Using an example that you have studied describe how the characteristics of a river change downstream. (9)

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In this question I will be looking at the River Tees located firstly in the North Pennines at its source travelling through east to its mouth where it meets the North Sea.

Firstly, in the upper course many features are apparent. Here is the source and one would find hard impermeable rocks that can’t be transported by the little amount of water that is found here. Hence for this reason the main type of erosion is vertical erosion, downwards. Therefore this causes a V shaped valley to form with two steep sides at either side. In addition, one would also find waterfalls in the upper course, this is caused by the two contrasting resistance’s of the rocks in the upper course of the River Tees’, whinstone is the hard rock which is found on top of sandstone and shale, which is the soft rock. This causes the formation of a high force water fall and actually the highest waterfall in the UK is found here at 21 meters high.

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Moving on to the middle course of the River Tees, here there is one main feature of meanders and this feature can result in numerous others. The meanders are tight bends in the river as a result of the lateral erosion to either sides due to the energy of the water now increasing. This tight bend in the river causes two areas of different speeds: the inner portion of the meander’s bend will have a slower (it is still rather fast) current; compared to the outside of the bend having a faster current due to the effect of centrifugal ...

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