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GCSE: Physical Geography
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The thickness of this vegetation increases, as it gets closer to the river. There is a very visible band showing these two thicknesses. The second feature that I have highlighted is the scar. This is an area of the valley side that has collapsed to expose the soil underneath. It is quite large as it extends from the top of where the hill starts to slope sharply down into a valley to the floor of the valley itself. The amount of exposed soil increases further down the scar as is gets wider. There are clearly rocks visible that have been exposed with the soil.
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However there is concern that human activities are currently increasing the amount of carbon dioxide (and also methane) in the atmosphere which would increase the greenhouse effect and perhaps lead to a rise in global temperatures. This is called the enhanced greenhouse effect, and a rise in temperature is called global warming. There is much disagreement amongst scientists about exactly what is happening to the Earth's temperatures, what is causing these effects and what might be the result. All agree that carbon dioxide concentrations are rising. It is possible that this increase has nothing to do with human activities, and has entirely natural causes.
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If global warming is happening, what is causing it and who or what is responsible for it? The facts on global warming need to be known before concluding on the issue.
What is causing global warming? Scientists are saying that we are contributing a lot towards the changing climate. What are the impacts of global warming? Are humans to blame for global warming? All these questions, which need answering, contribute to the main aspect of this topical issue; are humans to blame for causing global warming? What is global warming? * Incoming radiation from the sun warms the earth up during the day. * Heat is lost by the earth via infra-red radiation that is going out during the night. * When it is cloudy, the temperature does not drop as low as when it is clear because the clouds trap some of the heat.
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Picture Above: The global carbon cycle. Numbers represent the mass of carbon, in gigatonnes of carbon (Gt C). (A gigatonne is a thousand million tonnes.) Source: Wheeling Jesuit University/NASA (2000) Currently each year, during the combustion of fossil fuels around 6.5 billion tonnes of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide are released into the atmosphere.
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More vegetation in the area would have meant the vegetation using the water would have decreased the amount of water in ground storage. Physical factors of the flood in 1998 are many; however, the most important one was the amount of rainfall. In October 1998 many areas received record amounts of rainfall caused by a 'hurricane'. This 'hurricane' brought very heavy rain and strong winds. The fact the rain was heavy means that the river did not have time to dissipate the water quick enough and the runoff was too fast, making the river rise t such an extent that it flooded.
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The Dunn's River Falls in Jamaica is the only known waterfall which forms the mouth of a river. Waterfalls form when there is a hard layer of rock covering a soft layer of rock. Water flows over hard rock. When it reaches the soft rock, the water starts to erode or wear away the soft rock. Over thousands of years, the soft rock is eroded and the river begins to cut down vertically into the rock. This makes a cliff over which the water can topple. Over time, the cliff becomes steeper and deeper and a waterfall is formed.
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The Amazon contains most of the biodiversity on earth, with 50% of the entire planet's land-based animal and plant species depending on the Amazon rainforest for their survival. There are more plant species in one hectare in the Amazon than the whole of Europe and over 200 species of trees can be found on one hectare of the Amazon.
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By 1850s, the Singapore River was extremely crowded with European and Chinese merchants. Its scene was first a true rural area with myrtle covered all around the place. Moreover, numerous skulls were founded littered the riverbanks together with unwanted cargoes of Bugis pirates dumped there as well. However, Today, the Singapore is considered a highlight attraction for visitors. There are plenty of places to eat all along the river, especially Boat Quay that stretches along the southwestern side where restored shops, godowns, and office buildings lie altogether.
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'Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest is a major global environmental issue, which only the Brazilian government can solve'
This source may not be accurate as it is outdated 4 years and things may have changed. However considering the methods in which land is being taken the source is very likely to be consistent with current goings on. The source is unlikely to be biased because it is written by 'Dorling Kindersley' who writes articles for the purpose of informing people. "The Carajas mine has been an important part in Brazil's rebirth. For a decade the buildings, cars and consumer goods of Western Europe and Japan have been largely created from Carajas iron ore." (BBC news 1997)
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Secondly, grass seed is sown. In time the soil becomes infertile so the farmers either move or expand their land destroying even more forest. This continues in a circular pattern; neither forest nor farmer benefit. Underneath the rainforest many minerals are found. Mining companies start to mine for these, but when these run out the companies abandon the mine leaving a large, ugly scar in the rainforest. Commercial use of the river also destroys the rainforest. To provide energy for all the mines and farms etc.
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Much of the pollutants contributing to global warming come directly from the exhaust fumes from cars. We all know that it is a little more comfortable to travel by car, but at what price? The hole in the ozone layer is not going to get smaller therefore it is not fair to leave all of our environmental problems to the generations to come. Simply because we may not be alive to experience any serious effects of global warming, it does not mean that our children, grand children and great grand children will not have to experience them.
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Coasts are dynamic interface between land and sea. For a stretch of coastline you have studied explain how coastal process interact with the land to produce a changing system.
Ice accumulated and its weight pressed down on that part of crust beneath it causing isostatic changes in sea level. These changes in sea level affected the shape of the coastline and the formation of landforms as the rates of erosion and deposition were altered. The effects the sea level changes have had is the emergence of coastal areas in the north like the Holderness coast with the coast being raised. Glaciations also had another impact on this stretch of coastline because during the last ice age the geology of the area was effected with glacial till being deposited.
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The overall distance that we walk was 2800 metres long. We took measurements of the different things such as the air temperature and the soil temperature, looking for the changes and patterns, which occurred during the walk. We are using the results to help us to understand in changes in Earth's environment at the different attitudes of the sites. Methodology We collected the results from 8 different sites, which are listed below: Start. Cat & Fiddle. 505m a.s.l. 1. Drainage Channel. 510m a.s.l. 2. Signpost. 520m a.s.l. 3. River Valley.
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Weeping willow trees gently caressed the water like a child experimenting with water, for the very first time. The riverbanks were alive with water voles who stuck their noses out as if to give the friendliest of greetings. One could imagine that any minute 'Ratty' or 'mole' would appear along with the illustrious 'Toad of toad hall'. There were reeds that give home to many other forms of wildlife such as dragonflies and kingfishers and below the surface of the fast flowing water lived many trout that could be seen darting in and out of weeds any time.
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The cause of the floods was mainly the great amount of rainfall which fell during the months around the time of flooding. In three weeks over 220 millimetres of rain fell. This is over one third of the total rainfall in Folkestone in one year. A lot of the rain fell on the Pennines, then the water flowed into the rivers near the foot of the mountain such as the River Nidd, the River Ure, the River Swale and the River Wharfe.
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Efforts at cultivation, which depends upon the successful stabilisation of the dunes (by protecting with pine plantation and marram), are comparatively recent. The little group of dry ditched fields at Wicks lane grew rye in the 1930s, but these and others have only commercially produced asparagus. Stormy periods, such as occurred in the 14th century, caused the dunes to move. Old town Formby got swamped about 1550 and as the sand moves away other long-buried sites are revealed.
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The permafrost mainly doesn't change; it just remains frozen all year around, except for the top 3m in sporadic permafrost, 1-1.5m in discontinuous permafrost and 0.5m in continuous permafrost. This active layer is the place where all periglacial activity occurs. Periglacial features are located in places of latitude between 61�N and 75�N, and places, which had previously been covered in a layer of permafrost such as southern England and the Northern part of Europe. In England there are a large number of examples of periglacial landforms.
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This ability to trap heat is a result of their molecular structure and shape. Environmental Effects Global warming is the eventual increase of global climates due to an inordinate amount of chloroflauocarbons (CFC's) in the earth's atmosphere. These CFC's lead to what is known as the green house effect, an occurrence that disables radiation from the sun to escape the atmosphere because of large presence of the gases carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and CFC's. Since this radiation can't escape, it stays within the atmosphere causing increased warmth-much as a greenhouse functions for a nursery.
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Critically access the scientific evidence for global warming and explain using selected examples how its impacts could produce problems and benefits for human activities and land uses.
These cause a balance and result in our current temperatures. The incoming rays pass easily through the atmosphere which is made up of mainly nitrogen and oxygen but some of the out going radiation is trapped by the remaining trace gases. These trap the heat as a greenhouse does hence they're named green house gases. These natural gases maintain the temperature if they did not exist then the earth would be over 33 degrees cool far to cold to maintain life.
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As well as global citizens, we have what is known as global institutions in society. These institutions come under two distinctive categories, governmental or non-governmental organisations (NGO's). One International governmental organisation is the United Nations (UN). The UN was set up after the second world to promote peaceful negotiations throughout the globe. However, the UN is often overruled by superpowers (countries such as the USA) making its global democracy questionable, and the organisation is criticised for being slow to act on anything due to a high level of bureaucracy.
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Global warming is generally considered to be to be occurring because as this energy is radiated back into space the increased thermal blanket of greenhouse gases traps it and temperatures increase globally. This thermal blanket is composed of water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 2001). It is also referred to as the 'greenhouse effect' as the thermal blanket acts as a form of greenhouse for the earth that absorbs radiation and is able to retain it as fig.
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Gasses in the atmosphere then absorb the radiation, or it passes through into space. Some gasses are more absorbent than others, just as some materials are opaque whilst others are transparent. In particular, gasses emitted naturally by volcanoes, largely COx, SOx, and NOx, are infrared absorbent but Hydrocarbons such as methane, a major constituent of 'farts', are major factors when talking about 'greenhouse emissions'. Clouds, formed when water vapour condenses in the right conditions, absorb and also reflect large amounts of this radiation.
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Despite his great sacrifice, the destruction continues. Every second, a part of the Rainforest, equivalent in size to a football pitch is being destroyed. We have learnt that the rainforest is not a renewable resource. It was facts such as these that got me more interested in this topic but I was still unsure why this was relevant to me. It soon became clear..... For our first practical, we were told to present a piece in the form of a television documentary based on the Rainforest.
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80% of this rain is recycled back up into the atmosphere. The rest of the rain is collected in the rivers and streams which flow back out to the sea. The soils of the rainforest are of a poor quality, this is due to all the leaching that takes place. The soil is very thick, about 20m (60feet). This is because it has been weathered for a long time, with all the heat and wetness. The roots in the trees are found close to the surface of the ground, this is where all of the nutrients are found, from falling leaves.
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