Another technique utilized by Orwell to disturb the reader is the use of unusual contradictions; an example of this is given in the first line. “It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen.” After reading this opening line the reader becomes confused because usual connotations of the word ‘Bright’ wouldn’t normally be associated with the word ‘Cold’. Therefore a ‘bright cold day’ would seem a little irregular but effectively creates atmosphere and tension, this poetic technique is called an ‘Oxymoron’. After this Orwell goes on to portray the clocks striking thirteen, this again, is a clever contradiction introduced by Orwell which directly unsettles the reader. The number thirteen itself is known as an unlucky number, associated with evil. These unusually dark connotations all add to the obscurity of the feeling Orwell is trying to depict and leave the read mystified about what is going to happen.
In addition to this Orwell applies various similes, metaphors, repetition and symbolism to convey different emotions across to the reader. An example of the similes used is on the second page, “a helicopter skimmed down between the roofs, hovered like a bluebottle”. This clever expression compares the hovering helicopter with a bluebottle fly. The helicopter “snooping” about annoying and hassling people just like the hovering pest Orwell wants it to be related with. The repetition used within these two pages is based around the block capital written captions, “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU”. These headings are repeated twice; they are outstanding and emphasize the authority and presence of this establishment. Again, Orwell doesn’t go into detail about what this organization symbolizes or stands for; he simply proceeds with the descriptions. This lack of knowledge of ‘Big Brother’ leaves the reader wanting to know more about what control this unexplained leader has over the society.
Furthermore, the symbolism which exploits this society’s conduct with their people is portrayed through Winston Smith, the main character. “Was thirty nine-nine and had a varicose ulcer above his right ankle” and “a small, frail figure, the meagreness of his body...” These descriptions of Winston prove that this society run by strangers, is under the unhealthiest of commands and nobody, especially Winston is treated correctly. These descriptions leave the reader with sympathy for Winston but still in a fearful atmosphere and anxious of what is going to happen.
In conclusion to the question, George Orwell has employed successful and intelligent techniques that keep the story on a suspenseful edge whilst the reader and Winston Smith remain within a mysterious distance of each other. The distance is ample enough for the reader to be optimistic and impelled to go on.
Here's what a star student thought of this essay
Quality of writing
The essay has a great structure. The introduction is clear and concise, not including any irrelevant background information to the novel. I liked how the techniques used were summarised, as this allows a focussed structure of looking at a technique in isolation per paragraph. The conclusion is equally strong, not simply repeating what is said in the introduction, but going further to say why Orwell has made the opening unsettling. This shows a great ability to craft an argument, and so will gain credit. Spelling, punctuation and grammar are flawless. I really like the style here, and the range of language used. Opening sentences are not repetitive, and phrases such as "furthermore" and "therefore" show a logical progression between points. An essay which is short, but definitely to be admired!
Level of analysis
The analysis here is strong. Whereas the majority of essays I read simply feature spot, this one managed to look at techniques as a collective entity, then allowing them to explore how these shaped meanings. I feel as if the analysis could be slightly more focused on the word unsettling, and it would've been a good idea to have defined unsettled in the introduction to make the essay stronger. For example "The narrative viewpoint also allows the reader to grasp an unbiased view of the character and his circumstances" is correct and shows a great understanding, but it just needs to go further and discuss why this unsettles the reader. The points here are sophisticated, and literary terms are used well. This essay has a great understanding of how language, form and structure shape meanings within the narrative, and this is exactly what examiners are looking for with this sort of question. The biggest difference is that this essay never retells the story, but always focuses on presentation and technique rather than the plot.
Response to question
This essay engages superbly with the task. There is a clear focus on Orwell's techniques, and the aspects of narrative are analysed with great clarity. I liked how there was a range of analysis, looking at language, narrative, structure and symbolism. This is great to see in a GCSE essay! I particularly liked how the essay commented on the effectiveness of Orwell's techniques. If this essay wanted to go further, it could explore the significance of the dystopian setting contributing to the genre of the book, looking at why Orwell chooses to have the opening become unsettling.