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GCSE: Physical Geography
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Some countries also deforest to stop emigration. Some effects of deforestation are the goodness out the soil e.g Humus and Litter being lost and the soil being poor for farming. Another effect is the damage being done to animals habitats and this causes the animal cycles to be damaged. Before Deforestation Before deforestation started to occur there was heavy rainfall, this caused Evapotranspiration, this put large amounts of water vapor in the atmosphere and then made condensation.
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Although not prominent on our coasts, this is a common feature on the East Coast of the United States. There are two classes of sea level movement, localized or eustatic. Localized sea level changes only affect a limited area of coastline and can be caused by tectonic movements or rapid influx (or removal) of sediment. Eustatic changes refer to the removal or addition of water to the entire global ocean system, thus lowering or raising sea levels worldwide. Eustatic changes are brought on by the removal and locking up of ocean water in glaciers, or by major plate tectonic movements causing changes in the volume of the ocean basins.
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This is an area where ash and lava from previous eruptions had weathered into a fertile soil, ideal for rice growing, also subsistence farming. In 1991 Mt Pinatubo began to show signs of erupting in early June. Fortunately, there were several advance-warnings signs which allowed time for the evacuation. On June 12th an explosion sent a cloud of steam and ash 30km into the atmosphere. 50cm of ash fell nearby, and over 10cm within a 600km radius. The eruptions were characteristically accompanied by earthquakes and torrential rain - except that he rain fell as thick mud when joined with he thick cloud of ash.
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This means no new material is added to the beaches and so they are eroded away by the sea. The fact that beaches are being eroded away by the sea should not be anything to worry about as it has been happening for thousands of years, and Britain is divided into cells, in which this sediment is usually contained and equally distributed. However due to coastal management these cells have been interrupted and the balance has been lost, the use of groynes to protect beaches from wave erosion has caused the trapping of sediment that is transported via longshore drift.
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There were numerous different types of plant life, dozens of towering trees casting shadows over each person who walks in their path. The lengthy wooden boardwalks people walk along, take you deep into the forests, deep into the mysterious unknown. The huge canvas leaves were like natural umbrella shades protecting everyone from the powerful scolding sun. It was astonishing One of the other striking places was the beach; Cape Tribulation is the one that sticks in mind. It is were the rainforest meets the Great Barrier Reef.
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Two rivers run into the reservoir - the Rio Araquaia and the Rio Tocantis- the dam has flooded a lot of the rainforest. The Tucururi dam was built between the years of 1976 and 1984 intending to power the project. The dam's construction caused the reservoir to cover over 2000km squared of rainforest and had many problems. Chemicals contaminated it and the rotting vegetation of the trees led to an increase of micro organisms which will extract oxygen out of the water and kill fish.
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Salinity. Salinity is when rain falls in flat or hot areas and the salt in the water cant escape to the sea.
This builds up over a long period of time. It can often happen in hot areas because when it rain the water does not get enough time to run off before it is evaporated. Then the salt is left in the sand again and it will build up over long periods of time. Once the trees have adapted to the salty environment then the salty ground relies on the trees too. The trees begin to absorb the salt with water. If the trees were to be removed then the salt would build up and just get out if control.
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Using an example that you have studied describe how the characteristics of a river change downstream. (9)
Therefore this causes a V shaped valley to form with two steep sides at either side. In addition, one would also find waterfalls in the upper course, this is caused by the two contrasting resistance?s of the rocks in the upper course of the River Tees?, whinstone is the hard rock which is found on top of sandstone and shale, which is the soft rock. This causes the formation of a high force water fall and actually the highest waterfall in the UK is found here at 21 meters high.
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The Indian plate was sub ducted by the Eurasian plate . Primary Effects 80,000 people died . The main cause of death was collapsing buildings . Hundreds of thousands were injured . Some villages were fully destroyed and thousands of buildings were destroyed . 30,000 square miles was destroyed . 75m fault line . Sewage and gas pipes burst . Secondary effects 80% of Uri was destroyed . People died from landslides and collapsed buildings . Water supplies , electricity and main roads were shut off . 3 million were made homeless .
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?Over the past there has never been any commercial mining in Antarctica, there are no current plans to mine Antarctica and mining is currently completely banned by the Antarctic Treaty. The Australian Antarctic Territory treaty wish to protect and ensure safety of their land from oil giants seeking out to extract energy from the polar regions. The treaty of Antarctica aim to help protect the flora and fauna of Antarctica. They have done so by making mining illegal. Mineral mining and nuclear waste disposal on Antarctica have been prohibited to support scientific support and protect the continent's eco zone.
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Also the wealth of people meant this tsunami was devastating. In India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand; 40% of their population is below the poverty line. This again meant lack of awareness and protection. Also they did not have money to recover or have insurance due to being poor. This meant lots of people were permanently homeless and this led to economic problems. Economic causes were that the governments were in debt already and the damage meant they could not recover quickly so it became a long term effect.
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Erosion is when the water, as it is flowing, it wears away the land. This is why you find V-shaped valleys. Transportation is another process that happens due to the water flowing fast. Transportation is when the river carries along with its current, materials such as mud and pebbles which have been eroded. At this point pot holes can be formed. A pot hole is formed by pebbles swirling around on the river bed. This action erodes the river bed therefore forming a hole. Over time, these pot holes can join with other pot holes till eventually the whole river bed is deepened.
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This is why droughts are a huge problem in Africa, for it is effected by both of the tropics. In 1998 there was a 5 month drought in Texas. This reached a climax in late July/early August. For 29 days the temperature was above 38 Degrees Celsius. This means that vegetation dies out and can cause flooding for, when it starts to rain, because the ground is so dry, the water does not soak in and it runs off the ground. Also a significant drought occurred from 2007 to 2008 in the UK where the warm, dry summers were followed by dry, cool winters.
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Sometimes it is fed by rain. Usefulness The river is of great use to us. It helps us in many ways. It flows through many places. It makes them fertile. Prosperous cities are all situated on the banks of rivers. Ancient civilizations flourished in some river valleys. It helps agriculture The river is of great help to farmers. In some countries, there are many rivers. Crops grow there in plenty. So famine is very rare there. Irrigation is possible easily where there is a river. Irrigation helps agriculture. It makes the country healthy The places by the side of a river are generally healthy.
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Corrosion (solution) - the dissolving of rock by chemical proces. Carbon dioxide dissolves in water to form a weak acid, which reacts with rock like limestone and chalk, breaking them down. Transportation Deposition: process of dropping ERODED material Occours when the river loses energy. When it slows down, it loses energy and drops some of its load. The speed and energy of a river can be reduced by: - Reduced rainfall causes lower discharge, which means the river slows down and has less energy. - increased evaporation or abstraction (removal of water by humans )also causes lower discharge - Friction, e.g.
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The year 1991 was the second warmest year of the past century. The consequences of the rise in temperature is being felt all over the globe the findings of scientific research done in this field reveal that the temperature of the earth is likely to rise from 1.4°C to 5.8°C within a period of 100 years. Unfortunately, the imbalance which we have created between our life and earth is already showing the signs disasters in the form of flood, cyclones, landslides, tsunami, drought, etc. If the imbalance continues to rise, one day this will pose a question mark on the existence of this planet.
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There are certain areas of the earth which are more prone to earthquakes than others. This is because, at certain places the earth's crust is weaker than at others, and so, with the movements of depths of the earth, vibrations are felt in the form of an earthquake. Once, I had the opportunity to see and understand the pangs and pains of the earthquake. This tremor was felt in Delhi when I was there last year, on a short holiday. It was a cold evening and all of the children were sitting in the bedroom of our apartment on the fourth floor.
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When the volcano bursts, lots of lava, gas etc come out of the earth and fail out. This causes pressure and imbalance and results in producing earthquake waves in the surrounding areas. It was thus identified that volcanic activity is one of the reasons for earthquakes. The volcanic activity results in faulting. To fill up the new faults the movement of earth takes place. This causes tremor. The second reason is isocratic adjustment. The surface of the earth has certain raised up blocks and certain depressed blocks. They keep the balance of the earth, when it moves revolving on units of axis.
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Its wind speed increased from 75mph, to 80mph, to 90mph, to 125mph in a few days time period. According to an article from NCDC ??Katrina reached maximum wind speeds on the morning of Sunday August 28th of over 170mph?? (?Hurricane Katrina? from NOAA) It was very powerful and went from a category 1 to category 5 storms in 4 days. Since hurricanes form in warm waters some scientists have another reason for Hurricane Katrina?s power. ?Some scientists claim that global warming is partially to blame for the power and endurance of Hurricane Katrina? due to the fact that it?s warming the oceans (?Causes and effects?? from For the People).
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There are about 500 known active volcanoes on Earth, not counting those that lie beneath the sea. A ?dormant? volcano is one that has not erupted for many years, although there is still some activity deep inside it. An ?extinct? volcano is one which has ceased to be active. A volcanic eruption occurs when hot rocks and lava burst from a volcano; and geysers and springs are actually just volcanoes that throw boiling water high in the air. They are caused by volcanic heat warming trapped ground water.
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Lower river flows and lake levels will result in pollution and higher water temperatures in summer leading to impacts on vulnerable species, therefore will impact vegetation too. However, there are access to shops, medical help, doctors and schools, internet access, transport and electricity. In the region of Lake District, the population density is very low which means it?s sparsely populated. This is because where there is less extreme environment the area is densely populated. Whereas, when there is more extreme environment, it?s sparsely populated because people would want to stay away from hazardous zones.
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Undersea volcanic eruptions can produce truly terrible tsunami waves. The Great Krakatau Volcanic Eruption of 1883 caused giant waves reaching heights of 125 feet above sea-level, killing thousands of people and wiping out numerous coastal villages. To form tsunamis, earthquakes must occur underneath or near the ocean, be large and create movements in the sea floor. All ocean regions of the world can experience tsunamis, but in the Pacific Ocean there is are much more frequent large, destructive tsunamis because of the many large earthquakes along the margins of the Pacific Ocean.
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How was Cheddar Gorge formed? Firstly, the cheddar gorge started as a tropical reef full of vibrant fishes. Slowly by time, the fishes decay away leaving the remains of fish bones and other fossils. Which then is compressed to form layers of the sediments, however the plate tectonics were on the move, which means that the colliding of the plate tectonics formed mountains (this took probably thousands of years to form). Furthermore, ice age formed on top of the mountains, when the warmer seasons came, the ice melted and passed in through the cracks.
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