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GCSE: Physical Geography
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A major factor in the severity of the earthquake was the poor construction - a salient feature of LEDC's. The Indian Plate which was moving 40 mm a year north collided with the Eurasian plate and was forced beneath it. It measured 7.6 on the Richter Scale. As is evident, although the magnitude of both earthquakes was extremely similar, the impacts varied greatly. This was due to many factors, which most if not all are related to the economic situation of the countries. We shall begin by discussing the impacts of each of the earthquakes, thereafter we shall discuss why these effects differed.
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This means there is very little flat land other than at the base of the volcanoes. Due to this, it is very crowded and congested. Believe it or not the population Of Japan is 124 million! That's approximately twice as much as England! There are also approximately 310 people per square kilometer. Also, there are some human causes of the Kobe Earthquake. We all know that, this present day, Japan is the most technologically advanced country in the world. But that means they must have run millions of tests and tried out new experiments and procedures to get to where they are today.
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The River Mersey due to human activity). This will also increase lateral erosion as the water will be moving faster and carrying more load. As a result, the width increases. This hypothesis corresponds with the Bradshaw Model because fig.1 shows the width of the river increasing with distance downstream. Hypothesis 2 - The Depth of the River Increases with Distance Downstream This hypothesis was proved correct because figure two shows that the average depth of the river significantly increases with distance downstream.
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Pollution from ships Ships can pollute waterways and oceans in many ways. Oil spills can have devastating effects. While being toxic to marine life, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the components in crude oil, are very difficult to clean up, and last for years in the sediment and marine environment. Discharge of cargo residues from bulk carriers can pollute ports, waterways and oceans. In many instances vessels intentionally discharge illegal wastes despite foreign and domestic regulation prohibiting such actions. Ships create noise pollution that disturbs natural wildlife, and water from ballast tanks can spread harmful algae and other invasive species.
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The damage was recorded over a radius of 100 km from the epicentre. The earthquake also hit the cities of Osaka and Kyoto. The economic loss was worse than anything. It was the largest ever to be lost directly from a natural disaster. Directly from the shaking itself, around 13 trillion yen worth of damage was caused. This is around �100 billion and before, the loss of life, production, and business interruptions. The Destruction The amount of destruction left by the earthquake was enormous. Around one in every five building collapsed. A further eighty thousand were badly damaged.
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The best uses of the rainforest are those that help the people to improve their standard of life help the country to become more developed and wealthier and use the rainforest in a sustainable way so as not to damage the ecosystems of the rainforest. In order to draw up a conclusion to how the rainforest should be preserved I will look at the different types of uses of the Amazonia rainforest. Two uses of rainforest I am going to look at are: * Clearing the forest to get at valuable minerals in the rocks under the forest such as iron ore and bauxite.
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These houses were not earthquake proof, so people that lived in these were in great danger. However, houses that were built after 1981, have been made earthquake proof, this means that they are adapted to earthquakes, have the latest technology and hopefully would not fall down whist there is an earthquake. These houses would have been more recently built and made with stronger material. A familiar story is of the Endo family, who Mr & Mrs Endo lived the older residential part of Kobe called Nishinomiya; most people who lived here were old. Older people were in more danger of death because in the older suburbs of Kobe, many elderly people lived there and owned older houses, such as the Endo's house which was built before 1960.
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Tropical Rainforests - adaptation of species. Explain why the rainforest is an important natural resource.
Large buttes roots These are used to support the high trees. They also gather nutrients for the tree, this is because the soil in the rainforest doesn't have much nutrients. They also don't penetrate into the ground deeply. Lianas Lianas are climbing woody vines that drape rainforest trees. They have adapted to life in the rainforest by having their roots in the ground and climbing high into the tree canopy to reach available sunlight. Many lianas start life in the rainforest canopy and send roots down to the ground. Little undergrowth on the forest floor except in clearing/ river edges.
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Its also a period or condition of unusually dry weather within a geographic area where rainfall is normally present. - Hurricanes - A hurricane occurs when a storm starts to brew over the ocean. As it makes contact with warm ocean waters - if the temperature of the water is above 26.5 degrees Celsius (80 Fahrenheit) - the storm's heat and energy intensify. Winds rotate counter clockwise around a calm centre (the "eye"). When the sustained speed of the winds reaches 74 mi (119 km) per hour, the storm is officially classified as a hurricane. - Flooding- A combination of storms, tides and low air pressure, Flooding is normally caused by natural weather events such as: heavy rainfall and thunderstorms, mainly over a short period rivers or oceans overflowing their banks.
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Geography river study coursework - Why do channel characteristics vary downstream at a number of sites along the Mulunguzi river?
I would expect the channel to be larger because of the increased velocity causing more hydraulic power erosion. Location description The study will take place at the Mulunguzi river in Zomba. Zomba is a small town in which a plateau is located-it is on this plateau, at 15? south and 34? east, where the source of the river Mulunguzi is found. The river is perfect to carry out this investigation as it enables us to examine a number of its features including: meanders, waterfalls, rapids, tributaries and so on.
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Climate Temperatures in the Savanna vary according to the season. The Savanna has two distinct seasons; the wet season and the dry season. The dry season is during the Winter. During the dry season most of the plants in the savanna shrivel up and die, some rivers and streams also dry up and most of the animals migrate to find food. There are cooler temperatures, clearer skies and lower humidity in the dry season than in the wet season. During the wet season all of the plants are lush and the rivers and streams flow freely.
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Canada's ocean coastline is the longest in the world and almost nine percent of its total landmass is covered by freshwater. Canada is near the top of water-rich nations, trailing only Brazil, Russia and China. Canada has about 20% of the world's freshwater but only seven percent of it is renewable. Almost 9%, or 891 163 square kilometres, of Canada's total area is covered by fresh water. With approximately 8% of its territory covered by lakes, Canada has more lake area than any other country in the world. Canada has 563 lakes having an area greater than 100 square kilometres.
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Gradually the grains grow larger and the air pockets between the grains get smaller, causing the snow to slowly compact and increase in density. After about two winters, the snow turns into ice. At this point, it is about half as dense as water. Over time, larger ice crystals become so compressed that any air pockets between them are very tiny. Types Of Glaciers Ice sheets- They are only found in Antarctica and Greenland, ice sheets are enormous masses of glacial ice and snow expanding over 50,000 square kilometres.
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Kobe and Haiti earthquake had many differences between the primary effects because in Haiti, 230,000 people died and in Kobe, only 6,434 people died, due to the face that Haiti is an LEDC
The US Geological Survey estimates that 3.5 million people lived in the area where 'moderate to heavy' damage occurred. The Haitian government estimates that 230,000 people died, about 300,000 were injured and 1 million were made homeless out of a population of 10 million. Some 250,000 dwellings were destroyed or badly damaged. For any country, this would have been a major disaster. However, as a very poor nation, Haiti was particularly badly placed to cope with such an event. According to the World Bank (2008), Haiti's gross domestic product per person is only 660 US dollars. This makes Haiti the poorest country in the western hemisphere. It is ranked 149th out of 182 countries on the human development index.
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Australia has had a considerable number of hazardous bushfires, the Ash Wednesday Bushfires of 1983 is one of Australias most devastating.
Most of the Ash Wednesday fires were caused by an accidental ignition, for example in Cudgee, Mt Macedon, Monivale and Branxholme. The suspected cause for these fires was the clashing of electrical powerlines with tree branches. Bushfires can be influenced by several factors. It is primarily the weather conditions and geographical processes that dictate the behaviour and spread of a fire. Drought plays an essential part in the environment desiccating determining the spread of a bushfire. Due to lack of rainfall, vegetation such as dry grasses, parched native shrubs and other combustible materials build up and become fuel for the fire to burn.
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It is no good trying to save the rainforest if it means putting thousands of people out of work. To what extent do you agree/disagree with this statement?
Some people Log to get wood so that they can make lots of money. Some people mine to get essential materials for today's advancing technology. But is it essential to destroy forests just to mine? After they have finished wrecking the perfectly beautiful, natural wonder, it will never be the same. With no tree's to protect it, the ground dries up and the forest turns into a desert. Nothing will ever grow there again. Three acres of rainforest are lost every two seconds. That's 90 acres a minute, 5400 acres an hour and 129600 acres a day!
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Over time the pressure within a caldera builds up and eventually blows rupturing the ground around it; this is a super eruption. A super eruption can eject magma, ash, rock, and gas into the atmosphere. This explosion is often times disastrous for surrounding areas causing unrelentless damage. Despite current technology, eruptions and eruption size cannot be forecasted making supervolcanoes an unpredictable killer. Scientists are only able to monitor seismic activity around a supervolcano which often escalates days before a possible super eruption.
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The Pannonian Plain is a large plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea dried out. It is a geomorphological subsystem of the Alps-Himalaya system. The river Danube divides the plain roughly in half. The plain consists mainly of the Great Hungarian Plain (in the south and east) and the Little Hungarian Plain (in the northwest). Overall, there are five climate zones in Europe. Each climate zone has a particular feature of climate or/and rainfall. For instance, the Mediterranean climate zone has hot dry summers and warm wet winters. The Mediterranean climates is called this because most of the country's which have this climates are very close to the Mediterranean Sea.
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If the magma forces its way up on offshore, then 'island arcs' form. The West Indies and Japan are two examples of island arcs. A constructive margin is where two tectonic plates are diverging away from each other, which causes new crust to be created at the boundary between these two plates. When two plates diverge, initially, a rift valley may occur. Magma rises from the mantle filling in the gaps between the two plates, which can cause submarine volcano to occur.
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After collecting all the data we need in both high order shop and low order shop, we all input the information into the Arc GIS map software to create a pattern and help us fully understand the clear definition of the Sphere of Influence. Hypothesis The Sphere of influence is larger for the high order store than the Sphere of Influence for the low order store. Since people need daily necessities often, they travel to the closest low order shop.
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Also there are many plants here's a few of them: Bengal Bamboo, Arctic Moss, Balsam Fir, Fringed Sagebrush and Fern. In the rainforest there are layers as shown. First there is the forest floor which is the earth. Then there's the shrub layer which is where all of the leaves off the trees and the bushes are. Then there's the under store or the under canopy which is where all the new trees are. Then there's the canopy which is the fall grown normal size trees where most animals live.
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* Communications- communications can be cut off and wires made a dangerous hazard. Positive * Deposition of silt onto the floodplain makes soil fertile, which is good for agriculture * Regular flooding on floodplains helps support farming. What can be done to solve the problem of flooding? Floods can be managed so that the scale of disaster is lower such as: * Rivers can be straightened * If there are levees they can be raised higher * Dredging river beds (removing sediment and silt)
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winter. In addition, there is a time of year where the sun does Not shine for about 4 months. In addition, Antarctica is unique because It is full of ice, and being there will be very peaceful and cold. Moreover, the day is 6months long and the night is obviously 6 months long too. Antarctica is the one place where the penguins can be found. Penguins cannot be found in the arctic region because it is colder. And also, Antarctica Is a place where the rarest species of animals can be found. Why are tourists attracted to Antarctica? Tourists are attracted to Antarctica because it is very hard to get to by ordinary means of travel.
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While doing this, I kept in mind a few questions that would help me reach a suitable conclusion. 1. In which direction did the former glacier/s flow? 2. What evidence is there in the landforms of Easedale Valley of glaciation? 3. Why is the Easedale Tarn located where it is? Using the techniques mentioned above, and keeping the above questions in mind, I studied Easedale, which is located in the county of Cumbria, in Lake District National Park. The study location is situated north-west of the town of Grasmere.
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