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GCSE: Physical Geography

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  1. Hurricane Katrina

    The hurricane also seriously damaged the telephone connections which meant connection was lost. In the hurricane roads were badly damaged and it was hard to get aid into New Orleans because the vehicles could not drive on the roads. In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, looting, violence and other criminal activity became serious problems. The rescuing of civilians became the main objective and New Orleans?s security was decreased which caused a lot of criminal activity What and when?

    • Word count: 520
  2. Eyjafjallajkull - the Icelandic volcano eruption

    When the second fissure appeared, the road was closed again because of the danger of flash floods, which could have developed if the fissure had opened near big ice caps or other snow reservoirs, but the road was again opened at around noon on 1 April. (1,800 °F)

    • Word count: 531
  3. Case study of Bangladesh and Boscastle Floods.

    The natural channel had been walled so the river couldn?t adjust to the sudden increase in water 5. There had never been a major flood in this village so there were no flood prevention methods in place. 6. The torrential rain led to a 2 m (7 ft) rise in river levels in one hour. A 3 m (10 ft) wave, believed to have been triggered by water pooling behind debris caught under a bridge and then being suddenly released as the bridge collapsed, surged down the main road. Water speed was over 4 m/s (10 mph), more than enough to cause structural damage.

    • Word count: 2317
  4. Why did Haiti suffer more than Kobe as a result of an earthquake?

    Haiti?s strength is in its culture. In Haiti, the banks have proven to be the fasted growing industry. It has many weaknesses including its government, economical situation and infrastructure. The Haitian government is one of the biggest obstacles for economic growth. Over the past ten years, Haiti has experienced a decrease of success in its public office. After years of dictatorship and military rule, the Haitian people were relieved when Aristide's party won Haiti's first free elections. The relief turned into distress when the government proved to be more like a dictatorship. Haiti?s economy has been slowly dropping since the 1980?s, with Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

    • Word count: 540
  5. Two River Baisins - the Severn and the Amazon

    The climate along the River Severn is similar to the rest of Wales and England; very wet and temperate i.e. quite low temperatures in winter and quite high temperature in summer. The relief of the River Severn is quite varied along its course, with steep ?V? shaped valleys in the upper course and more gentle slopes in the middle and lower sections.

    • Word count: 480
  6. Reort on the Colorado River

    In the upper course, it initially flows south towards Mexico and is joined by many other streams and rivers before Colorado River, southwestern USA it enters the state of Utah. Here, the river starts to widen and meander which the Colorado is famous for doing. Meanders are a series of bends in a river which are formed when the moving water in a river erodes the outer banks and widens its valley trying to find the quickest route. This results in a snaking pattern and when a meander is cut of it forms an ox-bow lake.

    • Word count: 938
  7. Earthquakes and Volcanoes

    The continental crust which carries land 2. The oceanic crust which carries water. Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are caused by movements within the Earth. The crust is not all in one piece but is divided into alot of sections called plates. Underneath the plates there is the mantle. The plates float on the mantle and move about very slowly. The place where plates meat is called a plate boundary.

    • Word count: 520
  8. How has the flora and fauna of the rainforest adapted to their environment?

    Flora refers to the plant life living in a region. In rainforests, the variation of the flora is extremely extensive, with about half of the earth?s plant species again living within them. In fact, the rainforest is sometimes called the ?Lungs of the Earth? because it is estimated that its plants recycle about 20% of Carbon Dioxide into Oxygen. Adaptation is the process in evolution by which a population becomes better suited to its habitat. This process generally takes place gradually over generations. In all habitats, animals have adapted to their habitats to aid their competition for survival.

    • Word count: 1233
  9. Why did Harry Truman die in the Mt St. Helens eruption?

    Fig 1. A Map of the Cascades mountain range that shows the volcanoes and mountain ranges. Fig 2. A Picture of the Cascades mountain range that shows some of the volcanoes located there. Mount St Helens. Mount St Helens is a type of strato-volcano most commonly known as a composite volcano. Composite volcanoes are volcanoes that have steep sides and are made up of alternate layers of ash and lava from previous eruption. Composite volcanoes do not erupt frequently as opposed to shield volcanoes however when they do erupt, they release Pyroclastic flow and Lahars. This is because the Composite volcanoes are mainly found on the plate margin of a destructive plate boundary.

    • Word count: 1176
  10. How sustainable is the current management of the coastline at Barton-on-sea, Hampshire?

    Also the resident?s houses are not at immediate risk of collapse as there are defences to protect the cliff, e.g. rip rap and revetments. For tourists the beach is safe and available as an amenity; footpaths leading there are also protected. This could be beneficial for locals also. The economic advantages of this scheme are numerous as the people and land will be protected, e.g. farmers, although not many, will not loose land to the sea.

    • Word count: 560
  11. Describing an Ideal Island

    Today, high temperature is 88°F and the low is 75°F. There is a 30 percent chance of rain. The main river in Island is Large River and it is an important for importing and exporting goods and is also vital for travel throughout the country. The mountains in Island are ancient, dormant volcanoes. The plains of the desert were created by the rain shadow from the mountains. The source of water for the rivers is from the Big Bay. The Big Bay gets its water from the Strait which is fed by the Pacific Ocean.

    • Word count: 1148
  12. Tectonic Hazards and the Haiti Earthquake

    The spot underground where the rock breaks is called the focus of the earthquake. The place right above the focus (on top of the ground) is called the epicentre of the earthquake. Haiti Earthquake: What? A 7.0 magnitude earthquake When? 12th January 2010 at 16.53 local time (21.53 GMT). Where? The earthquake occurred 18.457°N, 72.533°W. The focus of the earthquake was 13km (8.1 miles)

    • Word count: 477
  13. How Does California Prepare For Earthquakes?

    This is why California has to prepare for the high magnitude earthquake. All residents in California have or at least should have, an emergency evacuation plan so they know exactly what to do immediately after an earthquake, a First Aid kit it assist in case someone is injured, a stored supply of water where every person in a household can consume a gallon of water per day for three days, and finally, a fire extinguisher if a fire was to take place because of broken gas lines.

    • Word count: 558
  14. Plate tectonics

    The Himalayas were born when the Indian subcontinent smashed into Asia 45 million years ago. The Himalayas are still rising today as the two plates continue to collide. The Appalachian Mountains and Alps also formed in this way. Plates Subduct When an ocean plate collides with another ocean plate or with a plate carrying continents, one plate will bend and slide under the other. This process is called subduction. A deep ocean trench forms at this subduction boundary. As the subducting plate plunges deep into the mantle, it gets so hot it melts the surrounding rock.

    • Word count: 674
  15. green house

    As the earth is much cooler than the sun, it does not emit energy as visible light. It emits through infrared or thermal radiation. However, certain gases in the atmosphere form a sort of blanket around the earth and absorb some of this energy emitted back into the atmosphere. Without this blanket effect, the earth would be around 30 o C colder than it normally is. These gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, along with water vapour, comprise less than one per cent of the atmosphere. They are called ?greenhouse gases? as the working principle is same as that which occurs in a greenhouse.

    • Word count: 602
  16. Water Borne Diseases

    Symptoms including painless diarrhoea and vomiting of clear fluid would start after 1 to 5 days after ingestion of the bacteria. If the disease is untreated, 10 to 20 L of diarrhea may be produced a day, which may lead to a serious problem of dehydration and may even cause death. The symptoms of dehydration include low blood pressure, wrinkled hands, sunken eyes and a rapid pulse. Cholera can be treated by oral rehydration therapy, electrolytes and antibiotics. It is also useful to continue to breastfeed a baby with diarrhoea and adults and older children should continue to eat frequently.

    • Word count: 759
  17. The Boscastle Flood

    A third river also runs through the village. All three of these rivers burst their banks on this day. Boscastle is a very popular tourist area and has residential and local services earning income for the local community every day. The village had never been flooded before but events such as the Lynmouth flood occurred further up the Cornish coast.

    • Word count: 302
  18. Tornado Diary

    I remembered my book; peeped inside to the thunder page and look at the part ?What causes makes a thunder storm? it said lighting, tornadoes I flipped the page to the tornado part and opened the diagram, Formation of Tornadoes it said the hot heat coming from the sun is downdraft, the moist air must be updraft, the downdraft mixed with the updraft must of caused a thunder cloud that is called a super cell.

    • Word count: 512
  19. Coastal Erosion and Protection.

    For example, the geology the happisburgh coast is very weak, as it includes sandstone layered onto clay. As sandstone is permeable, rainfall infiltrates it, adding weight to the cliff and lubricating it. A slip lane is created. Soon after the sandstone moves and collapses of the clay and ultimately crumbles the cliff. However, other factors cause erosion. Prevailing winds are also a vital asset on natures behalf as they control the direction of the waves, which are needed to erode a shoreline. Happisburgh's prevailing winds are being blown from the Antarctic, which are harsh, fierce winds which therefore ensures the wave type to be destructive.

    • Word count: 663
  20. Research into the River Po

    More than 16 million people (nearly a third of all Italians) live in the Val Padana, and is some of the most heavily cultivated land in Europe. The maximum width of the river Po is 200/400 meters after Mantova. The maximum depth of the river Po is 120 metres. The most important cities across the River Po are: Torino, Piacenza, Cremona, Ferrara. The Po river provides water for civil, industrial and agricultural usage.

    • Word count: 495
  21. With reference to a flood event you have studied assess to what extent it was the result of intense rainfall rather than physical characteristics of the drainage basin or human factors

    After the flood had ceased in late 2007 the damage was clear – a startling £400 million. It was obvious the clean-up could take months, even years due to the severity of the flooding. In regard to the causes it is important to distinguish whether the flooding was the result of intense rainfall rather than physical characteristics of the drainage basin or human factors. Human factors involved human interaction for example the construction of man-made dams. Physical factors could refer to the geology of an area, for example the im/permeable nature of rocks within an area. In the case of the flooding of the river Eden, rainfall was extremely high – between a 24 hours period in January, rainwater exceeded the normal precipitation of 2 months.

    • Word count: 751
  22. Geography Beach Investigation methodology

    This processed data will be used to calculate the wave energy. Beach profile: Place a measuring tape vertically along the beach. Two students of similar height are required for this. One of them should stand at the top end of the tape while the other is at the bottom end (should be where the water and sand meet). Here, the bottom student will use a clinometer. With the clinometer, aim the sight towards the eyes of the upper student and release the trigger.

    • Word count: 635
  23. Comparing Climate in three Parts of the United Kingdom

    In the North West of England, the highest temperatures occur in the Isle of Man, Merseyside (Liverpool) and Lancashire and the lowest in the Lake District and the Pennines. Temperatures have shown a daily variation seasonally. January is the coldest month of the year with Liverpool witnessing 2 degrees. This is because Liverpool has a low altitude and if Liverpool was on high ground it would witness below freezing temperatures like the Pennines and the Lake District. Minimum temperatures occur over sunrise in Liverpool. July is seen as the warmest month with daily temperatures as 21 degrees and highest temperatures occur two to three hours after mid-day.

    • Word count: 739
  24. I agree to a large extent with the statement Urbanisation within a drainage basin can affect flows to and within a river channel.

    The cutting down of vegetation will reduce interception by vegetation. This in turn reduces leaf drip, stem flow and infiltration. With less interception, water reaches the ground quickly and there would be less infiltration as water would run off over the surface as overland flow. In addition, the replacement of earth with manmade materials such as cement and tarmac etc will result in an increase in the Hortonian overland flow (HOF). In contrast, there would be a decrease in the amount and rate of infiltration. With less water being infiltrated into the soil, there would be a drop in the amount of saturated overland flow (SOF)

    • Word count: 1019

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