There are three main types of management styles. These are autocratic, consultative and democratic.
There are three main types of management styles. These are autocratic, consultative and democratic.
The autocratic management style is one where the manager is used to give instructions. They tell people what to do instead of asking for their opinion on the matter in hand. The manager is the only person contributing to the decision making process in the business.
The consultative management style is where managers consult other people before making a decision. This management style is the opposite to autocratic. This type of management style wants to collect more sources of information and opinions before any final decision is made. To do this successfully the business will have good communication channels so that the employees are able to give their opinions easily. The consultative manager will have to have listening skills and also the ability to create the right sorts of channels to consult other people. Things such as newsletters team briefings or suggestion boxes could be introduced to gather employee’s ideas and opinions.
The democratic management style involves empowerment. Individual employees and teams are given the responsibility to make their own decisions. The individuals or team is then held responsible for the decisions that it chooses to make. The manager will have to feel comfortable with their employees and have a good understanding of them and decisions that they are making so that he/she doesn’t fall behind on what the business is doing. They will need continual feedback to the manager on their results. Also a lot of trust to be had by the managers for this to work effectively.
Sainsburys Management Styles
From our interview with Emma Davis manager at the kingswood branch I found that sainsburys operate in a democratic style as team meetings are arranged so ideas and problems can be put forward and dealt with as a team. These meeting are mostly informal. Although Emma believed that the company operated in a democratic style I talked to employees lower down in the company and asked them what they thought. I got a different reaction from them, they thought that sainsburys operated in more of an autocratic management style, whereby managers tell people what to do instead of asking for their opinions. This is interesting to look at, the managers believe that employees are responsible to make their own decisions and employees believe that mangers order them to do things. I also think that in some situation sainsburys use other styles. For example if an employee is underachieving and not contributing as much s he or she should, it is not other employees who have to make the decision on if the guilty employee is worth keeping in the business or not. That decision will be down to the manager.
This is a preview of the whole essay
There are several managers spreading up the hierarchy. This means that every manager (expect the chairman) has some decisions made for him or her and other decisions they have to make. Also these decisions are made for them so are going to involve them or are going to be straightforward decisions that they have no say in. So this shows that management styles are similar throughout the business, from chairman to managing director and head of the department to employee. Sainsburys mainly use a democratic style but depending on the decisions that has to be made other management styles are also used. I believe that this method works well for sainsburys and it shows in their stores that they are well organised and throughout the business. Having a good management style means they are more organised than other businesses that may not have a good management style.
There are four types of organisation culture:
Power culture- this type of organisation emphasis on individuals rather than the group decision making, enabling to move quickly to make decisions and to react to threat or danger.
Role culture- members have a defined job or role to carry out.
Task culture- this emphasis on building a team. Team members will need to share values and aspiration.
Person culture- individuals are central; organisation exists only to serve the interests of those within it.
Sainsburys describe their culture as constantly needing to change in order to stay ahead of competitors and stay competitive. Although this is their aim and how they describe themselves as we have seen in recent years that this may not be working as well as they had hoped. This is shown by Asda recently overtaking sainsbury. Blag more
Any business needs to communicate. Without communication between clients, employees, suppliers and organisations within a business is not possible. Good communication within a business is essential if the business is going to be successful. It is needed so:
- Everyone is clear about objectives
- There is a smooth and accurate communication both within the organisation (internal communication) and between the organisation and other individuals bodies and groups (external communications)
- Involve everyone and listen to ideas to motivate people
- For a quick response to new development
- Everyone can keep well informed
Communication can come in many forms, and these are all grouped in three areas. These are:
- One to one talks
- Computer networks
- Video conferencing
- Web site
Internal and external
Internal communication is communication that takes place within an organisation, while external communication takes place between the organisation and the outside world e.g. suppliers, customers, community, government, shareholders. Networking is a popular method; it is the linking of to or more computers to allow facilities and information to be shared. Organisational databases are useful; it is a store of facts that can be called upon to provide information.
Formal and informal
Formal communications takes place through the recognised channels for examples letters. Informal communication takes place in a part of the officially recognised networks of the organisation.
Upwards and downwards
Much of the communication in old fashioned, traditional industries was carried out in downward direction. Managers created the system the rules and the work programs and communicated these down the lines to junior employees. However, in recent years there has been more of an emphasis on upward communication.
Open or restricted
Open communication would involve putting a memo on a notice board, no confidential information. Restricted communication takes places behind closed doors where only certain people are allowed.
Communication Channels within Sainsburys
Every business will use these forms of communication everyday. But a company as large as sainsburys will use all of these types of communication 100’s of times a week. With so many colleges it would be impossible to speak one to one with everyone so sainsbury use other forms of communicating. One of Sainsburys forms of communication is a newsletter. I have included a sample newsletter from sainsburys on the next page. It is from May 2002, it is from the checkout manager. This letter would have been put in everyone who works on checkout pay-slips. It is simply informing colleges of any changes that has occurred and reminders of thing checkout operators have to look out for. Sainsburys also have staff councils; these provide a good method of two-way communication. They offer colleges an opportunity of contributing more to the success of the business as well as allowing management to consult on business related issues. Along with newsletters and staff councils sainsburys use daily team talks, buddy groups where new colleges are budded with someone who has worked there longer. Also notice boards, letters notes on walls, e-mails, and phone calls. All these forms of communication help the business to run smoothly. They involve every employee within the business and increases motivation to its employees as well.
Sainsburys use ICT a lot to communicate with suppliers. Sainsburys use a system called EPOS, whereby they electronically order things from their suppliers when it is running low. This saves time and money.
Advertising is a method of communicating with customers in order to achieve certain objectives. Advertisements are messages sent through the media that are intended to inform or persuade the people who receive them. Advertising can be defined as a paid for type of marketing communication that is non-personal but aimed at a specific target audience through a mass media channel. Sainsburys use a number of ways to communicate with its customers. These include television, radio, newspapers, leaflets, posters, and billboards. Sainsburys use television adverts that have Jamie Oliver- a famous T.V chief. This is a technique used by many large companies is done to try to influence the audience.
Analysis on Communication Channels
Sainsburys communication channels are ok, but could be improved especially with the employees lower down the hierarchy. Part time employees do not work many hours a week so often don’t hear about important issues that or going on within the business or if they do hear it is too late. Many of the time they have to rely on notes pinned on walls, or wait for the newsletter to come out before they can hear about any issues that have been going on in the business. A way that this could be prevented is by having team talks every morning before the store opens, these could be about how much the store is taking and how much they need to take that day to achieve targets. Also what to look out for, for example gypsies have pitched up near sainsburys so look out for shop lifters especially. Also any special offers that are going on so people no if a customer asks. This would be wrote on a piece of paper and discussed with those employees that started first thing in the morning. But for those who didn’t start first thing they would be expected to read and sign it before starting work. Because sainsburys is so big one team talk would not be specific enough so one presented by each manager of each department would be good.
Nowadays this is being used throughout every business in the world. It is used in things such as databases where businesses keep information on clients, employees and finances. ICT has had a big impact on the way in which sainsburys runs, when communicating both internally and externally.
The use of e-mail within sainsburys means that their systems are efficient and quick. E-mail means that they are able to communicate better with the rest of the business and are able to pass on jobs and ideas to each other with ease. E-mail is vitally important for the productivity of the business and making sure jobs are done quickly and that everyone involves knows what’s going on. They can be used to send important job briefs or small notes. The main advantage is that they are instant. This means that the person who they are sending the mail is going to receive it instantly and without any worries that it is going to get lost. Without this sainsburys would be far less efficient and decisions and jobs would be done much slower. Due to most mail sent by letter it would take days for it to reach its destination.
Computers have changed the way in which sainsburys operate. When looking at how sainsburys order in stock that to is done electronically. They have a system called EPOS whereby when stock gets below a certain level (determined by how many times the item is scanned through the checkouts) computers automatically order more. This has huge advantages like it saves time and money. Problems could arise if items are not scanned through the checkouts properly.
ICT is also used when advertising, recipes and current promotions are put on the sainsburys web site. This is cheaper than advertising on the television, although sainsbury could not rely on this alone.
In recent years sainsburys have introduced home shopping whereby customers can order their shopping from the comfort of their own home. By logging into sainsburys web site customers can order their shopping and have it delivered to their home. The site greets customers by name and has the facility for customers to create and save shopping lists. While on this site customers can also check how many nectar point they have and look to see what they can be spent on. With a more powerful hardware package the service has cut the time spent ordering in half. The rebanding also included the introduction of new look delivery vans and staff uniforms.
ICT has made it a lot of jobs easier and quicker for sainsburys. Groceries are all scanned electronically, weekly rotas are constructed by computers, holidays are allocated by computer, profits for each day are kept on file and employees clock in and out electronically. As you can see sainsbury rely on ICT hugely to operate.