Canada The Capital city of Canada is Ottawa in the province of Ontario.
Canada The Capital city of Canada is Ottawa in the province of Ontario. Canada has 27,367 millions Inhabitants and is the 2nd largest country with more than 9,9 million km². Seven percent of the world's area and nine percent of the world's fresh water provision belong to Canada. Canada has ten provinces and three territories. The national symbol is the maple leaf which has been connected with Canada since the 18th century. The leaf is regarded as the most important national symbol of Canada since 1965. Since then Canada has also got its own flag. On 1st July 1980 the hymn "O Canada" became the Canadian national anthem. Geographical nature The Canadian landscapeis marked by its great variety. Plains with fertile farm land can be found as well as huge mountain ranges, lakes and rivers. * The huge mountain ranges in the eastern areas are the Torgat Mountains, the Appalachians and the Laurentians. In the west there are the Rocky Mountains and the Mackenzie Mountains. The Pelly Mountains and Mount St. Elias are situated in the north. The highest mountain is Mount Logan in the Yukon - territory. * There are a lot of big lakes in Canada. The biggest is the Great Bear Lake. It covers 31.326 km². * Canada's longest river is the Mackenzie River in the Northwest - territories. Other big rivers are the St. Lawrence River, the Churchill River and the Nelson River. * Canada's
1.1 What are mangroves? 1.2 What are the factors that determine area, diversity and growth of mangroves?
.1 What are mangroves? .2 What are the factors that determine area, diversity and growth of mangroves? The health of the mangrove wetlands with reference to hydrological and soil conditions, and the wealth of the mangrove wetlands in terms of area, species diversity, biomass and productivity are determined by Degree of protection against high-waves Quantity and duration of freshwater flow and sediment supply Larger tidal amplitude and Gently sloping coastal topography. Young mangrove plants of settle and grow only in coastal areas where wave energy is low or in places where the mangrove wetlands are protected by a sand barrier against high-waves. The coastline of the Muthupet region of the then combined Thanjavur District and that of Sunderbans in West Bengal are the best examples of low wave energy coasts where mangroves grow luxuriantly. In the Pichavaram mangrove wetland of Cuddalore District, wave energy along the coast is high but a sandy beach, located between the mangroves and the sea, protects the mangroves. Most of the mangrove plants require low salinity condition for their growth and reproduction. Hence, luxuriant mangrove forests can be seen only in the estuarine regions where a large amount of fresh water is discharged for long periods of time in a year. For example, the Sunderbans mangrove forest of West Bengal, which receives fresh water from
Global Warming and the Polar bear
Global Warming and the Polar bear It was realized that in 1988 that mankind was transforming the atmosphere of our planet (Pearce, 1). Global Warming is a big concern to scientists aside from pollution and is certainly under way. According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Earth's surface temperature has risen by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated warming during the past two decades. Global warming has risen within the last 50 years because of the result of humans activities. These activities have distorted the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the buildup of greenhouse gases - primarily carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide (EPA, The Climate). What is the cause of global warming and if it serious what is being done to end it. What will be the effects on earth if global warming continues, and last but not least what is occurring around us at this very moment from global warming? Many of these questions are being asked by scientist and are being researched to find more plausible answers and predictions for us. Global warming is found to be caused by the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect has been described, by the US Vice President Al Gore, as the potentially most dangerous environmental problem facing mankind, with consequences second only to nuclear war (CS, What is the Greenhouse Effect?). The Green house effect
Coasts are dynamic interface between land and sea. For a stretch of coastline you have studied explain how coastal process interact with the land to produce a changing system.
Coasts are dynamic interface between land and sea. For a stretch of coastline you have studied explain how coastal process interact with the land to produce a changing system. Coastal environments rarely stay in equilibrium because of the processes interacting with them; a stretch of coastline that is a dynamic system is the Holderness coast. One of the causes of this changing system is related to sea level changes. During glaciations large volumes of water were stored on the land as ice this meant that there was a eustatic fall in sea level. Ice accumulated and its weight pressed down on that part of crust beneath it causing isostatic changes in sea level. These changes in sea level affected the shape of the coastline and the formation of landforms as the rates of erosion and deposition were altered. The effects the sea level changes have had is the emergence of coastal areas in the north like the Holderness coast with the coast being raised. Glaciations also had another impact on this stretch of coastline because during the last ice age the geology of the area was effected with glacial till being deposited. This changing in the geology has caused many changes to the coastal environment. Glacial till is easily eroded which has caused headlands to form, as there are also bands of harder chalk which means there is a discordant coastline, for example at Flamborough head. The
Mississippi Flood 1993: Case Study
Mississippi Flood 1993: Case Study Background information : Within the USA 8% of the surface area is at risk of flooding and 35 million people live on flood plains which means that one sixth of floodplains in the USA are now urbanised however this has its problem every year between 47.6 and 89 people die due to flooding. This means that obviously the US government spends a considerable amount of money on flood defences $9000 is spent on flood control every year and $300 is spent on forecasting alone. This brings me to my case study on the Mississippi floodplain; it is the fifth largest in the world and is 3,211,000 km2 in area. The river alone drains over 585 million tones of sediment per year. The Mississippi lies just above the Mississippi river delta in the gulf on Mexico and has many meanders; now like many floodplains it also has a large "corridor" of development down the bottom of the valley when urbanisation has occurred. Before this urbanisation had occurred the floodplains mainly consisted of fertile silt, which was deposited by heavy times of flooding. Bellow is a diagram of he exact location of the Mississippi: Cause of the flood in 1993: Like many floods this flood was caused by large amounts of precipitation over a long period of time, in June and July of 1993 much of the area experienced over 150% of normal rainfall and parts of North Dakota, Kansas and
GCSE Geography Coursework: Strand 5 - Evaluation of Data
This is the Evaluation section of the coursework folder on the geographical investigation conducted around the River Calder, Garstang; based on the following hypothesis - 'Does the River Calder fit the Bradshaw Model.' The Bradshaw model is in figure 1. * #1- approximately 4km from source. Grid reference 548 487. * #2- approximately 5.2km from source. On Grid reference 539 482. * #3 - On Calder Vale; approximately 8.3km from source. Grid Reference 533 482. * #4 - Sandholme Mill; approximately 11.4km from source, grid reference 517 434. * #5- Catterall playing fields; approximately 14.3km form source, grid reference 494 433. These are the factors which were measured and are going to be evaluated: * Channel Width * Channel Depth * Water velocity * Discharge * Gradient * Average bed-load size * Bed load roundness. Refer to the 'Methodology' section of the coursework folder for information about the methods used to measure each of these attributes. (1) Channel Width: Why the method used was good: - The only skill required is a tight grip on the tape; - Method is pretty straightforward to follow. Bad points on the method used: - Precision in result was very important. Sometimes we struggled to maintain the grip on the tape tight due to the flow of the water; therefore it was time consuming constantly readjusting the tape, - It was hard for some in our
Is global warming human induced or is it a natural phenomenon?
Is global warming human induced or is it a natural phenomenon? The term Global Warming refers to the observation that the atmosphere near the Earth's surface is warming. In recent times there has been a surge in the awareness about global warming. The causes of global warming are the subject of extensive research around the world and scientists have come up with a significant amount of evidence showing that the earth's temperature is rising at a constant rate. In last century alone the temperature has increased by more than 1°C. This warming has been particularly strong during the last 20 years and has brought along retreating glaciers, thinning arctic ice, rising sea levels, lengthening of growing seasons, and earlier arrival of migratory birds. The issue of global warming concerns us all and the effects of global warming can have are far too much risk to be ignored.1 Even though a lot of evidence points towards the fact that global warming is taking place, a considerable number of people still dismiss this idea. The question of whether global warming is actually taking place is another issue which comes up and I will not go into the details of this question. In this essay I will simply assume that global warming is taking place. Firstly, because all the research points towards that way and secondly, there is general view to believe it global warming is taking place. In
How does the global system affect climates?
Carl Trett 30th January 2004 How does the global system affect climates? The global pattern of climate is affected by: * latitude * land and sea * relief * ocean currents Latitude The Equator receives greater amounts of solar heating than latitudes further north or south. Places therefore nearer the Equator are much warmer than those closer to the Poles. Nearer the Poles precipitation will be more variable with lower temperatures. More will fall as snow, covering the ground for long periods in winter. The amount of solar energy received by each hemisphere varies because of the tilt of the Earth and its orbit around the sun. This gives summer and winter seasons. Places nearer the Poles have greater differences between summer and winter in temperature and precipitation. At the Equator air, warmed from below, becomes less dense and is forced to rise as strong convection currents, creating low pressure at the surface (ITCZ). Convectional currents of warm, moist air cool to give heavy, daily thunderstorms Strong, steady winds converge to fill the low pressure from the north and south, but the spinning of the Earth diverts the winds slightly to the right in the northern hemisphere and they become the north-east Trade Winds. In the southern hemisphere winds are diverted to the left, producing the south-west
GCSE Coursework -Plate Tectonics
A volcanic crater is a conspicuous landform and feature of many volcanoes, especially those currently or recently active. It is typically a basin of a roughly circular form within which occurs a vent (or vents) from which magma erupts as gases, lava, and ejecta. A crater can be of large dimensions, and sometimes of great depth. During certain types of climactic eruptions, the volcano's magma chamber may empty enough for an area above it to subside, forming what may appear to be a crater but is actually known as a caldera. In the majority of typical volcanoes, the crater is situated atop the mountain formed from the erupted volcanic deposits such as lava flows and tephra. Volcanoes that terminate in such a summit crater are usually of a conical form. Other volcanic craters may be found on the flanks of volcanoes, and these are commonly referred to as flank craters. Some volcanic craters may fill either fully or partially with rain and/or melted snow, forming a crater lake. Some volcanoes, such as maars, consist of a crater alone, with scarcely any mountain at all. These volcanic explosion craters are formed when magma rises through water-saturated rocks and causes a phreatic eruption. Volcanic craters from phreatic eruptions often occur on plains away from other obvious volcanoes. A lahar is a type of mudflow composed of pyroclastic material and water that flows down from a
My Tourist Resort
My Tourist Resort On the map of Paradise Island, I have chosen Site A (296,723) to be the location of My Tourist Resort. There are several reasons why it's a good place to have a tourist resort, but certainly also quite a few reasons why it may not be a good place to have a tourist resort. Some of the positives of this location: * It is by some means the central town of the island, in view of the fact that that it has road connections with both of the two other towns. This means that tourists visiting the resort will have an easier way of getting around the island, town by town. * It is right next to the sea, which means that if the resort happens to be positioned by the shore, visitors will not only have great view, but also the effort needed of them, if they want to enjoy some time by the beach (snorkeling, sun-bathing, etc.) is significantly smaller. * The Town hall lies within the town of the site. This might be a fine place to go for information about the island. It might as well be a historic place, where tourists can go if they're curious about the history of the island. * The castle, which lies not so far from the site, might be another great historic spot, for interested visitors. * The tourists of the resort will see some great stuff if they choose to drive north along the main road, including the remains of a Roman villain, the quarry and the Big Hill, and if