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GCSE: Systems and Control
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- Marked by Teachers essays 1
LED's Designed LED layout 20/04/03 Made on Crocodile Clips Full Testing Put all stages together to test 09/05/03 Stage 1 : Clock source 555 timer The 555 will generate the clock pulse need for later on in the circuit. The 555 is commonly used as either a monostable or an astable multivibrator. The circuit I will be using to generate the clock pulse is shown below: I have tested the frequency of this circuit and it is 2000Hz I think that this is too slow and I want a fast frequency.
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This means the display system shows the frequency of this output in beats per minute as opposed to Hertz. This output is then connected to an LED and a transistor amplifier which is connected to a buzzer to make buzz sounds at the frequency shown on the display. Sub-system in detail: Variable Astable Oscillator This circuit diagram shows the variable frequency astable in detail. The basis of the sub-system is a 555 IC. The reset pin is tied high to ensure that the chip functions correctly.
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GCSE Electronic Products Specification Design and manufacture a Skeeball counter game that will count / add up points depending on which column the ball passes through.
-Have five 10k resistors part number 63-2344 costing �0.17 from www.rapidonline.com. They will be used in the control part of the circuit connected to the 555's monostable pin's 6 and 7. -Have five 100uf capacitor part number 11-3087 costing �0.05 for 1+ from www.rapidonline.com. They will be used in series with the 10k resistor that is connected to pin 6 and 7 of the monostable 555. -Have twenty nine 360 ohms resistor part number 62-2325 costing �0.17 for 1+ and �0.15 for 50+ from www.rapidonline.com. They will be used as protective resistors for the test points in the circuit where the LED's are.
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If we are to convert the country to solar power, massive amounts of land would have to be covered with photovoltaic panels and solar heating troughs. A direct-current transmission backbone would also have to be constructed to send that energy efficiently across the nation. The technology is ready, and it is able to power itself on a moment's notice. Throughout this paper, I plan on presenting a brilliant idea that could provide 70 percent of the U.S.'s electricity and 40 percent of its total energy with solar power by 2050.
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I will use an amplifier to increase the current as I am using low voltage. I looked on the Maplins website (www.maplins.co.uk) and decided to use the LM386 because it is suitable for low voltage applications and it is relatively cheap. Specification: * The robot has to be able to follow straight lines, curves and turn around corners * It has to follow a black line that is against a white background * It must work using one 9V battery * The robot must be able to reverse from any obstacle it hits * It should be able to function on its own (No help needed to guide it)
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* Spring: Without the spring, when masses a put on the meter rule, the masses will pull the rule till the masses came to rest on a flat surface. Therefore I am using a spring to stop this from happening i.e. when masses are added the meter rule does not topple over and reading could be efficiently and accurately taken. Resources Used: I read up about the use of rotary potentiometer from the AS Physics text book and also research about the significance of the Wheatstone Bridge coupled with help from my Physics teacher.
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I will then lay the master circuit film onto the U.V Light box, aligning the PCB Boards on top. I will then close the U.V Box and leave it for 3 and a half minutes. After this I will place the PCB board on into a developer. The developer contains a developing solution which removes the silver underneath the copper, which radiation has been previously projected on. The developing solution will loosen the silver and copper underneath the layer of the PCB board, which radiation has not been projected on by the U.V Light Box. After this, I will wash the PCB Board in water, to make sure the solution is removed from the PCB Board.
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Create a circuit that includes a sensor, which in turn will enable me to measure the volume of liquid in a container by reading the voltage from a voltmeter.
I tested how much water to use - because if I used under 600ml the cork wouldn't float. I examined whether to position the potentiometer so that the resistance rose when the water level rose or decreased when the water level rose, as this did not physically affect the experiment in any way, I decided it would look better to have the resistance fall as the water rose because this made the voltage increase and that is what I will be measuring. The voltmeter could be connected either across the potentiometer or the fixed resistor. I tried both setups and discovered that more simple and readable readings where achieved by connecting the voltmeter across the fixed resistor.
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As the air flows over the filament it is cooled down and therefore lowering the resistance. An LED which is connected in the circuit detects these changes, as the resistance decreases the LED gets brighter. A voltmeter is connected in Parallel to measure the changes in voltage giving us estimation on the airflow. There will also be a potentiometer connected to the circuit; this will allow you to vary the sensitivity to resistance of the LED. Plan: The circuit will be supplied with 12volts. I will be using a board were you have to push the components into the holes, this will allow me to manipulate the circuit incase I have to change anything.
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* The second factor that I will consider is the amount of active components that are involved in the circuit, as one of the things that need to be included is three active components. I have found circuits that use too many active components; this would make building it very complicated. This is why I have chosen to construct the circuit below which includes 5 active components to minimise the complication of building the circuit. Below is a photograph of the circuitry needed to operate an electronic combination lock the actual lock would use a solenoid to operate the lock mechanism.
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Test and evaluate a linear position sensor, and identify a possible use for this sensor in every day life.
Throughout the experiment, a constant supply voltage of 5 V was used, so as to maximize accuracy of the readings. The multimeter, set in voltmeter mode, was connected across or in parallel with the variable resistor, therefore measuring the output P.D or voltage across the variable resistor, and thus completing the potential divider circuit. After this I began to carry out the experiment. The output P.D with no weights added was first recorded; and then 50g at a time, the other weights were added, and the corresponding output P.D readings recorded.
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A commercial company requires a dynamic advert for displaying their wares in a showroom/office etc. Design and make an advert, which includes electronics.
My design brief is: A commercial company requires a dynamic advert for displaying their wares in a showroom/office etc. Design and make an advert, which includes electronics. I have attached a drawing of what I hope my project will look like. Thank You for your co-operation Conor Mc Collum I received this E-mail in response to the above e-mail to Isaac Agnew. Dear Conor, Thank you for the e-mail regarding your design project. I am happy to try and help you by supplying graphics or information but I am not quite sure what you really need.
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When you have recorded this result you need to change the k**b at the top to 4 volts. After you have taken each recording you move the k**b up one each time. Repeat this experiment 3 times and you should have 3 sets of results, for a fair test and for finding the average. When you have done this experiment change the resistor over to a 10.5 ? resistor. Then record all of the measurements again the same way you did the 3.9-ohm resistor.
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For example, an eight-bit system is capable of 28 or 256 combinations/values. However, since you begin with the number 0 we can only represent up to the number 255. This lab only involves 1-bit numbers. Boolean algebra has three basic logic functions and 3 derived logic functions. The basic logic functions are: AND, OR, and NOT. The three derived logic functions are: NAND, NOR, and XOR. In this lab we will just be manipulating 2-4 one-bit inputs: A, B, C, and D. Each logic function will compare these inputs and spit out a value based one the inputs.
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The initial measurement of the power supplies is taken to ensure that readings by the voltmeter are sensible. In my experiment, this value was 5 V. The luxmeter is placed in parallel to the LDR on the same level so that the same amount of light from the bulb fall on both as much as possible. The voltmeter is also turned on and is set to read a maximum voltage of 20 V. The bulb illuminates once the power supply is switched on. The variable resistor is set to its minimum value so that the bulb shows maximum illumination.
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"That's what they want people to think, but its got all these hi-tech gizmos." "Really! Like what?" "Well I can't tell you, it's against the rules." "Come on, I have been your friend for 10 years now." "True. Well they only have two security systems." "Only two?" "Wait for it. They have a battery sensor." "I thought they hadn't released that yet, I was told they were still testing it." "Yes they were testing it here and it works perfectly.
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the bottom The voltage output = 3/5 of 10v = 6v I predict that with this principle, the mass acting upon the sensor will move the moving contact therefore changing the output voltage, which then will be measured in relation to the mass. Equipment * Linear position sensor (linear potentiometer) * Leads/wires * Protective Perspex cylinder * Weights (masses) * Plastic box (base) * Digital MultiMate * Small circular plate * String * Power supply Diagram of design and construction of my sensor String Perspex Cylinder Mass Moving contact Digital Multimeter Plastic box Circuit Resistor Moving contact Input V V
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I decided to look at an electronic dice. After looking at the option I chose this electronic dice because it sounded like it could be fairly advanced.
This had no information on any relevant circuit diagrams but had lots to do with thyristors and relay diagrams. Next I searched on crocodile physics V1.7 for any relevant ideas and found what I was looking for. I found an electronic dice circuit (below) and an electronic counter from 0-9 (below). This is the basis for my circuit. I then looked in my old GCSE course notes and found 2 helpful circuits. I found an electronic dice circuit using a 4017B decade counter and a circuit for an astable 555 timer chip circuit (made below on crocodile physics.) Electronic counter Electronic Dice 555-Timer Specification Dice are used in a variety of ways.
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However the ability to enjoy a cinema-like atmosphere in your own home with technologies such as 'Dolby Surround Sound' widescreen televisions and crystal clear picture quality is highly convenient and enjoyable as a whole. In the manufacturing industry electronics has made a massive impact on the mass-production of items and the ability to design more precise and intricate productions. Robots are now widely used for car assembly, extremely efficient and reliable, and also cheap in regard to that of employee's wages.
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4.0 Method A potential divider will be placed in the middle of a 25cm long ruler at 12.5cm. A hole needs to be drilled through the centre on the ruler at 12.5cm to attach and hold the potential divider. To the left-hand side of the ruler a small hole will be used to thread some wire through to produce a pivot. At the opposite end of the ruler two holes will be drilled. The hole at the top right will be drilled to hook the spring onto, then at the bottom right to attach the weights to. Two clamp stands will hold the ruler at a height where the weights will not touch the surface when 10N are applied.
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4.57 4.39 4.06 3.50 2.67 1.78 1.05 180 4.60 4.43 4.15 3.65 2.88 1.98 1.22 200 4.65 4.52 4.28 3.82 3.09 2.18 1.37 220 4.68 4.56 4.32 3.90 3.20 2.30 1.48 240 4.71 4.60 4.38 3.99 3.31 2.42 1.57 260 4.73 4.62 4.41 4.05 3.40 2.53 1.67 280 4.73 4.62 4.42 4.05 3.41 2.55 1.69 300 4.70 4.59 4.38 4.02 3.38 2.53 1.67 I took three sets of results. They were all exceptionally similar. As such, they have been compiled into one single table, which is the average of the three results for each resistor at each value.
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circuit latch so that they can light their light and sound their buzzer but will not let the other team do the same. The output voltage oscillator is the part of the circuit that makes the noise, the value of the capacitor can be changed so that the buzzer makes a different noise for each team so that the team is easy to recognise. The monostable multi-vibrator is the part of the circuit that controls how long the buzzer is on for.
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The battery though must be easily accessible for maintenance purposes. The best material to construct the casing from would definitely be some type of plastic and this has to be waterproof and easy to clean. The plastic would have to blend in with the interior, not making its presence too obvious. I would say that this specific product should not be too expensive to produce and easily applied. The product is odourless and silent when not in use and can in no way harm or taint food stored in the refrigerator and does not emit any harmful rays or gasses, so it is also environmentally friendly.
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Design a make a product which is a warning device, which would be attached to my bag so that drivers of vehicles would be aware of my presence. The device should be safe to use and manufacture.
* It should be relatively easy to manufacture Problem 3 Light Alarm On various nights during the week lights have been left on during the night and this causes a problem as it increases the electricity bill. The light sometimes may not even be turned off till about 12:00am depending on the day Problem Analysis Problem 3 * It should warn the user when the lights are left on after a certain time * It should turn the lights off if the alarm has not been responded too.
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Also to prevent the child form messing with the circuit. Function To be durable yet aesthetically pleasing to the customer. This will increase the life span and awareness of the product. Performance I will create a simple, but effective packaging and therefore, there should be no faults. The main function of the casing is to protect the PCB as it is fragile. The case will be of a simple design, which should be less errors with its overall function. Quality Requirements The packaging is required to have a high quality finish, therefore it must have smooth edges and rounded corners.
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