How does Lenton compare in terms of deprivation with other inner city and suburban wards in west Nottinghamshire?
By Hannah Moody.
Part one (A): the location of Lenton
Lenton is located in the south west of Nottingham, approximately 2 miles from the city centre, north of derby road and surrendered by the neighbouring areas that are: Forest fields and Sherwood rise (north), The Park (east), Wilford (south) and Wollaton (west).
Part one (B): Definitions
Deprivation: is to go without basic needs
- Material deprivation, which reflects the access people have to material goods and resources. Access to these goods and resources enables people "to play the roles, participate in relationships and follow the customary behaviour which is expected of them by virtue of their membership in society" (as described by Townsend).
- Social deprivation has been separately distinguished as relating to people’s roles and relationships, membership and social contacts in society.3
- Multiple deprivations relates to the occurrence of several forms of deprivation concurrently, such as low income, poor housing, and unemployment. As this can be particularly stressful for families.
Quality of life: this is things that cannot be measured they may be:
- Physical heath: this is to do with diet, health and protection against and
- And/ or psychological health: feeling like you belong in a community (socially and in the local services) and by being free from worries and/or stress.
Standard of living can be measured. It refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people in an area, and the way these goods and services are distributed and shares within a particular population. It is generally measured by standards such as income per person and . Other measures could be access and quality of health care, , educational standards. Examples are access to certain goods (such as number of refrigerators per 1000 people), or measures of health such as life desires. It is the ease by which people living in a time or place are able to satisfy their wants.
Poverty: this is when you are deprived of resources which can exclude you from participating within the community.
The Burgess model
The burgess model is very useful when trying to break down cities different areas for, quality of life, standard of living, or social class. According to the model (see next page for diagram), a large city is divided in five concentric zones, these are:
- The CBD (Central business district)
- The inner city
- The inner suburbs
- The outer suburbs
- And finally the countryside
The burgess model shows how Lenton could be considered to be a deprived area as it is part of the ‘inner city’ (part 2 of the diagram) which is linked to derelict factories and usually poor housing.
This is a basic outline of what a CBD could look like:
The inner city: this is the central area of a major city and In the , the term is often applied to the poorer parts of the city centre. This is an area, usually where residents are less educated, more impoverished and where there is more crime. The inner city has typical characteristics:
- Old factories and housing are mixed in together as they were built during the 19th century when most people walked to work (no cars); and there is little open space left between the buildings, which are typically terrace houses
- The street pattern’s are often in a grid iron formation
- Often inner cities have empty or abandoned buildings, derelict land, vandalism, crime, poverty, unemployment and other social and economic problems
- In the last fifty years much redevelopment has taken place in these areas; I.E many high rise multi-storey residential blocks of flats have been built
- The areas also tend to have high density population, and crowded neighbourhoods, where minority groups often dominate the area.
Decline in the inner cities could be closely related to the de-industrialisation in Nottingham in the 1960-70’s, where blue collar workers lost their jobs as a result of companies like Raleigh and players re-located, either abroad or to different locations in the UK, The huge de-crease in jobs in factories in the local area of Lenten, were most of the workers came from, relates closely to the decline in the area, because of high unemployment levels and lack of jobs, suiting the skills that the local workforce had to offer.
Part two (A):
This is a preview of the whole essay
In the 1991 matrix, Lenton is the most deprived for almost all indices of the matrix.
In 2001 Lenton was still low in the ward ranking, and showing evidence if being deprived in contrast with an area like Wollaton but it had improved. This could be as a result of the electoral wards being merged together, government investment in the area in an attempt to better the area, this could be by improving housing and schools or other areas i.e. Radford or bridge could be becoming more deprived.
These census’ both show 3 deprivation measures each, unemployment, households overcrowded, people with no cars, and finally owner occupied housing. I chose to use these four because each individually highlights which areas have a higher standard of living compared to the next.
Unemployment is a useful indicator as it shows weather the people living there are well educated, or skilled, and shows if the people living in a location are wealthy or not, this leads on to there quality of life, if they are able to afford their necessities, never mind luxury items. Like wise the number house hold’s that are overcrowded is a useful indicator as the more people per M2 the greater the deprivation (sharing amenities means fewer facilities per person). Owner occupied houses is an indicator of wealth as is people with no cars; cars are classed as a luxury item. And their for, the owner needs to be able to afford to buy and keep the car running, this means a regular cash flow.
In Lenton in comparison to Wollaton, is largely populated by students living in shared accommodation, this explains why the indicator ‘overcrowded housing’ is so high on the census, wear as in Wollaton the houses would be shared between one family so approximately four or five people. Also, unemployment in Lenton, could be as a result of the amounts of retired, and disabled members of the community and full time students unable to work, in comparison to the well educated professionals who live in areas like Wollaton. People with no cars is very low in Wollaton yet, in Lenton the figure is the highest ward without, this luxury item is a sign of wealth and a disposable income, this relates to unemployment, and owner occupied housing, another luxury item which is high in Wollaton, yet again, is the lowest in Lenton, but this again correlates with the high population of students living in the Lenton area, as they will be living in rented student housing. So in conclusion, we are able to see, that on the matrix, Wollaton is a lot less deprived in comparison to that of Lenton, however close the two areas are.
In depth: indicators
I chose to look at crime as I think it is an important indicator of deprivation in an area, it shows how much of a community there is, and how much the people living in the area take care of there neighbourhood. Crime is relevant to low aspirations in teenagers this can then lead on to bad education, leading onto unemployment, this is a cycle of decline. So in Lenton, the crime statistics show a high level of deprivation.
This recent table of statistics on crime in Lenton and Wollaton shows again that Wollaton is a much safer area, where people would feel safe to live, this would increase your physiological quality of life, as you would be less stressed about being the victim of physical violence, or your house being burgled. Anti-social behaviour is also linked with unemployment which relates back to the 1991 and 2001 Nottingham census for Lenton this could be a key factor for the increasing crime rates in the area.
In area A1 a 5 bedroom house costs from £164,950, in contrast with a 5 bedroom house in Wollaton which is on sale for £389,950, the two very close areas differ in almost everyway, the layout of the housing In Lenton is traditional Terraced housing from the 19th century for the blue collar workers. Which are in strict formations, this was to reduce the amount of space used up, along with narrow roads, as they would have been built before the invention of cars. The housing in Wollaton, on the other hand, is spread out, with large gardens, and drive ways (where Lenton has no, or small parking areas on streets). The poor/cheap housing in Lenton is because of the high population of students, who according to neighbours have “taken over the area”. The high crime rates in the area, and Radford a neighbouring area, have narrowed the amount of people willing to live in such an area, down to people who are in difficult circumstances or to the vulnerable , for example disabled or single parents, who are unable to afford houses in a more idyllic area. We can conclude that, by looking at the crime rates, and property in Lenton compared to that of Wollaton, a neighbouring area, is still very deprived and a lot worse than Wollaton, and even though Lenton is improving it still does not come close to the low levels of deprivation in Wollaton.
This graph show’s the huge comparison between the two areas, Wollaton and Lenton. We can get a clear outlook of the percentage of owner occupied housing. This Insight enables us to compare deprivation. We are able to analyse the wealth of the people living in both separate areas and by means of this graph we can see that those living in Wollaton are more likely to own there own house, therefore more likely to be employed in contrast to Lenton were a large proportion of the housing is rented accommodation and unemployment levels are high. With 3.5% of people in Wollaton being unemployed (the least in Nottingham) compared to that of Lenton’s 9.7% according to the 2001 Nottingham city census. These figures correlate highly to those of owner occupied housing.
I collected this fieldwork by travailing around Lenton and numbering each house using a ranking system to determine the quality of each individual house.
The area A1 is the oldest; it is homed by students and working class families and elderly residents, its characterised by its red brick, Victorian terraced housing.
Some houses have been renovated, but most are still fairly run down, this is due to the transient neighbourhood, primarily lived in by students who will live in this area for approximately a year at a time.
Windows are broken in many houses, and in some, security bars have been fitted, which show residents are trying to protect themselves from being burgled. It was also common to see CCTV cameras in this area of Lenton. But there had been clear improvements, double glazed windows had been bitted to numerous houses and old doors had been replace.
It was very clear that there were overcrowded houses and student accommodation though the area of A1 and the houses were covered in ‘to let signs’ from street to street. And the student life style was also very clear when walking through the area, with alcohol bottles on roads and in windows, and overloaded bins on the pavement showed that the residents had no pride in the area, or space.
The area was much uniformed apart from the derelict/ run down factories, and there is a huge lack of privacy, as there are no front gardens or patios to the houses, this also makes the properties very venerable to crime. Another reason for the poor quality of the housing in A1 could relate to it being in the inner city which links to high unemployment rates forcing people to rent out small cheep property, this relates to the cycle of decline. The colouring system used on the diagram shows that the housing is of a poor quality in the area.
This is the ‘posh’ part of Lenton; it is close to the queen’s medical centre and the university. There is less traffic; larger spaced out houses, along with gardens and off road parking space, the population and housing density are both a lot smaller then that of area A1.
The houses are mostly owner occupied with higher socio-economic groups living their.
In comparison to both A1 and A2, it is a lot more gentile and better kept as a neighbourhood; there is evidence of extensions, which show a long term commitment to a house, this differs from the run down transient student location in A1. The housing is mostly semi/ detached. In A2 the colouring system proves that most of the housing is well kept, and of a higher stranded of that in A1 or A3.
This is the area with the 1970’s renovated high rise flats. There is a high density population, and as there are no individual gardens, there is ‘green’ space for the residents. However this space was planned to bring the community in the flats together it has on brought problems for the residents, there have been robbing and physical attacks, therefore CCTV cameras have been located around the green area, along with safety alarms and flood lights, to stop shady trees to cover any potential ‘criminal’.
The housing has been adapted for the disabled, and is specified for single parents, drug troubled, or those with poor health (lower socio-economic groups)
Elderly people who were originally re-housed here, are now left feeling isolated and vulnerable, because of the high crime rate in Nottingham’s inner cities, and are fearful of leaving there flats.
The Burgees model fits into this location fairly well, as well as the colouring system shown in the diagram, that the further away you get from the CBD, the better the housing, the quieter the area is, the lower the population density is and the quality of the area improves as you get nearer to the suburbs.
Parts of Lenton are clearly deprived, but other part is of a higher quality, there is no correct answer as it is a complex question.
By looking at each area in Lenton separately, I was able to get a more varied view of the location, and therefore able to state the areas A1and A3 are more deprived than area A2. This is because area A2 is better maintained, the housing is of a higher standard and the area does not look as if it has been vandalised in anyway in contrast to area A1.
Amenities and quality of life surveys
I looked at the above features in area 1, 2, and 3 as they are all everyday features of living. They point out the quality of life for those living in each separate area. They are good indicators of deprivation; for instance being near to a school means it would me easier travel to, making it a less stressful experience .Privacy is another good example, as the more enclosed an area is, it is more likely the resident will feel claustrophobic and closed in.
This graph shows that there is some variation in the 3 areas, but as the average score overall is 1.5, it shows that the area is not of an excellent standard.
The three areas have each got unique differences, area 3 is the weakest of the 3 and scored a grade 0 on 6 categories, but did get improved marks for spaciousness because of the open spaced layout between the three individual high rise flats. Area two, in contrast, scored highest, with the average still being classed as ‘fair’ it is made clear Lenton is deprived. The general appearance of the area controversially score 4, indicating A2’s appearance was ‘excellent’.
Transect of shops and services on Lenton Boulevard.
This graph shows the variety of shops on Lenton Boulevard. I think that the distribution of these types shops is because of the large community of students living in the surrounding area; this accounts for the large amount of ‘service’ such as laundrettes, bars and night clubs, and a mobile phone repair which all equally cater for the target audiences needs. The low order, convenience goods also provide for those people living of low incomes. This one boulevard also makes it assessable for people n the area who cannot drive or who do not own a car.
This is a photograph taken of a fast food outlet on Lenton Boulevard. It shows signs of being deprived, as the sign is weathered and old, ad clearly hasn’t been enhanced.
Fast food services are also popular in Lenton because of the large student population.
Traffic survey of Lenton Boulevard.
I collected this data by timing 5 minutes and recording the on going traffic on Lenton Boulevard. On the following page is a pictogram, this shows best that the traffic appeared to be coming from the city centre commuting out. But in contrast their where more cars going into town; this suggests that people were heading into the city centre for work. As the area was built in the 19th centaury, the road was not designed for such traffic and can become busy quickly. Traffic though, does not prove Lenton is deprived
Questionnaires and opinions of people.
By asking residents living in Lenton, I was able to distinguish that Most people were satisfied living in Lenton as no one I spoke to gave me any negative feedback the area.
In section 6 we are able to establish that lining in area 2 is ‘very satisfying’, for this I questioned an elderly woman, I would imagine she liked this area as it is very peaceful, an good for a elderly person as it is close to the hospital and a short distance to public transport along with other services. Couples would also like this area as it is close to both secondary and primary schools, and has open spaces designated for children; the houses are also of a descent size to raise a family and close to the CBD for work.
In A1 and Lenton Boulevard, I am certain from the questionnaire that residents are satisfied with the location, with mostly students living here; the local facilities and shops cater for their needs, although not all residents are happy with this: “the area has changed to suit the student lifestyle. In the shops, it is all adult snacks and fast food” says Irean McGrath in the evening post (5.7.2002), showing that even though the majority are happy, residents who live in the area for longer periods of time ,are being forced to live along side the “disrespectful” students in the area .
The person I questioned in A3 said the disliked the appearance of the high rise flats, and that sometimes they found the area felt unfriendly, but they liked the inexpensive housing- this would suit those who are on a low income, or are a single parent, they also stated that they liked being close to the local facilities as they wee accessible and only a 5 minute walk from the flats.
In conclusion the questionnaire was very useful in measuring deprivation, and overall, I have been able to conclude that in general, the majority of residents are happy liing in the area. as well as using statistics from the census, vies of the people, who actually live in the area, can be used to measure quality of life; the use of both, opinion and fact, gives me a non subjective study.
Part four - conclusion.
My study reveals that area A1 shows signs of being deprived. The properties are old red brick Terrist house’s owned by the elderly and students who accommodate the areas for short periods of time. The streets show signs of being vandalised, and have become run down. Bins are left on the roads showing that the community doesn’t take pride in there local surroundings. The area fits in well with the burgess model, proving that the closer an area is to the city centre the more deprived an area is.
A2 in contrast shows very few signs of being a deprived area. Most of the houses are detached or semi-detached, with reasonably sized gardens on both the front and rear of the properties; they also include parking spaces as property owners tend to own one or more car at least indicating that they have a higher more disposable income, being less deprived. Some houses have been extended; this shows that owners are financially able to their homes.
But in comparison to area A2, A3 is very deprived. There are numerous alarm buttons located around the greenery in case of an emergency, this shows that people in the area are at risk of being involved in some type of anti-social behaviour, and that the crime rates are high to be emplaced. The flats are housed primarily to single parents, the elderly, the disabled, and those suffering from substance addiction. These groups’s of people typically are on low paid incomes or are unemployed which links directly to deprivation.
I disagree that as a whole Lenton can be considered to be deprived area. Some parts, such as A2 are well kept by the community and individual owners, and as a result the housing is in a good condition as well as streets and roads for example. But in contrast other parts for instance A3 are seriously deprived, there is a high unemployment rate, and school grades are poor and do need some serious improvements.