Critical Approaches to Shakespeare: Some Initial Observations.
Critical Approaches to Shakespeare: Some Initial Observations [This text was last revised on November 19, 2001] Introduction An earlier introductory note to some basic principles of literary interpretation ("On Scholarship and Literary Interpretation"), stressed that literary interpretation or literary criticism is, in many ways, an anarchic conversational activity with the practical purpose of enriching our shared understanding of a particular text. The value of any particular interpretative observations, or of a methodology upon which those observations are based, is judged by the results, as adjudicated by a group of intelligent conversationalists who have read and thought about the text under discussion. Hence, there is no one privileged way of organizing and presenting one's views. As that previous note mentioned, there are some basic rules about how the conversation should proceed, but these do not require a shared adherence to a single way of reading a text. In fact, the conversational basis for really useful literary interpretation finds its justification in the contrast between different ways of reading a text or some portion of it, because conversation is the best forum in which such differences confront each other and the participants profit from a discussion of the results of such different readings. However, in spite of the above remarks, there are some
Shakespeare as a Real Man in Shakespeare in Love
Pavlína Tejcová - 6th year Independent Readings Doc. Milada Frankova, CSc., M.A. 30 August 2004 Shakespeare as a Real Man in Shakespeare in Love Shakespeare has been presented in myriad versions, from the traditional to the almost unrecognizable. Directors and actors have adapted him as long as his plays have been performed. Some feel that without Shakespeare´s original poetry, audiences are robbed of the opportunity to experience the cleverness, poetry, and majesty of the language - Shakespeare´s genius. Others feel that modern adaptations don´t challenge viewers and offer weaker plots and less complex characters. Shakespeare in Love combines in a way both. The film applauds the brilliance of Shakespearean writing through the lines directly taken from Shakespeare, while at the same time exploring a fictional depiction of his true love and life. When you deconstruct the script, Shakespeare in Love is built in perfect Shakespearian form. Virtually a Shakespearean plot in itself, it mixes a great story with bits and pieces of history (whether fact or not); lies and deception; mistaken identities; a couple of swordfights; and of course a passion that can only end badly. For hundreds of years we have been hunted by the question: "Who was the real Shakespeare?" Literally thousands of pages have been dedicated to uncovering the facts about Shakespeare´s identity, but
William Shakespeare and his life.
Question 1: William Shakespeare and his life Very little it known about William Shakespeare's early years. There is no record of this live birth, but all that is known is that he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon in April of 1564. But there is record of him being baptized on the 26th of April, and since he died on the 23rd of April, most historians say that he was born on April 23rd, the same day he was born. William's parents were John and Mary Shakespeare. His father held very high position in the little town. He was a whittawer and was a member of the city council, then constable, chamberlain, alderman, and the high bailiff (almost town mayor). A record of steep debt pulled John out of the high position and was kicked out of church for not paying his debts. Mary mothered 8 children, including William. William was the 3rd child and the first son. He would have attended Stratford's grammar school, of course, like all other records of the time, any documents proving his attendance have been lost. On November 28, 1582, a town bishop issued a wedding bond for William "Shagspeare" and Anne Hathaway. Anne was three months pregnant at the time of the wedding and 8 years his senior. On May 26, 1583, Susanna, their first child, was baptized. Two years later, Anne gave birth to twins, Hamnet and Judith, Hamnet wouldn't live past the age of 11. Their isn't any record known record
A Midsummer Night’s Dream.
A Midsummer Night's Dream. Shakespeare's 'A Midsummer Night's Dream' is a play of romantic comedy. It is one of Shakespeare's more famous comedies and has been performed by many different actors. The production of 'A Midsummer Night's Dream' that I watched was performed in London's Regents Park by the Open Air Theatre Company. The play was successful because of the dramatical techniques and acting shown by the performers. This essay explores the techniques and acting, and compares them to a cinema production of the same play. The play takes place in the Greek City of Athens, about the same time as Shakespeare. There are three main groups of people in the play, the fairies, the lovers and the mechanicals. Each has a specific role in the plot of the play, and their separate worlds get intertwined during the middle section of the play. All the groups meet in the woods just outside of Athens, and it is here that the main section of the play happens. The fairies accidentally put a love potion into Lysander's eyes, making him fall in love with Helena. They then put the love potion into Demetrius's eyes in an attempt to rectify the situation. While this is happening the mechanicals have come to the woods to rehearse their play. Puck, one of the fairies turns Bottom into an ass, and makes Titania, the Queen of the fairies fall in love with him by using the love juice. Each of the
EN2372 Shakespeare: Genre, text and performance. Registration Number 0345709. Performance Review: 'O' (2001) Directed by, Tim Blake Nelson. The 1995 release of the film 'Clueless', based on Jane Austen's 'Emma', saw a new trend emerge in Hollywood. By adapting classic literary texts into modern day 'Teen Dramas', the film industry and those working in education may argue that such films allow youngsters an insight into plays and novels written hundreds of years ago. In effect, the work of Shakespeare and others is made accessible to the young, and in a world where reading is now perhaps considered secondary, many may well relish the fact that classic stories are still being presented and enjoyed in this ever evolving and advancing society. As Lynda E. Boose and Richard Burt argue: "...this shift to a cultural studies approach opens new possibilities for a kind of Shakespeare criticism with wider appeal to a non-academic public (which presumes, of course, that the Shakespearean academic necessarily wants such a popular audience).1 It could be argued that this new trend in making Shakespeare accessible to teens through film, is merely a moneymaking commodity. Indeed many of these adaptations pay little respect to the script they are supposedly based upon. However, because the tag line of the film hails itself as being, for example: "an exceptionally intelligent and powerful
Discussing the Works of Shakespeare.
I INTRODUCTION Shakespeare, William (1564-1616), English playwright and poet, recognized in much of the world as the greatest of all dramatists. Shakespeare's plays communicate a profound knowledge of the wellsprings of human behavior, revealed through portrayals of a wide variety of characters. His use of poetic and dramatic means to create a unified aesthetic effect out of a multiplicity of vocal expressions and actions is recognized as a singular achievement, and his use of poetry within his plays to express the deepest levels of human motivation in individual, social, and universal situations is considered one of the greatest accomplishments in literary history. II LIFE A complete, authoritative account of Shakespeare's life is lacking, and thus much supposition surrounds relatively few facts. It is commonly accepted that he was born in 1564, and it is known that he was baptized in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. The third of eight children, he was probably educated at the local grammar school. As the eldest son, Shakespeare ordinarily would have been apprenticed to his father's shop so that he could learn and eventually take over the business, but according to one account he was apprenticed to a butcher because of declines in his father's financial situation. According to another account, he became a schoolmaster. In 1582 Shakespeare married Anne Hathaway, the
Romeo and juliet
Dines Selvarajah Essay Title: How does Shakespeare use dramatic devices in Act 3 Scene 1 of 'Romeo and Juliet` in order to make it an exciting scene and a turning point in the play? Romeo and Juliet is an exciting play because, it begins with a public brawl between two families called Capulet's and Montague's. The scene grabs the audience's attention, it is very lively and unpredictable, and it almost makes you jump of your seat. Act 3 scene 1 echoes the theme of hatred and violence amongst the families. It is also exhilarating and moving because, it has an energetic feeling, you can anticipate something bad might happen. The fighting scene sets an aggressive atmosphere, which may shock most readers. It almost makes your speechless and static as you are drawn into the scene, which creates a climax that gradually unfolds the turning point of the play .The two directors Baz Luhrmann (old version) and Franco Zeffirelli (new version) have interpreted the scene differently as where Baz Luhrmann has made it as Mercutio was killed by accident, in Franco Zeffirelli we know he was killed straight away by the gun shot. In Baz Luhrmann's version dramatic irony was used as a close up of Tybalt's sword was shown with the blood so we all knew Mercutio was dying while the characters thought it was all a joke until Mercutio was dead. At the beginning of the scene the atmosphere was soft
Compare and contrast act 1,scene1 of Shakespeares play 'Macbeth' with the cinematic interpretation by Roman Polanski of the same scene.
Compare and contrast act 1,scene1 of Shakespeares play 'Macbeth' with the cinematic interpretation by Roman Polanski of the same scene. Macbeth is one of the great plays written by William Shakespeare in the sixteenth century ,over three and a half centuries ago .It is known all over the world and is still very popular even to this very day.It is the basis of many movies and theatrical plays .One film interpretation was made by Roman Polanski in 1971,centuries after it was first performed in Elizabethan sixteenth century England .Therefor there is a great difference between this and the original ,as things have changed greatly over the many years . Shakespeare was an amazing story writer and entertainer and obviously wanted to catch his audiences imagination ,but even for such a gifted person as he, it must still have been a very difficult task .He had to rely on vivid descriptions and whatever was available in his theatre and the imagination of the audience to put a picture in their heads of the setting, surroundings and and the mood of the play. The play Macbeth was written in sixteen century Elizabethan England .In very different times compared to today .The people of sixteenth century England were very superstitious, believing in witches ,evil spirits and the supernatural .They recognise that the banging of drums create the sound of thunder and signified the presence
"The Life of the Great William Shakespeare"
"The Life of the Great William Shakespeare" There are many authors that are widely read. However, none are more universally read and studied than the great William Shakespeare of the late 16th and early 17th centuries. His plays and poems have moved millions of people, unofficially giving him the well-deserved title of the greatest of all dramatists. Shakespeare is the basis for excellence in literacy and theatrical performances. Although occasionally confusing to the reader, Shakespeare's work is a blend of inspirational quotes and dramatic plots. Many details of Shakespeare's childhood in Stratford, England are lacking, but we do know a few major facts. John Shakespeare, the father of this elite writer was a "burgess of the borough" (Encarta '96), the position corresponding to mayor for the town of Stratford. His mother, Mary Arden, was a descendant of a rich, ancient family, and was the heiress to some land. They got married, thus moving John and Mary Shakespeare up a step on the social scale. Together, they bore eight children, the third and oldest son, William Shakespeare was born in 1564, and they baptized him in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. The Shakespeare family was not rich and therefore could not afford to send their children to a "private school," and it is commonly accepted that the children attended Stratford's Grammar School. "William's education
Faust I Prologue in Heaven * The scene begins with the Three Archangels, Raphael, Gabriel, and Michael, confessing their inability to comprehend the awe-inspiring works of God.In the Christian tradition, archangels are angels of the highest rank and are associated with certain functions or responsibilities.In "Prologue in Heaven," they personify the cosmos: Raphael describes and represents the heavens, Gabriel the earth, and Michael the elements. * Mephistopheles.Goethe's devil is inspired by a number of different literary sources, not just Christian. * The basic structure of the dialogue between the Lord and Mephistopheles is inspired by the first two chapters of The book of Job, in which Satan obtains permission from God to try and tempt Job to do evil. * Faust. The real Georg (or Johann) Faust was born in 1480 and died in 1540. Although contemporary sources suggest he was quite well known in Germany during his lifetime, his fame and notoriety is the result of an incredibly popular collection of (barely believable) anecdotes and stories about him called Volksbuch, which was published in 1587. The Volksbuch was an important source of inspiration to Goethe and other authors as they wrote about Faust. Night * The opening monologue is an indirect adaptation of Christopher Marlowe's The Tragical history of Doctor Faustus. * Faust has in his possession a book by