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GCSE: Systems and Control

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1. Building a mass balance to measure small weights (0g-100g) using a rotary potentiometer

* Spring: Without the spring, when masses a put on the meter rule, the masses will pull the rule till the masses came to rest on a flat surface. Therefore I am using a spring to stop this from happening i.e. when masses are added the meter rule does not topple over and reading could be efficiently and accurately taken. Resources Used: I read up about the use of rotary potentiometer from the AS Physics text book and also research about the significance of the Wheatstone Bridge coupled with help from my Physics teacher.

• Word count: 1737
2. Short story - Speed Demon.

His V-12, twin-turbine engine gave off an almost deafening growl. What it lacked in manoeuvrability it made up for in pure power. His hand twitched, his hand reached coolly for the cold hard shaft that was his gear stick, he was keeping the nervousness he felt inside of him as if he were a world-class poker player. He was ready. The light cycle started - red. He had been waiting for this moment for what had seen to be an age. Amber. Glistening, a droplet of sweat condescended down his forehead, finally resting upon his brow.

• Word count: 589
3. The aim of this investigation is to design, build and test a sensor.

This is known as a negative co-efficient. There are some LDR's that work in the opposite way i.e. their resistance increases with light (called positive co-efficient). A light sensor uses an LDR as part of a voltage divider. The essential circuit of a voltage divider, also called a potential divider, is: As you can see, two resistors are connected in series, with Vin which is often the power supply voltage, connected above Rtop. The output voltage Vout is the voltage across Rbottom and is given by: Use of Physics From my knowledge oh physics, I know that there is ambient light present which could lead to inaccurate recordings of results.

• Word count: 2740
4. 555 Timer Practical.

I will then lay the master circuit film onto the U.V Light box, aligning the PCB Boards on top. I will then close the U.V Box and leave it for 3 and a half minutes. After this I will place the PCB board on into a developer. The developer contains a developing solution which removes the silver underneath the copper, which radiation has been previously projected on.  The developing solution will loosen the silver and copper underneath the layer of the PCB board, which radiation has not been projected on by the U.V Light Box. After this, I will wash the PCB Board in water, to make sure the solution is removed from the PCB Board.

• Word count: 1889
5. The aim of this investigation is to make a nightlight.

The LDR then send signal to the LED providing us with the output of light. AIM The aim of this investigation is to make a nightlight. The light will be produce using an LED (Light Emitting Diode), which will provide small bright light. LED Diode provides small bright light, and is mostly used in computer, TVs, remote controls, mobile phones, and on many more electrical appliances. LDR Can be used to monitor light intensity level. It changes its resistance depending on the amount of light. 555 microprocessor Looks like spider with its eight legs. It is a small chip, which controls the flow of energy within the circuit- it acts like the brain of the circuit as everything as to be connected to it.

• Word count: 801
6. Create a circuit that includes a sensor, which in turn will enable me to measure the volume of liquid in a container by reading the voltage from a voltmeter.

I tested how much water to use - because if I used under 600ml the cork wouldn't float. I examined whether to position the potentiometer so that the resistance rose when the water level rose or decreased when the water level rose, as this did not physically affect the experiment in any way, I decided it would look better to have the resistance fall as the water rose because this made the voltage increase and that is what I will be measuring. The voltmeter could be connected either across the potentiometer or the fixed resistor. I tried both setups and discovered that more simple and readable readings where achieved by connecting the voltmeter across the fixed resistor.

• Word count: 1416
7. Build a sensor that detects air flow using an incandescent lamp to detect the air flow.

As the air flows over the filament it is cooled down and therefore lowering the resistance. An LED which is connected in the circuit detects these changes, as the resistance decreases the LED gets brighter. A voltmeter is connected in Parallel to measure the changes in voltage giving us estimation on the airflow. There will also be a potentiometer connected to the circuit; this will allow you to vary the sensitivity to resistance of the LED. Plan: The circuit will be supplied with 12volts. I will be using a board were you have to push the components into the holes, this will allow me to manipulate the circuit incase I have to change anything.

• Word count: 1086
8. Electronics&#133; did it change the way we are living nowadays?

But how does electronics really work on electronic devices, especially to communication devices such as TV and radio? What practical application would it produce to communication? How important is electronic communication to our life? These are the questions that this research aims to answer. Thus, the objective of this study is to enlighten us on how big a part electronics plays on our daily lives. B. Significance of the Study This study will help people analyze and understand the part played by electronics on devices and appliances such as TV, radio, phones and those which helps transmits communications.

• Word count: 617
9. Electronic Combination Lock - create a secure lock to protect a property from intruders.

* The second factor that I will consider is the amount of active components that are involved in the circuit, as one of the things that need to be included is three active components. I have found circuits that use too many active components; this would make building it very complicated. This is why I have chosen to construct the circuit below which includes 5 active components to minimise the complication of building the circuit. Below is a photograph of the circuitry needed to operate an electronic combination lock the actual lock would use a solenoid to operate the lock mechanism.

• Word count: 1280
10. Test and evaluate a linear position sensor, and identify a possible use for this sensor in every day life.

Throughout the experiment, a constant supply voltage of 5 V was used, so as to maximize accuracy of the readings. The multimeter, set in voltmeter mode, was connected across or in parallel with the variable resistor, therefore measuring the output P.D or voltage across the variable resistor, and thus completing the potential divider circuit. After this I began to carry out the experiment. The output P.D with no weights added was first recorded; and then 50g at a time, the other weights were added, and the corresponding output P.D readings recorded.

• Word count: 1305
11. A commercial company requires a dynamic advert for displaying their wares in a showroom/office etc. Design and make an advert, which includes electronics.

My design brief is: A commercial company requires a dynamic advert for displaying their wares in a showroom/office etc. Design and make an advert, which includes electronics. I have attached a drawing of what I hope my project will look like. Thank You for your co-operation Conor Mc Collum I received this E-mail in response to the above e-mail to Isaac Agnew. Dear Conor, Thank you for the e-mail regarding your design project. I am happy to try and help you by supplying graphics or information but I am not quite sure what you really need.

• Word count: 1913
12. 'A small business wishes to sell a range of electronic games to help alleviate boredom for young children and also be of educational value. You have been asked to design and make a suitable prototype'.

in the casing > The PCB must be secure in the casing Research This section of my coursework is going to involve researching casing materials and ways of joining, electronic components and existing products.. Wood I am only going to research man-made boards because they are cheaper to buy so, are more suitable for my project. Plywood Plywood is made from layers (or plies) of wood glued together with each grain at right-angles to the last. Plywood is always made with an odd amount of plies so that the top and the bottom grains run in the same direction.

• Word count: 2626
13. Investigate the relationship between voltage and Current.

When you have recorded this result you need to change the k**b at the top to 4 volts. After you have taken each recording you move the k**b up one each time. Repeat this experiment 3 times and you should have 3 sets of results, for a fair test and for finding the average. When you have done this experiment change the resistor over to a 10.5 ? resistor. Then record all of the measurements again the same way you did the 3.9-ohm resistor.

• Word count: 1034
14. Experiments with Digital Systems.

For example, an eight-bit system is capable of 28 or 256 combinations/values. However, since you begin with the number 0 we can only represent up to the number 255. This lab only involves 1-bit numbers. Boolean algebra has three basic logic functions and 3 derived logic functions. The basic logic functions are: AND, OR, and NOT. The three derived logic functions are: NAND, NOR, and XOR. In this lab we will just be manipulating 2-4 one-bit inputs: A, B, C, and D. Each logic function will compare these inputs and spit out a value based one the inputs.

• Word count: 1404
15. Use a sensor to make a measurement.

The initial measurement of the power supplies is taken to ensure that readings by the voltmeter are sensible. In my experiment, this value was 5 V. The luxmeter is placed in parallel to the LDR on the same level so that the same amount of light from the bulb fall on both as much as possible. The voltmeter is also turned on and is set to read a maximum voltage of 20 V. The bulb illuminates once the power supply is switched on. The variable resistor is set to its minimum value so that the bulb shows maximum illumination.

• Word count: 1343
16. Electronics coursework.

Analysis Materials- insulate the circuit where needed to protect components from damp cold and wet conditions. The size should also be small as it will need to fit in a car can be hidden due to the fact modern cars are very compact. Function-need to accommodate the test capacitor. -Power supply -Properties of capacitance. -House the various interactive devices. Automatically open the sunroof on heat detection. Sunroof to have a limited opening to avoid theft. Means of switching to pet mode, as owner may not need it all the time. Means of detecting the temperature. Safety- good electrical insulation - Components not easily accessible damaged and well Bolted down to casing.

• Word count: 2641
17. Arora - creative writing.

"That's what they want people to think, but its got all these hi-tech gizmos." "Really! Like what?" "Well I can't tell you, it's against the rules." "Come on, I have been your friend for 10 years now." "True. Well they only have two security systems." "Only two?" "Wait for it. They have a battery sensor." "I thought they hadn't released that yet, I was told they were still testing it." "Yes they were testing it here and it works perfectly.

• Word count: 1131
18. Investigate and construct a sensor.

This is a diagram of how my apparatus looked once set up to carry out my calibration: This I thought was one way of carrying out this experiment, however there were other alternatives. I thought that I could also conduct this experiment by designing another circuit which would allow you to use a loudspeaker as a microphone. Sound waves reaching the speaker cone would cause fluctuations in a voice coil. This voice coil would move in the speaker's magnetic field and would produce a small electrical signal.

• Word count: 3970
19. The aim of my project is to produce a working 'People Counter', which will display a count on a seven-segment display every time a person passes a light sensor and be able to reset the counts at the end of each match day.

From the 'Systems File - Electronics education magazine' again shows three possible process blocks that can be used to count up the pulses generated from the input potential divider circuit. 1. Divide - By - 10 BCD counter 2. Seven-Segment Decoder Drive Pin out diagram: 3. Accurate 2Hz Decoder Driver Pin out diagram: Output device Now finally the last input block of my system is the outputs. The obvious solution here is to use a seven-segment display to display the count.

• Word count: 2857
20. An electronics firm wishes to introduce a range burglar alarms. This coursework contains the design and a prototype, which has been made for further development by the firm.

Burglars don't like public areas. * As burglars tend to go for big houses, there are more windows and doors so more entry points. The landlord is bound to forget to leave at least one window or door open. 1 in 5 burglaries happen as a result of windows and doors being left open. * Burglars always start at the top of the house and work down. * Burglars work very fast, therefore lots of noise (searching for valuable goods) - sound sensor * Burglars kick doors and smash windows - vibration sensors At the end of the burglary, duration time of five minutes and forty seconds.

• Word count: 3900
21. Design and build an electrical toy for children aged 5 years and over.

There will be a set of lights that are set to work in synchronisation with the smoke system. The rear wheels of the car will be lifted off the track so they rest on rollers. The rollers will emit smoke of some sort when they are spun. Then as the final green light is turned on and the cars will be dropped from the rollers so that they speed off round the track. Use This special section of track will be used as an addition to a normal Scalextric circuit to increase the tense feeling before a race.

• Word count: 5726
22. Calibrating a Potentiometer sensor.

The sensor is unstable and a heavy weight or large object would easily fall off. Distance How far an object has moved from a starting point. I'm not going to used this sensor, as an accurate experiment to measure weight using this object would be difficult to set up and, gain results from, for example, the small weights may not cause a large, readable movement. Potentiometer (POT) Can be used to measure ho much a weight turns the arm. This is the sensor I will use, as it can easily be used to carefully measure weights, and it gives a good range of outputs.

• Word count: 2725
23. Linear position sensor and Mass.

the bottom The voltage output = 3/5 of 10v = 6v I predict that with this principle, the mass acting upon the sensor will move the moving contact therefore changing the output voltage, which then will be measured in relation to the mass. Equipment * Linear position sensor (linear potentiometer) * Leads/wires * Protective Perspex cylinder * Weights (masses) * Plastic box (base) * Digital MultiMate * Small circular plate * String * Power supply Diagram of design and construction of my sensor String Perspex Cylinder Mass Moving contact Digital Multimeter Plastic box Circuit Resistor Moving contact Input V V

• Word count: 1559
24. Building and testing a sensor to determine number of degrees to which a window is open.

In the following section I will be exploring two possible versions of the sensor. Firstly, it would be possible to use a sliding variable resistor, whereby the resistance of two halves of a track altar the slider is moved, as shown below: By attaching the above to a greenhouse window in such a way that as the window is opened, the slider is dragged along, the changing resistance would give a variety of voltage reading that could then be calibrated with the number of degrees to which the window is open.

• Word count: 4085
25. I decided to look at an electronic dice. After looking at the option I chose this electronic dice because it sounded like it could be fairly advanced.

This had no information on any relevant circuit diagrams but had lots to do with thyristors and relay diagrams. Next I searched on crocodile physics V1.7 for any relevant ideas and found what I was looking for. I found an electronic dice circuit (below) and an electronic counter from 0-9 (below). This is the basis for my circuit. I then looked in my old GCSE course notes and found 2 helpful circuits. I found an electronic dice circuit using a 4017B decade counter and a circuit for an astable 555 timer chip circuit (made below on crocodile physics.) Electronic counter Electronic Dice 555-Timer Specification Dice are used in a variety of ways.

• Word count: 1751