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GCSE: Physical Geography

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  1. Rhine Flooding Case Study

    and the straightening of the Rhine for commercial purposes. Humans currently use 80% of the former floodplains. Roads and railways cross the alluvial areas behind the protecting dykes; cities and villages have spread to the fertile river plains. This inundation of the floodplains has caused flooding in the lower reaches of the river during the period of snowmelts in spring. In 1995 heavy rainfall struck many parts of Europe, so heavy infact that some areas experienced it continuously from November 1994 to February 1995. The snow on the Alps melted quickly and the ground was saturated due to the heavy rainfall, this meant that further rain was hastily transported to rivers as overland flow.

    • Word count: 831
  2. How far do the sources support the view that, during the period 1474 - 1598, Religious Interests were more important for the Spanish Monarchy than were Political Interests?

    This view is support by Isabella herself in source 3, where she proclaims that her faith is the only grounds for the war with Granada, arguing that, logically, if it was for other purposes they would have chosen a less expensive and hazardous conflict. However, the fact that Isabella had to justify her actions so desperately to the Pope, demonstrates that she could have faced severe criticism over her policy towards Granada, implying that her motives were not purely religious.

    • Word count: 855
  3. Sea Level Change

    This is followed by the melting of these ice caps during interglacial periods, where sea level rises again. Tectonic activity is the main cause of an isostatic change, and the most important tectonic activity is named isostatic readjustment. Isostatic readjustment is where the land naturally rises or falls due to over or underlying forces. During the last ice age, an ice sheet covered Scotland and a lot of northern England. The pressure from the ice sheet caused the land to depress and so as the ice age ended, isostatic rebound occurred and Scotland began to rise again.

    • Word count: 713
  4. The Relation Between the Setting And the Character In

    The nursery room with barred windows provides an image of loneliness and seclusion experienced by the protagonist. If Gilman's story could be thought as a house, structurally it is nearly all interior, rarely leaving the scene of the bedroom and emphasizing the interior / exterior division. The centre of the space is the bedroom itself, with its hideous wallpaper that has a "recurrent spot where the pattern lolls like a broken neck and two bulbous eyes stare at you upside down.". The unclean, "repellent, almost revolting" wallpaper, full of patterns depicting extreme confusion, with a humanoid hiding behind it, contributes to the narrator's isolation and intensifies her illness to the point when insanity takes over.

    • Word count: 753
  5. My personal view of what the future possibly holds for Svalbard

    fall in tourism. The wildlife in the arctic will be affected by human activity mainly. To stop the damage that is being caused to wildlife in the arctic, Svalbard must incorporate the idea of sustainability, so it can be a place where people can live practically and without much difficulty. Sustainability is when any economic activity without causing permanent harm to the environment. The arctic food chain above shows the phytoplankton and the zooplankton and the bottom of the chain, the next creature is a fairly medium sized fish, then seals, the polar bear, and right at the top of the chain is humans.

    • Word count: 759
  6. Ther Indus Valley civilization.

    The heart of the civilization was the vast flood plain of the Indus and Hakra rivers. The Hakra River (also known as the Ghaggar River or Sarasvati River) is now dried up. It once flowed east of--and parallel to--the Indus River, in what are now India and Pakistan. The civilization developed a standardized system of weights and measures and a system of writing that used pictographs (simple drawings representing words). In the early 1800's, British scholars learned that people had found ancient artefacts buried in huge earthen mounds in the region.

    • Word count: 661
  7. The Amazon Rainforest.

    For example, most trees flare at the base. Vegetation is dense, tall and very green. Both types of rainforests are rich in plant and animal species, although the diversity is greater in the tropical rainforest. Both tropical and temperate rainforests are very lush and wet. The tropical rainforest has downpours at the rate of two inches an hour adding up to some 400 inches of rain per year. It rains a lot in the temperate rainforest too. It rains about 100 inches per year. And even more moisture comes from the coastal fog that hovers among the trees.

    • Word count: 526
  8. Briefly outline the characteristic of the Tropical Rainforest biome. Growing international concern of the Tropical Rainforest clearance. Give detailed accounts of pressure of activities, which lead to forest clearance.

    Finally, biotic factors which include the element of competition for food, space, nutrients and light (in the case of plants). In recent years, the TRF has come under increasing pressure to be developed by humans in order to exploit its vast wealth in natural resources. This problem has only grown as technology and global demand has increased. It is now accepted that the rate of forest clearance is of great international concern. Clearance of the world's forests affects us all as the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere governs our climate and weather patterns.

    • Word count: 793
  9. Does Global Warming Exist?

    Maybe I could get a job easier here in Spain as tourism will grow even more. I look forward discovering the new warmth." Raul, 21 years, Madrid. Letter from a scientist by the name Claus Hentzel: "Dear Metro, I hope you all will read what I've got to say. For the past few years scientists have measured that the temperature has increased with 0,2 degrees Celsius. The amount of CO2 in percent has increase in the air. How do we know if this is due to global warming? It is not even proven that global warming does exist.

    • Word count: 964
  10. Global Warming - The problem began when environmentalists and scientists realised that the world's temperatures were on a steady rise (partly as a result of the burning of greenhouse gases creating a depletion of the ozone layer).

    Consequently, the land has grown much drier and because of this there has been a steady increase of droughts and bushfires. With the rise of temperature also comes other climatic changes such as rainfall and soil moisture content which would affect flora, fauna and the agricultural industry. The forecasted effects of global warming on Australia's fauna and flora are that, many species will become extinct or endangered as they would have difficulty adapting the change in temperature. The flora of Australia will be greatly diminished, as global warming has increased the number of bushfires and droughts that severely damage vegetation and wipe-out many species of flora.

    • Word count: 648
  11. Geography Oral Presentation on the exploitation of the Rainforest.

    The reason for this rainfall is to do with convectional thunderstorms. The temperature in a rainforest never freezes and never gets very hot. The range of temperature in a tropical rainforest is usually between 24-27� C. STOP! Picture. Here you can see a graph representing the temperature and rainfall over a year. Tropical rainforests cover about 7% of the Earth's surface and are very important to the Earth's ecosystem. The rainforest trees and plants also remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store it in their roots, stems, leaves, and branches, they replace this with oxygen.

    • Word count: 815
  12. How does the global system affect climates?

    Convectional currents of warm, moist air cool to give heavy, daily thunderstorms Strong, steady winds converge to fill the low pressure from the north and south, but the spinning of the Earth diverts the winds slightly to the right in the northern hemisphere and they become the north-east Trade Winds. In the southern hemisphere winds are diverted to the left, producing the south-west Trade Winds. Air in the upper atmosphere flows away from the Equator and cools. Cooling air becomes denser, heavier and descends back to the surface on the polar sides of the 'Cell', causing zones of high pressure at about 30?

    • Word count: 778
  13. Case Study: Guadiamar River.

    There were then huge delays due to the inefficiency of the public administrations board and a lack of a driving political force. The cleaning up project finally started at the beginning of the year 2000. The job was a massive 6000 contaminated hectares. The waste has been replaced at the mine with permission from the Geomining institute of Spain. The project has come under scrutiny from the WWF for using methods which it did not approve of and it has recorded mutations of certain animals in The Do�ana National Park.

    • Word count: 632
  14. Should Rainforests be Preserved?

    He is hardly going to turn it down is he? He needs this so he can earn a living and support his family. Surely small patches of land like his won't make much difference to the huge forest all around him? There are nearly three million land-less people in Brazil- What's worse knocking down a few trees to provide for these 3 million people or letting these people die of starvation, dehydration or any other numerous disease. Many less economically developed countries have rapid growing populations. More people means more food is needed to provide for these people.

    • Word count: 803
  15. What are the consequences of deforestation?

    * The Amerindians and their way of life will be gone. * Thousands of wildlife species will be lost forever. * Half the world's medicines originate in the rainforest. If the rainforest is destroyed plants may be lost which hold potential cures for cancer or AIDS. Extensive deforestation brings many problems to the environment and the people living there. LOSS OF SOIL FERTILITY Vegetation provides a protective cover over the soil. Through the nutrient cycle, vegetation helps to maintain the soil fertility.

    • Word count: 695
  16. An Examination of the coast line in the Swanage Area.

    There is also a lot of Cliff erosion which causes many problems to the inhabitants of the area. Humans have tried to modify this landform or even trying to stop erosion by building soft coastal management features such as groynes which stop Long Shore Drift (LSD). The land around Swanage Area is made up of four different types of rocks; tertiary sands and clays is a very soft type of rock which erodes at a very high rate. Chalk is the hardest of all rocks. This is where erosion takes longest. Wealden clay is very similar to the first type of rock.

    • Word count: 840
  17. Common types of coastal problems are: pollution, erosion, salt intrusion, flooding calamities, habitat degradation / loss of biodiversity.

    Constructing dams, however, can also alter the processes that shape the floodplains farther downstream. Since most sediment carried by a river settles out in the reservoir behind a dam, the water flowing past a dam has very little sediment in it. Water poor in sediment will scour sediment from the floodplain immediately downstream from the dam, resulting in erosion. By trapping nutrient-rich sediment and preventing annual floods, large dams halt the natural reinvigoration of the fertile floodplain soils that usually accompanies annual flooding. Without large floods, some river channels fill with debris or become narrow with overgrown vegetation, changes that might adversely affect native fish and birds.

    • Word count: 941
  18. Impacts of Sea Level Rise - Bangladeshand the Netherlands.

    Coastal activities such as fishing and shrimp farming are key to the countries economy, and there are two major sea ports with large industrial complexes located at Chittagong and Mongola. Rice production also occurs due to the fertile nature of the soil. Salt-water intrusion will reduce the quality and quantity of minimal freshwater supplies. Any sea level rise would not only cause the destruction of the ports, the erosion of land and the inundation of valuable farmland but also cause the migration of people inland putting pressure on non-coastal areas.

    • Word count: 529
  19. Should Hengistbury Head Be Saved From Erosion Or Not?

    This means that eventually, the Sea will erode Hengistbury Head and then the town of Christchurch and Poole. If Hengistbury Head falls, then people will try to save Poole anyway so they might as well start defending Pool now by protecting Hengistbury Head. If Hengistbury Head erodes, then Poole Harbour and Christchurch Harbour will merge and become one. Hengistbury Head is an area of much tourism - it has an attractive coastal landscape. As it is on the South coast, the weather is generally good and so there are many overpriced beach huts available to rent.

    • Word count: 589
  20. Information On Chile.

    lts geography is broken and mountainous. Only 20% of the territory is plain. The spine of the country is the Cordillera de los Andes (The Andes mountain range) which in the North reaches heights above 6.000 metres and it almost disappears in the extreme South oniy to reappear in Antarctica. The Cordillera de la Costa (Coastal mounta�n range) runs parallel to The Andes but at lower heights and between these two mountain ranges there is the so calied intermediate depression which in the North becomes the pampas anchin the South turns into valleys.

    • Word count: 851
  21. People are moving from away from North East Brazil - Why is this happening, what effects has this had and what can be done to stop the emigration?

    The rain is unreliable and there can be long periods of rain and then not a drop for months. Therefore it is useless and very hard to use the land for anything. Many farmers have to scratch a living from producing sugar can. Most farmers don't own the land they work and landlords pay low wages, despite the harsh conditions. You can see why so many people want to leave. Crops can dry out from no rain or drowned from too much rain as there are no tools to catch the rain or to shelter the crops. Rainfall has always been low in the Ceara province of north-east Brazil.

    • Word count: 706
  22. Why is Aldeburgh protected Differently to Dunwich?

    Coastal Protection At Aldeburgh In Aldeburgh however, the types of protection involve 'hard' protection. These are man-made objects. At Aldeburgh, three hard protection methods have been employed, and one soft method. There is: a curved sea wall groynes, rip-rap, and, beach replenishment (fig 4.1). Reasons For Different Protection. Dunwich is a small coastal village on the Suffolk coast. There are only 120 people living in Dunwich, consisting mainly of retired people but with a few fishermen and forestry workers. With this in mind, there is no real need to protect it from the sea. Although Dunwich was once a major port, almost all of the historic remains have already fallen into the sea.

    • Word count: 808
  23. A field trip to Newhaven will be set up to test the hypothesis that "You cannot change one part of the coastline without affecting another". New haven is a well established coastal port overlooking the English Channel.

    Investigations should reveal evidence of any changes affecting other coastlines, and establish reasons to test the hypothesis. At the end of the investigation sufficient data should have be accumulated to prove or disprove whether the building of the harbour arm at Newhaven has influenced changes along other parts of the coastline. Newhaven is a busy resort in the South of England, on the English Channel. Until the 16th Century there was no harbour at Newhaven, because the River Ouse reached the sea at Seaford.

    • Word count: 885
  24. A Study of the River Tees.

    The river Tees is a river in the north of England. It is about 120km long. It starts in the Moorlands/Pennine hills, where the ground is 700 m above sea level. Look at page 3. This is the source. The mouth of the river is the North Sea. There is no better way to describe the source of the river Tees other than showing it through a river basin. The river basin is the land over which the river travels and where the rain gathers and flows into tributaries. This is surrounded by a boundary called a watershed.

    • Word count: 878

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