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GCSE: John Keats
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Romantic Poetry - I am trying to ascertain whether 2 certain poems fall in line with the romantic ideal and to this end the lines of romanticism which were drawn largely by the poets themselves
In this self he can see possibilities; he can imagine it and all things being more than they are; he runs ahead of himself and foresees his own death. To this end if self awareness and the power to conceive of possibility is the divine element in man, then the hero whom the poet must celebrate is himself, for the only consciousness accessible to him is his own. Therefore the romantic's assertions of the supreme importance of art - for example Blake's statement "Art is the tree of Life.
- Word count: 3244
Pain is an integral part of Keats vision of the world - A delight in the life of the senses - Is it possible to reconcile these comments?
If we compare this to the effects created in the second half of the stanza by the light assonantal - "trees, "beechen green and sibilant sounds "shadows, "singest, "summer the reader can see that the nightingale, in comparison to the poet, is a much freer spirit. The poet uses this creative writing to bring to life the senses he sees and feels around him. To live life through the bird in this poem, Keats experiences and enjoys his senses in a much deeper way.
- Word count: 1089
Stanza I. The poet falls into a reverie while listening to an actual nightingale sing. He feels joy and pain, an ambivalent response. As you read, pick out which words express his pleasure and which ones express his pain and which words express his intense feeling and which his numbed feeling. Consider whether pleasure can be so intense that, paradoxically, it either numbs us or causes pain. What qualities does the poet ascribe to the nightingale? In the beginning the bird is presented as a real bird, but as the poem progresses, the bird becomes a symbol.
- Word count: 2365
Compare and contrast Keats' presentation of time, transience and mortality in "Ode to Autumn" with that in "Ode on a Grecian Urn and "Ode to Nightingale".
Keats wants to escape from this depression and also the knowledge of mortality. The main idea of this escapism shows Keats trying to go back to the state of Innocence; he may feel that he wants to be able to enjoy his life with his brother again and to also not have to worry about life's troubles. In "Ode on a Grecian Urn" and "Ode to a Nightingale" envy can be linked to escapism, as Keats feels this envy he gets led to wanting to find escapism. In "Ode on a Grecian Urn" Keats writes "Thou foster-child of silence and slow time" (line 2)
- Word count: 2003
Consider how the romantic poets have responded to the subject of nature with close references to at least three poems studied.
Keats strongly worships nature and has referred to nature as a God. He has personified autumn by calling it a 'close bosom-friend', which has given autumn a character. Keats is relying on Nature in the poem to nurture the fruits and plants. He 'loads' the fruits with goodness allowing them to ripen and 'blesses' the hazel shells allowing them to plump. Keats also describes early autumn as producing later flowers for the bees until the bees think 'warm days will never cease.'
- Word count: 1761
The sun is 'conspiring with him how to load and bless'. The sun and autumn are working together as a team to ripen the fruit ready for harvest time. The sun is described as 'maturing' as if it is a person reaching the end of its life. This also suggests that the sun dies in winter when it disappears from the sky. Keats also personifies the gnats. 'In a wailful choir the small gnats mourn'. The use of alliteration with, 'seasons of mist and mellow fruitfulness, and maturing sun,' set the scene of the poem with its mellow and relaxed tones.
- Word count: 646
However a young Knight comes to see her while she sleeping. The girl wakes up, they fall in love, consummate, and in the morning leave. Keats has used the Romantic theme of Williams Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet in his poem. There is a feud between the young girls family and the Knights family. Just as in Romeo and Juliet. The introduction to Keats's poem sets the scene. "St Agnes Eve, Ah bitter chill it was! The owl for all his feathers was a cold." Keats describes how cold it its outside on the winter night, and uses the animals to emphasise the freezing weather.
- Word count: 2222
In 1959 Douglas Bush described 'The Eve of St Agnes' as "no more than a romantic tapestry of colour". Do you agree
The original version of Keats poem tells more of the sexuality between the lovers, but the publishers felt that the public would not receive it well and so told Keats to tone down the eroticism. Eve of St. Agnes is seen to be one of the most popular poems by Keats and appears in most anthologies as the result. Keats' style is kept within this poem throughout. His wonderful use of splendid language, sharply etched setting and vibrant mood, continue to make the poem one of the most popular romantic tales of today, yet still keeping Keats' trademark of imagination, dreaming and vision, and life as a mixture of opposites.
- Word count: 747
Keats once said about Byron, "He describes what he sees- I describe what I imagine, mine is the hardest task". To Autumn is evidence of his way of thinking, as the poem is a vivid, lyrical portrayal of the English Autumn as he imagined it.
The first stanza of the ode is a building process for Keats where he gives us a picture of the landscape, "And fills fruit with all ripeness to the core" "To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells". This use of language creates a rather humble and peaceful atmosphere for the reader. It emphasizes the harmony of autumn, and it could be seen as a metaphor for the slowing down of life during autumn. In the second stanza, Keats starts filling up an almost perfect picture with his imagination, moving the background from the ripened fruit to the cider press.
- Word count: 802
However, this cadence does not create enlightenment but instead an "eternal note of sadness"! Conversely, Gods grandeur has a higher opening tempo as Hopkins uses a series of vivid imagery to describe the world. The natural world is "charged" with the vibrancy of electricity and filled with the richness of oozing oil; Hopkins is portraying the world as wondrous place but in the second quatrain he asks us if there is so much ever-present beauty: "Crushed. Why do men then now not reck his rod?"
- Word count: 825
The Nightingale and the rose contains a main character that undergoes the hardship. How does Oscar Wilde sympathise with the Nightingale?
The Nightingale overhears the student speaking, and feels he is a "true lover", the Nightingale believes the student is a true romantic and believes in true love. The nightingale feels sympathy for the student and goes to find him a red rose. The nightingale must sacrifice her own life for a red rose. The nightingale thinks and decides that "love is better than life, and what is the heart of a bird compared to the heart of a man". This shows that the nightingale is a kind-hearted bird and is willing to sacrifice her own life for true love.
- Word count: 778
and 'The glassy pear tree leaves and blooms' (Line 6), which gives the reader pictures of Springtime. The image of 'The descending blue; that blue is all in a rush' (Line 7), gives the impression of being wrapped in a mixture of happy feelings and the promise of summer to come. The poem is very continuous and uses many enjambments so that the poem can be kept at a fast flowing speed for the reader. For example 'Through the echoing timbre does so rinse and wring / The ear, it strikes like lighting to hear him sing' (Line 4 / 5).
- Word count: 1743
Compare the ways in which Keats addresses personal concerns in "Ode to a Nightingale and "When I have fears".
sad, last grey hairs, where youth grow pale, and spectre thin, and dies, where to think is full of sorrow and leaden-eyed despairs, where beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyes or new love pine at them beyond tomorrow". He is trying to realise the inevitability of death and recalls how he has often tempted Death, personifying Death and calling 'him' in 'soft names in many a mused rhyme'. He longs to transcend his meagre existence through the means of poetry: 'On the viewless wings of Poesy'.
- Word count: 2479
`A thing of beauty is a joy forever` - How far and in what ways does Keats communicate this belief in his odes.
The first line introduces us to the personified autumn. The exclamatory phrase `mellow fruitfulness` heightens the syntax tone immediately and prepares the reader for a stanza rich in tactile and visual images which intensify this opening. The beauty of autumn is emphasised through phrases like; `ripeness to the core`, `swell the gord`, ` o'verbrimmed their clammy cells'. Keat's use of the adjective `plump` as a verb excels this `ripeness` and together intensifies the beauty, which is emphasised through the repetition of `more` and `still more`. Keats almost forces his subject at us.
- Word count: 2428
This language combined with the use of, 'bless' conjures up a serene image. The use of alliteration with, 'seasons of mist and mellow fruitfulness, and maturing sun,' set the scene of the poem with its mellow and relaxed tones. The use of enjambment in the third and seventh lines in the first stanza also slows the tempo down, and this makes the reader focus on the shape and form of the poem. The repetition of, 'more' in 'to set budding more and still more' again adds to the slow pace and tone of the poem.
- Word count: 1007
The first line of the poem is very relaxed and provides a pleasant start to the poem. The word 'fruitfulness' adds emphasis on the fullness of autumn, and also the alliteration on the letter 'm' encourages a casual and calm feeling in the reader. In the second line of the poem, John Keats presents us with a metaphor:- 'Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun; Conspiring with him how to load and bless' The meaning behind this metaphor is a contrast between male and female. The sun, being male (as known in Greek mythology) is warming the earth and creating produce, and the season, being female, conspires with him 'how to load and bless'.
- Word count: 1147
Another piece of description, which appeals to the senses, is the "Rose-bloom" light falling on her hands. This line makes us visualise the light shining through the stained glass window. As you can see from the first 3 lines in the poem how much imagery is used in a sexual or used in a way that appeals to or gratifies the senses. Another piece of imagery in the poem is the "silver cross soft amethyst". The "silver" "amethyst" is both colours. The amethyst is a purple or violet form of transparent quartz used as a gemstone. What is ironic is that supposedly the wearer of the stone (amethyst)
- Word count: 604
In Keats they are shy with each other. 'So spake they to their pillows.' 'I may not speak and yet I will, and tell my love all plain.' Keats portrays them as being in tune with nature 'voice pleasanter than the noise of trees of hidden rill' and 'Lorenzo is more watchful over her than the falcon.' The main attraction between the two lovers happens in May/June. These are the summer months when love occurs, and eventually it 'grew like a lusty flower in Junes caress' Keats keeps the lovers innocent. In Boccaccio, Lorenzo is experienced 'he gave up all other amours' and the lovers quickly slept together 'each that they most desired' Keats on the other hand 'purifies' the lovers.
- Word count: 685
This depression causes him to seek an escape, a way of numbing his brain to find blissful ignorance. To find a place where he doesn't have to worry about the terrible things which mortal life can throw at you. The methods of escape that he considers are suicide:- " I have been half in love with easeful death," Poison:- "My sense as though of hemlock I had drunk." Alcohol:- " That I might drink, and leave the world unseen." Using his imagination to escape to the world of the Nightingale through poetry:- " But on the viewless wings of poesy."
- Word count: 1198
* John Keats is trying to tell us that he has traveled and explored the rich realms of literature. "Round many western islands I have been which bards in fealty to Apollo hold". Keats is using "western Islands" to cause us to think of ever new vistas of constant discovery. Keats is stressing the honoured poets (bards) passion and obligation toward the 'Art of Poetry' symbolized by the Greek god 'Apollo'. "Oft on one wide expanse had I been told That deep-brow'd Homer ruled as his demesne; Yet did I never breathe its pure serene" Keats is telling us how he had heard about another great kingdom of writing, the serene air of which he had never breathed.
- Word count: 662
William Wordsworth's 'To the Cuckoo' and John Keats' 'Ode to a nightingale' are comparable in many different aspects.
It is important to acknowledge that although both poets, especially Wordsworth enjoy using lavish description, neither describes the physical appearance of the bird. They are both using the birds as metaphors, as symbols. Wordsworth makes the bird "an invisible thing/ a voice, a mystery" He does not see the bird, he can only hear it. This is to enhance the metaphorical strength of the bird. Keats similarly does not feel the need to describe the nightingale. Whereas Wordsworth does this to make his image more mystical and ambiguous, to Keats it does not matter what it looks like, it is the nightingale's spirit he writes about.
- Word count: 1867
I have decided to use the following poems in my essay - The Poison Tree - William Blake · La Belle Dame Sans Merci - John Keats ( La Belle )
The poem is writen in almost the same form as a `parable` from the bible, it is short and has a sharp meaning. I also think that the constant rhyme scheme (aabb) gives the poem a sort of nursery rhyme effect, short and to the point. This rhyme scheme is widely used in songs today, mostly pop songs where they have a regular rythym. La Belle Dame Sans Merci means ' The Beautiful Woman With No Mercy' in English, and it is about a knight who meets a lady out in a meadow (meads).
- Word count: 1356
Hunt introduced Keats to a circle of literary people, including the poet Percy Bysshe Shelley. This group's influence allowed Keats to see his first book published, entitled Poems by John Keats (in 1817). The main poems in the book were the sonnet on Chapman's Homer, the sonnet "To One Who Has Been Long in City Pent," "I Stood Tip-Toe upon a Little Hill," and "Sleep and Poetry," which defended the principles of romanticism as promoted by Hunt and attacked the practice of romanticism as represented by the poet George Gordon, Lord Byron. Keats's second book, Endymion, was published in 1818.
- Word count: 1003
Shortly after his brother's death, Keats died of Tuberculosis at the young age of twenty-four. During his illness, he became aware of time passing and of change in the world of nature. In the brief time that he had left, he composed some of the most inspirational and best poems ever written. Keats wrote his poems, with his attitudes towards death and released in them. He loved nature and the paranormal world, and he portrayed his interests into his poetry, they appeared in the two poems I have studied by him. 'To Autumn' is one of his poems that I have studied, this poem has a very positive attitude towards death, and it shows not a complete end but the end of one thing and the start of something new.
- Word count: 2575
I will be comparing the poems Lochinvar written by Walter Scott in 1808 and Le Belle Dame Sans Merci written on 1820 by John Keats.
Le Belle Dame Sans Merci can be considered a ballad because of its tragic content, the inclusion of a knight and the effective use of natural imagery. It is broken into four line stanzas as ballads usually are and a regular rhythm. Additionally each of the four line stanzas describes a separate incident in the poem, breaking it up into small, short scenes. Le Belle Dame Sans Merci rebels against being a ballad in a few ways. One of the most important being that it does not follow the expected rhyme scheme of A B A B; instead it goes A B C B.
- Word count: 1292