The Quality of the Urban Environment in Makati Degrades With Distance from the Central Business District

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“The Quality of the Urban Environment in Makati Degrades With Distance from the Central Business District”

British School Manila

By Steven Limandibrata

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Data Presentation / Analysis –




The Quality of the Urban Environment in Makati Degrades With Distance from the Central Business District”

We asked this question because it’s part of our GCSE course to investigate settlement trends in Developing countries. Our aim is to conclude if the Sao Paulo model (see diagram 1) fits our case study, therefore concluding both LEDC cities have the similar settlement patterns.

Diagram 1

Description of the location

Our sites are all based within Makati City a district of Metro Manila, Philippines (see map 1). Metro Manila is a very large city ranking in the top 25 biggest cities in the world. Makati city is the main CBD. Historically Intramuros was the CBD owing to its location; when the Spanish was trading with the Philippines, they used the port regularly a place where trade was very abundant. However, after world war two that whole area was destroyed by bombs from the Japanese army, the amount of dead discouraged any further business. Another reason the CBD moved location is the amount of land space. As Intramuros was the central hub for business land prices were high, new businesses were forced to open farther away to a more suitable site.


        ______500 Miles


Site selection:

  • sites were all accessible
  • along a transect from the CBD to the slums. The chosen transect was along EDSA a main transport artery going from the CBD into the slum area.
  • Four sites were equi-distance apart as far as safety would allow (parts of Metro Manila are dangerous to the public).
  • Glorietta is a mall, which provides many services: cinemas, restaurants, shops, department stores, retail outlets etc. Around Glorietta, there are many office buildings, headquarters of transnational and local companies. This is very similar to the structure of the CBD. At site, one I expect to find a high pedestrian count, as the CBD is the central hub for jobs.
  • Urdaneta and Bel-Air are high-class villages for residential housing. I expect to find a low housing density as most houses have gardens and are of a substantial size. In the two sites, I expect the sound levels to be very low; villages tend to be quiet places, the houses are gates. Furthermore, the point of paying a high price for land is for the quiet and peaceful environment.
  • At Guadalupe, I expect to find a low environmental quality. Site four is where the lower classes of society reside. Therefore, I expect to find a high housing density, as most houses will be small and cramped. As the houses will be small and are built on land, which have not been paid for I believe there will be a large amount of rubbish.


Hypothesis- To be able to answer my aim I created several hypothesis

-The number of public vehicles will increase with distance from the CBD

In the CBD most public transport will have restrictions to ease congestion of the traffic. As you get farther away from the CBD, public vehicles have more freedom. As most workers at the CBD live in the considerable distance away, they will use public transport as they leave their jobs. Therefore, increasing public transport vehicles with distance from the CBD.

-The number of private vehicles will not change with distance from the CBD

Throughout the City private vehicles are normality. People use private cars to get to and from work mostly used by both upper and middle class citizens. Therefore with everyone using private cars the amount should not change with distance from the CBD.  

-The sound levels will decrease with distance from the CBD                                                

Villages tend to be quiet places. Villages in the Philippines have restrictions on who are allowed to enter- only residents and workers. Public roads has very little restrictions therefore, any type of vehicles are allowed to use the roads. Also along public roads, there are vendors and traffic attendants, which contribute to the sound levels. Another attribute is along public places building owners can easily upgrade or remodel their building leading to noisy construction.  

-The housing will density decrease with distance from the CBD

A number of businesses located in the CBD as well as the number of malls. Within high land value areas, apartments are very common as they take up little land space- consistent with the theory land prices is more expensive nearer to the CBD. Therefore, with distance more people have gardens

 -The number of older pedestrians will increase with distance from the CBD.

Elderly people tend to avoid dirty places. In the CBD where the environment has a high quality and there are many stores where products are available is more appealing to the elderly. In the CBD, there are many malls, which provide appealing services: department stores, restaurants, stores, cinemas etc. Comparing to the slums where most members of society would avoid being around because of such reasons as the environmental quality is low, there is a high crime rate, nothing appealing- there are no offered services, high amount of trash etc.

-The amount of pedestrians will decrease with distance from the CBD

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The CBD is the central hub of people. In the CBD, there are malls which provides services appealing to the public e.g. cinemas, restaurants, department stores, shops, etc. Therefore, most people would be drawn to the CBD meaning we would expect to see the most people in the CBD. As you move away from the CBD the services offered are limited, therefore there would be no need for pedestrians to visit those places.

-The amount of litter will increase with distance from the CBD    

Transnational companies have their headquarters in the CBD. The ...

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