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GCSE: Physical Geography

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  1. Is the Destruction of the Amazon Rainforest a price Worth Paying for Brazil's Economic development?

    The diverse ecosystem is caused indirectly by the location of the rainforest. The centre of the Amazon Rainforest is located near and on the equatorial line. This means that the Amazonia receives concentrated amount of sun rays, making the rainforest very hot. The equatorial location means that the temperature of the climate is very high and constant with twelve hours of sunshine. Usually, the morning temperature can reach up to 32�C and in the evening, it rarely goes below 22�C.

    • Word count: 3502
  2. rivers coursework

    These processes can reduce stream water volumes; as a result it can reduce erosion rates as well. Plants absorb soil water to help uptake of minerals. This water leads transpiration to occur-which cools plants down. The water vapour produced from transpiration advances the formation of clouds and the process of precipitation. To give back the water used by the plants for transpiration, the surface run-off water infiltrates the soil. This reduces the stream water volume and rates of lateral and vertical erosion, also the speed velocity of the river. Due to all of this the cross-sectional area and the surface velocity and discharge will decrease because of the effects of these processes.

    • Word count: 3778
  3. An Investigation Into Kingston Area Shopping Centres and Their Patterns of Use

    Therefore the larger the variety, the more the high quality goods there are available which people will travel further for. To test this hypothesis, I will find the size of shopping centre by finding the number of shops in the different centres and I will also need to find out where people came from which will allow me to construct a desire line map, which I can then use to find the spheres of influences for the shopping centres. Once I have worked out the size of the spheres of influences, I can use a Spearman Rank graph with the

    • Word count: 8335
  4. How The Management Of The Amazon Rainforest Is Being Affected

    The trees on the canopy's can reach 35 - 45 m in height. There are animals and plants on this layer because it is where all the food grows. The third layer known as the under canopy this consists of trees about 30m in height. The forth and lowest layer is known as the shrub layer. This layer is very dark and consists of a few small plants as it receives hardly any light because of the three other layers.

    • Word count: 3199
  5. Epping Forest

    We went back to the classroom and started to fill in the gully measurements and other sheets which haven't been filled in. in my opinion overall the two sites were kind of the same because pillow mounds had good features and rushey plain didn't have that much trampling. 1 There are lots of attractions and features inside Epping Forest. * Mountain biking for those people who like riding bikes. * Fishing for those people who enjoy being by the river and getting peace. * Hiking for those people who love the outdoors. * Hunting for those who like practicing shooting.

    • Word count: 4189
  6. Geography - Ivestigation of the River Colne, Buckinghamshire

    Finally, the banks themselves are likely to be eroded more easily, because they are less likely to be made of rock, as they are in the upper course, and more likely to be made of soil or formerly deposited sediment, which are easier to erode. It is by this common sense and geographic theory that I know that rivers widen and deepen as they flow downstream. * I expect the rate of flow will increase because there are fewer obstructions in the river channel.

    • Word count: 7473
  7. To what extent is the River Roding a flooding threat to the area in which it flows?

    The river has a mean flow of 1.59 m3s-1 and it has an average channel width of 7.5 m. The catchment is predominantly impermeable rock which is mainly London clay and glacial deposits. The main land use of this catchment is agricultural farm land in the upper and middle course, but is significantly urbanised in the lower course of the river in London. The Environment Agency tries to promote a wide range of recreation around the River Roding. For most of the length of the river, angling is very popular, however windsurfing or fishing at Roding Valley Lake and country walks are also attractions.

    • Word count: 3453
  8. The Norfolk Broads

    included in the region, and is also responsible for maintaining the waterways in a navigable condition. The Norfolk broads are in the east of England. They are in the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk in East Anglia. East Anglia is near the wash (see map 1) The three main rivers that connect the broads are The Yare, the Bure and The Waveney (see map 2). They are rivers, lakes and streams, which are in Norfolk and near the coast. There are about 200km of these rivers of these broads.

    • Word count: 4507
  9. In this booklet I will be describing global warming, its effects, its causes, my views, other peoples views, and finally if we should be concerned about global warming.

    Many climatologists argue that we are artificially increasing the greenhouse effect, warming the Earth faster than would occur naturally, which could cause problems for the Earth in the future. Where do greenhouse gases come from? Almost all of the man-made carbon dioxide emissions come from the burning up of fossil fuels - coal, oil, and natural gas. Fossil fuels are created from plants and animals that died millions of years ago, and lie deep underground or under the ocean floor.

    • Word count: 3027

    From a general perspective, Turkey's national policy on coastal areas is based on sustainable and integrated management of these areas. In other words the main aim of the national policy on coastal areas is to make provision for development and economic growth but to ensure effective conservation of wildlife and natural features as an important feature of a clean and healthy natural environment. Integrated coastal zone management, which is an important tool for the realisation of sustainable development and environmental protection, is one of the tools that have been adopted by Turkey within this scope (NEAP 1999:52).

    • Word count: 3106
  11. The Assassin

    "The club opens at 21.00 hours. I want you to be there at this time. The weapon has been hidden in the restroom, in the second cubicle from the left. After the kill, come straight to the airport where I will meet you, and we will catch the first plane back to Australia. Be at the airport by 23.00 hours. The key I gave you is for the red lotus car, registration H8R 2." The line went dead. The Assassin came slowly out of the shadows, into the bright light of a nearby park lamp.

    • Word count: 3468
  12. Touring Brasil

    Planned for only 500,000 inhabitants , Brasilia's today's population (including satellite cities) is now over 2,000,000 inhabitats. We started at the Cathedral designed by Oscar Niemeyer, huge and beautiful after we went to see the Igreja Nossa Senhora de Fatima (our Lady of Fatima Church ) usually called Igrajinha (small church) It was 12:00 am and I was very hungry so I had 1 hour time to have lunch. So I did .I ate meat in a restaurant called Rodicio with beans and rice . Very good and inexpensive .After I meet my guide her name is Christina Martins and we started by the buildings and monuments.

    • Word count: 3572
  13. Should the coast between Overstrand and Sheringham be protected at any cost, or should nature be allowed to take its course?

    now called the MAFF. The North Norfolk cliffs are basically comprised of a contorted mix of silts, sands, clays and gravels that were deposited during the glacial and interglacial phases of the last 2 million years. The cliffs provide little resistance to the action of North Sea waves, which erode the base of the cliffs. In addition, when the cliff material has a high water content it becomes unstable and, together with wave action, this results in slips & slides of large amounts of material along the coastline, leading to a general retreat of the cliff line.

    • Word count: 5228
  14. The sun undergoes a cycle of increased and decreased activity over a period of approximately 11 years.

    In July the highest level of incident radiation is over the Northern hemisphere, meaning that the temperature is highest across the Northern hemisphere. In December the highest level of incident radiation is over the Southern hemisphere so the greatest temperatures are experienced south of the equator. This means that the highest level of incident solar radiation migrates from 23.4 degrees North on June 21st to 23.4 degrees South on December 21st, and this migration has a direct effect on the temperature gradients of the regions annually.

    • Word count: 4091
  15. Welcome aboard Christine's Canadian adventure tour!

    Logan happens to be located in one of the most tectonically active areas in Canada. The St-Elias Mountain Range is in a very remote area of Canada with its most convenient centers being Haines Junction or Whitehorse. These areas are almost completely inhabited by Inuit's with an area population of only a few thousand. As we walk up to the "gate" of the King Trench Route we will learn a little about the areas history. King Trench Route leads to the summit of Mt. Logan and was first successfully climbed by this passage in 1925 by A.H.

    • Word count: 3586
  16. Environmentalism - There is currently a vast political, cultural and moral debate going on about the authenticity of the concept of global warming.

    place and all of the money which is currently being put into curbing the effects of global warming could be put into far more important problems. For example providing the world with clean drinking water. These people are against the Kyoto Protocol which President Bush recently turned down, despite outrage from environmentalists. Author 1: Alan Caruba Alan Caruba believes that there is no such thing as global warming. He explains in his article that the entire 'global warming hoax' is based on 'bogus' computer programs that were developed to show global warming trends which are non-existent and that the programs are specifically designed so that they back up the claims being made by environmentalists.

    • Word count: 3197
  17. Coastal management.

    "The cost of protecting these cliffs is phenomenal." Mr Clements said. "The work at Whitby cost �3.4 million." Most developed areas around Scarborough have seawalls but this is not the case further south, where Mr Eddie Knapp, principal engineer of Holderness council, said there had been "unusually large and particularly worrying" land losses over the past six months. "The average rate of erosion is 6ft a year but this year it has been up to 65ft in places," Mr Knapp said. At Skirlington, 65ft of land has recently fallen into the sea, carrying away 23 bases at a caravan park, while 70ft of land has gone at Aldbrough caravan park, leaving 15ft of unfenced land before a 60ft drop into the sea.

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  18. Brazil (in Portuguese, Brasil), officially Federative Republic of Brazil, federal republic, the largest country in South America, occupying nearly one half of the entire area of the continent.

    Among the principal ranges of the Brazilian plateau are the Serra da Mantiqueira, the Serra do Mar, and the Serra Geral. Elevations in these and the other ranges average under about 1,220 m (4,000 ft), but several of the ranges are surmounted by lofty peaks, including Pico da Bandeira (2,890 m/9,482 ft) in the Serra da Mantiqueira, and Pedra A�u (2,232 m/7,323 ft) in the Serra do Mar. Much of the tableland terrain consists of rolling prairies (campos), and extensive tracts are forested. The basin of the River Amazon occupies more than one third of the surface of the country.

    • Word count: 3019
  19. Chobham Common has been identified as a valuable ecological/environmental resource this essay looks at the balance between this and the use of the common for leisure ativities.

    Reptiles and amphibians such as adders, grass snakes, frogs and newts all breed on the Common. The Common is one of the richest habitats in the country for invertebrates, particularly spiders, bees, wasps and butterflies. The M3 cuts across the Common from the south west to the north east. The Common has been badly fragmented by the construction of the motorway in the 1960s and the traffic passing through. High levels of nitrogen deposits have been found on either side of the road, and the outfall running into one of the Common's bogs is a source of worry to the management team.

    • Word count: 4566
  20. Deforestation in the Amazon rainforest and development in the rest of Brazil

    The longest road stretches 5300km (3300 miles). Iron, gold and copper have all been discovered in the rainforest. Mining companies have all taken an affect on the Amazon rainforest by felling trees and building roads through the rainforest to reach these high-valued deposits. Huge areas of land have been flooded so they can construct hydro-electric power (HEP) plants in order to generate electricity by harnessing the power of the mighty Amazon River. Cattle-ranching causes large areas of the rainforest to be destroyed, this has been carried out by multi-national companies (MNC's). The beef from the cattle-ranchers is then cheaply sold to the United States and Europe to make more burgers.

    • Word count: 3112
  21. An Essay Upon Global Warming

    Gasses in the atmosphere then absorb the radiation, or it passes through into space. Some gasses are more absorbent than others, just as some materials are opaque whilst others are transparent. In particular, gasses emitted naturally by volcanoes, largely COx, SOx, and NOx, are infrared absorbent but Hydrocarbons such as methane, a major constituent of 'farts', are major factors when talking about 'greenhouse emissions'. Clouds, formed when water vapour condenses in the right conditions, absorb and also reflect large amounts of this radiation.

    • Word count: 3034
  22. Areas of Volcanic and earthquake activity.

    This is an area where ash and lava from previous eruptions had weathered into a fertile soil, ideal for rice growing, also subsistence farming. In 1991 Mt Pinatubo began to show signs of erupting in early June. Fortunately, there were several advance-warnings signs which allowed time for the evacuation. On June 12th an explosion sent a cloud of steam and ash 30km into the atmosphere. 50cm of ash fell nearby, and over 10cm within a 600km radius. The eruptions were characteristically accompanied by earthquakes and torrential rain - except that he rain fell as thick mud when joined with he thick cloud of ash.

    • Word count: 3093
  23. Physical Geography Earth revision notes

    The Indian plate was sub ducted by the Eurasian plate . Primary Effects 80,000 people died . The main cause of death was collapsing buildings . Hundreds of thousands were injured . Some villages were fully destroyed and thousands of buildings were destroyed . 30,000 square miles was destroyed . 75m fault line . Sewage and gas pipes burst . Secondary effects 80% of Uri was destroyed . People died from landslides and collapsed buildings . Water supplies , electricity and main roads were shut off . 3 million were made homeless .

    • Word count: 10074
  24. Earthquakes and volcanoes research

    In many cases, magma rises from the mantle to fill in the gap or one plate slides down to fill in the space. These types of earthquakes usually occur in the ocean (Mid-ocean ridge) not very deep in the earths crust and are not very powerful. Convergent Boundary Convergent plate boundaries arise when tectonic plates of equal or differing densities collide. If the plates have equal density, the collision causes an orogeny like the Himalayas. Mountains shoot up relatively quickly in this process over the past few million years.

    • Word count: 3963

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