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Using an example that you have studied describe how the characteristics of a river change downstream. (9)

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´╗┐In this question I will be looking at the River Tees located firstly in the North Pennines at its source travelling through east to its mouth where it meets the North Sea. Firstly, in the upper course many features are apparent. Here is the source and one would find hard impermeable rocks that can?t be transported by the little amount of water that is found here. Hence for this reason the main type of erosion is vertical erosion, downwards. Therefore this causes a V shaped valley to form with two steep sides at either side. ...read more.


Moving on to the middle course of the River Tees, here there is one main feature of meanders and this feature can result in numerous others. The meanders are tight bends in the river as a result of the lateral erosion to either sides due to the energy of the water now increasing. This tight bend in the river causes two areas of different speeds: the inner portion of the meander?s bend will have a slower (it is still rather fast) current; compared to the outside of the bend having a faster current due to the effect of centrifugal force. ...read more.


Finally to the lower course of the river. Here the meanders are much larger in the River Tees and the meanders are getting closer together leading to the formation of oxbow lakes: a good example of this would be near Yarm (found along the River Tees). Also, in the lower course the estuary of the river is found where the river is at its widest and deepest here the sediment is found in viscous form due to the increase rate of deposition here. Furthermore, one will find levees here where the river has flooded and naturally develops an alluvium. Finally, along side the estuary mudbanks and sandbanks can be found which at the River Tees support a variety of wildlife and these sites such as Seal Sands are protected areas. ...read more.

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