Geography- Volcanoes

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VOLCANOESVolcanic Hazards Volcanic eruptions can have a drastic impact on our lives. They can affect the property we own, the land we live on, the water we drink and even the air we breathe. In serious cases, people may have to leave their homes and move to safe areas. In the 20th century, this happened in St. Vincent in 1971 and 1979, in Guadeloupe in 1976 and in Montserrat in 1995. Below are some of the hazardous volcanic effects in the Eastern Caribbean. Pyroclastic flow entering the ocean, Montserrat 1996 Pyroclastic Flows These hot, fast moving mixtures of ash, rock fragments and gas flow from a collapsed eruption column or lava dome, travel down valleys and cause total devastation of the area over which they flow. Pyroclastic flows have been the main cause of destruction and loss of life in Montserrat since the onset of the Soufriere Hills Volcano eruption in 1995. They differ from pyroclastic surges in that they are more dense and usually travel with a greater physical force whereas surges usually contain more gases. Destruction in the aftermath of a pyroclastic surge, St. Pierre, Martinique 1902 Pyroclastic Surges This turbulent cloud of gases and rock debris moves above the ground surface at
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great speeds. Pyroclastic surges form in a similar way to pyroclastic flows but their effects are more widespread since they may also sweep across ridges and hills as well as down valleys. A hot pyroclastic surge can cause death from suffocation, inhalation of poisonous gases and severe burns. Pyroclastic surges from Mt. Pele completely destroyed the town of St. Pierre in Martinique in 1902, killing about 30,000 people. Scientist standing in a crater formed by a ballistic projectile (block visible to the right), Montserrat 1996 Ballistic Projectiles Ballistic projectiles are rocks that an erupting volcano may hurl into the air. ...

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