extract: Monday, November 15, 2004 Word count: 727 words Date the commentary was written: 22 Dec 2004 Sections of the syllabus to which the commentary relates: Section 2 Candidate name: Chen Xi Candidate number: Commentary Number 4 A market represents the private forces of demand and supply. Consumers aim to consume goods and services with lower prices and greater quantities while producers want to maximize their profits. A market diagram uses demand and supply curves to show the relationship between market demand and supply. These demand and supply curves are labeled as "private demand" and "private supply", that is, the private benefits and the private costs. But those private activities always affect others, both positively and negatively. Those positive and negative effects are not represented in the market model; they are external to the market, known as externalities1. There are two kinds of externalities: positive externalities and negative externalities.
What happened to the income of taxi drivers, and fares paid by consumers in East and West Berlinafter unification, given that living standards are much higher in West than in East Berlin. Assume the market for taxi cabs is competitive.
Essay Title: Before the collapse of communism, Berlin was a divided city. After the Berlin wall came down, movement between East and West became possible. What happened to the income of taxi drivers, and fares paid by consumers in East and West Berlin after unification, given that living standards are much higher in West than in East Berlin. Assume the market for taxi cabs is competitive. Before the collapse of communism, Berlin was a divided city. After the Berlin wall came down, Germany got reunited and the fall of the Berlin Wall leads to the absorption of a command economy by a free-market one, In this essay, I will analyse how the competitive market for taxi cabs and the income of taxi drivers has changed, given that living standards are much higher in west Berlin than in East Berlin. Perfect competition is a market structure where firms have no power to affect the price of the product. The price they face is determined by the interaction of demand and supply in the whole market. That is what we call 'price mechanism'. There are a lot of transactions between buyers and sellers in the market, individuals pursuing their own self-interest and aim to maximize utility; companies provide goods and services by the aim to make profits, each seeking their own interest. Price mechanism coordinate these transactions and in such a way to make everyone better off. Market