Analysis of One Individual's Health and Wellbeing
Health and Social Care Unit 3 Coursework
Positive factors in her life…………………………………….........……………………….9
What this plan will achieve………....................……………………………………………9
Main health needs (PIES) ……………………..……………………………………………10
Health and well-being is the condition of a person’s body and mind and also having a good health and with happiness and feeling comfort. “Health” comes from an old English word meaning wholeness, and the term includes physical, intellectual, emotional and social wellbeing. Health and wellbeing and should mean that a person feels positively well and not just free of illness or disease. Positive mental health and wellbeing is essential for good health.
Definition of health and well-being:
Health: Health is the balance between your physical, mental and social well-beings: the condition of a person’s body or mind.
Well-Being: state of being well, happy and prosperous; health or happiness. A context and situation dependant state, comprising basic material for a good life; freedom and choice, health and bodily well-being, good social relations, security, peace of mind, and spiritual experience. Well-being also refers to a person’s sense of positive feeling about their life situation and health, both physical and mental.
There are 3 ways of describing health: Positive, Negative and Holistic Definition of health and well-being
Negative Definition: “The absence of physical illness, disease and mental distress.” Many people think about health only when they are thinking about illness or health problems. This means that they might give a negative definition of health, such as “not being ill” or “being free of pain.” This is also the medical definition of health.
Positive definition: “the achievement and maintenance of physical fitness and mental stability.” Some people may think more positively of health as fitness and well-being. They may associate health with moods and feelings, and a sense of balance.
Holistic Definition: Health and well-being are result of a combination of physical, social, intellectual and emotional factors.” 1) Health and Social care for GCSE
World Health Organization's (WHO's) definition of "health":
"Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity." 2) Christian Nordqvist. (2011)
My own view towards health and well-being:
Health and well-being is when a person is mentally happy and physically fit. To be healthy and well-being you need to have a balanced diet, do enough exercise and have supportive family and friend who care for you and love you.
- What is your name? Francine Marie Dixon
- How old are you? 23
- What gender are you? Female
- Do you have a family? Yes
- If yes, do you live with any and who? Yes, I live with my son
- Do you keep in touch with your family other than those you live with? No
- A) If yes, how often? n/a
b) If no why don’t you keep in touch? Because of family problems that were caused when I ran away with my boyfriend, away from my family
- What is your marital status? Single
- Why are you at this state? Because me and my boyfriend didn’t get along very well, so we decided to not live together
- Do you have a pet? No
- If yes, what is it and how long have you had it for? n/a
- Do you have friends? Yes
- Are they really supportive? Yes, they help me in all difficulties.
- What is your education? A few GCSEs excluding maths and English which makes it hard for me to look for another job.
- What job do you have? Waitress
- How many hours do you work per week? 49 hours
- Do you enjoy your work? Sometimes
- Is your work stressful? Yes, especially when there are lots of customers at once.
- Do you get along very well with your colleagues? Yes
- How much do you get paid at your work? It is dependant on how well the business is going, but its mostly around £400
- Do you think it is a reasonable amount, which is sufficient? It depends, because sometimes, when the café is running low, then my wages go down, which makes everything such as renting and my son’s needs very hard.
- Do you have financial problems at the moment? Yes, sometimes I find it really hard to pay ma rent for the flat.
- Do you know what IQ means? Yes, it means intelligence quotient
- If yes, do you know your IQ? No
- How often do you read a book? Never
- What do you think health is? (Express in your own words) I think that health is being happy and having no signs of illness or disease. It’s also being fit.
- Do you consider yourself as healthy (please explain why)? No, because I don’t exercise regularly and I am always stressed with my work and son.
- According to you, what does wellbeing mean? Wellbeing means being happy.
- Do you have a good wellbeing (please explain why)? No, because I am mostly stressed and also I don’t have contact with my family, which makes my life sad.
- Do you have any health problems? (E.g. Asthma, diabetes, cancer) Yes
- If so, what problem? Asthma
- Is it an inherited problem? Yes, it runs through the family.
- How often do you go to the doctor for this cause? I go at least once every 3 weeks.
- What is your height? 5 foot 4 inches/ 1.65 metres
- What is your weight? 11.81 stones/165.35lbs/ 75kg
- Do you know your BMI? Yes
- If yes, what category is it in? 28.4, which puts me in the over-weight section
- How often do you check your blood pressure? At least once a month
- Do you know your blood pressure at the moment?
- What do you think a balanced diet is? I personally think that a balanced diet is eating all the food recommended in the right amount.
- Do you think you have a balanced diet (please explain why)? No, because I do not eat enough fruit and vegetables, and also I mostly eat junk food.
- If yes/ no what do you eat most of the time? Junk food.
- What does 5-a -day mean to you? 5-a-day means having 5 proportions of fruit and vegetables.
- Do you eat your 5-a-day/ how many portion of fruit and vegetables do you have each day? No
- Do you exercise? Sometimes
- If yes, how often do you exercise and what type of exercise do you do? Twice a week, I clean the house, and sometimes when I miss the bus I have to walk to my workplace.
- Do you enjoy exercising? No, I find it tiring.
- On average, how long do you spend exercising per week? 20 minutes
- Do you sleep well? Not really
- On average, how well do you sleep? Around 5 hours
- Do you smoke? Yes
- If yes, how many cigarettes do you take per day? At least 7 a day
- Do you drink? Yes
- If yes, how many pints of alcohol do you drink? At least 7 pints a day
- On average how much do you spend each week on smoking and drinking?
- Where do you live? In a flat in Croydon
- Is it a good environment? Yes. Personally I think it is alright
My client is going to be about a single parent called Francine.
Francine is 23 years old who lives with her one child Jaymin who is five years old. After her GCSEs, she had a part time job at a café which now is her fulltime job. Francine has no support from her parents or her husband; she lives in flat of one bedroom with her child John, and the area she lives in is a good environment which is makes it suitable for Jaymin and Francine herself.
Her weight is 75kg and her height is 1.65m which places her BMI in the overweight category. She also has asthma, and it was inherited from her mother.
Her hobbies are watching TV, talking to her friends on the phone, going out to the pub with them, spending time with her son Jaymin, going shopping, reading books, cooking and cleaning the house. When she has a spare time she takes her son to the park and plays with him. However, it is very rare; she and Jaymin spend most of their time at home.
When she goes to work, she drops Jaymin of to school, and picks him back up on time. However, when she is late, she tells her neighbour to pick him up, as she is a good friend of her. She leaves her son there because she trusts her next door neighbour, and she knows that since the neighbour has kids at the same age, they will be playing, and at the same time there will always be an adult at that house. For that reason, she doesn’t have to worry too much Jaymin if she has to stay back for more work, but she calls at least every 1 hour time to make sure that everything is alright.
Francine has made many friends over her life, and she still interacts very well with them, but the only problem is that she doesn’t have any contact with her family, as they are always against anything she does. This is due to a few family problems that occurred a few years ago, when Francine decided to leave her family to live with her boyfriend without her family’s permission. Somehow, now she doesn’t live with him for some other problems. Even after she broke up with her boyfriend, her family still don’t accept her, so therefore she doesn’t get support from them. She has a younger sister, who is now attending a good university, but Francine doesn’t have proper contact with her either.
Francine tries to concentrate just about her life and her child Jaymin, who is the whole life for her; but whenever she thinks about the past she gets upset. To try to forget this she drinks alcohol and whenever she gets really depressed, she drinks a lot.
Francine is a smoker as she got influenced by one of her friends in her teenage hood and is now addicted to it herself; she smokes about a whole packet of cigarette per day. Sometimes she gets so tempted that she uses the money she saves up to buy cigarettes and alcoholic drinks.
Smoking and drinking alcohol can affect Francine’s health in many ways; it can cause some serious problem to her health. She really should stop smoking and drinking if she wants to be healthy. It will also save her a lot of money, as spends s lot of money on drinks and cigarettes, but she says that she doesn’t think that smoking can affect her health badly.
Francine also eats a lot of junk food, such as: chips, burger, pizza, crisps, fizzy drinks, chocolate, sweets etc. She even goes to McDonalds regularly to have her lunch there. However, she does know that eating too much junk food is bad for her health, but she just can’t help it and she says she gets tempted a lot.
Francine doesn’t do any type of exercise, the most she does is cleaning the house. She could walk to her work, but she is too lazy to do so. She doesn’t own a car due to financial problems, but she takes the bus wherever she goes, even if it’s a shop nearby, as she can’t be bothered, even though if she did walk, it will be very good for her health.
At night time she doesn’t sleep well as her son Jaymin always wakes her up in the night. This makes it hard for her to work and she gets tired during the day. She works from 9a.m to 5p.m from Monday to Friday, and Sunday she gets a day off. Sometimes at work there are too many costumers, which make her stressful. On the other hand, most of the time, there aren’t any costumers, which makes her unoccupied. However, she really likes her job, as she meets a lot of new people there.
She does go regular health check up for herself as she has asthma, and Jaymin, as she really cares for his health. She buses the health monitoring to its full extent. She goes to a lot screening tests to make sure that she is healthy. Another positive factor in her life is the fact that she has lots of supportive friends who help her in all difficulties. This ensures that she isn’t at risk from social isolation. Since she lives with Jaymin, she makes sure that she is hygienic, so that her personal hygiene doesn’t affect Jaymin.
This is a preview of the whole essay
To maintain a healthy lifestyle, Francine needs to have a balanced diet, and she needs to exercise often. She also has to stop the habit of drinking and smoking. She should also rest, sleep etc….
My coursework is based on Francine’s health and wellbeing. By this, Francine will know and will get and understanding of her health risks and what is concerned to improve her health, and actions she has to take, such as, stop smoking, stop drinking, exercising which gain a much better results as possible to reduce any disease and to be healthy. I will look at all the aspects of individual’s life by using the PIES system and as a result, I will help my client live an improved and healthier lifestyle.
Positive Factors in her life:
Even though she has many problems and things that she faces in her life she has had things that affected her life positively. These are:
- She has many friends who support her through all her difficulties.
- She has her son whom she cares for, and spends time with him.
- She has a job which sometimes pays off all her bills and other things.
- She has enough money to spend on herself and her child.
- She is averagely educated, and she has good skills at some subjects.
What this plan will achieve:
During this plan, the main purpose is to make Francine feel healthier and fitter than before and improving her lifestyle and health and well-being.
I will encourage Francine Physically to:
- Cut down on the smoking and help as much as possible to try to stop it.
- Drink rarely i.e. parties only, and not over drink so that she doesn’t get any damages to her livers.
- Eat the right amount of food and healthy food to have a good balanced diet.
- Do enough exercise so that she will be fit and therefore she should join a gym or leisure centre and do a lot of sport. In this way she could also get the right BMI.
I will encourage Francine Intellectually to:
- Understand why it is important to have a healthy life.
- Get an opportunity to of getting nearly tutorial college leaflet so that she can read them and make further decision on her studies as well as her future.
- Go to the library and read different types of books.
- Find out more on the internet about healthy foods, exercising and the bad affects of smoking and drinking.
I will encourage Francine Emotionally to:
- Get her ideal weight so that she can increase her self confidence and self esteem levels.
- Calm down and relax by having relaxing baths or aromatherapy treatments.
- Listen to nice relaxing music or do something relaxing that will relax her mind and stop smoking.
- Go yoga classes so that she can improve her stress levels and calm down.
I will encourage Francine Socially to:
- Join clubs and leisure centres so that she can meet new people.
- Spend time with her son, Jaymin and her friends.
- Try to get with her family so that she will get more close to her family and try to get contact with her sister too.
- To have a really good supportive relationship with everyone around her.
Main health Needs (PIES):
There are 4 main healthy needs:
- Physical Needs
- Intellectual needs
- Emotional needs
- Social needs
Intellectual needs: being able to exercise the mind by having opportunities to learn, face challenges and deal with problems.
Physical needs: food, water, warmth, breathable air, protection from injuries and diseases and sleep.
The basic health needs
Social needs: companionship, group membership, membership of a family.
Emotional needs: being valued, feeling of self-worth, respect, emotional support and guidance.
This is also known as PIES.
What is PIES?
PIES stand for physical, intellectual, emotional and social health. The when thinking about a person’s health, you should link it with Physical, Intellectual, Emotional and Social aspects. So to improve my client’s health, I would have to link it with PIES so that I could try to improve her lifestyle.
Physical Factor: Physical health is the overall condition of a living organism at a given time, the soundness of the body, freedom from disease or abnormality, and the condition of optimal well-being. People want to function as designed, but environmental forces can attack the body or the person may have genetic malfunctions. The main concern in health is preventing injury and healing damage caused by injuries and biological attacks. 3) Ron Kurtus
All human beings need food, water, air to breathe, therefore we all need to get protected from the weather and get warm or cool when necessary. We also need to do regular exercise to be fit, this is also needed for the body functions and is probably the easiest aspect to see and measure. Human physical needs must be met to stay alive.
Physical need is all about the needs we have, to always keep human bodies working to the best of its abilities. Even though all human is unique, there are always certain physical needs that all humans have. These include the water we drink, the food we eat, the place we live, the temperature and weather surrounded us, the clothes we wear to get protected from the weather how hygienic we are, how much rest we get, the time spent on exercise and how fit we are. This is what we call Physical needs.
My client Francine doesn’t have a good Physical health. Her BMI is in the over weight category.
Intellectual Factor: Typically people think of intellectual health as academic knowledge, but in fact, it also entails creativity, general knowledge, and common sense. Our thoughts are influenced by each of these factors, which in turn influence our decisions. It’s not only our IQ that matters when it comes to decision making, often times our general knowledge and common sense are more important.
As with all other dimensions of health, intellectual health also requires a balance. Maintaining proper nutritional habits and exercising are essential components to our energy levels and willingness to develop into healthy individuals. We hold the key to the limits of our own development. Allowing ourselves to interact with people of various backgrounds introduces us to other viewpoints and expands our creative thought processes. Exposure to diverse experiences also allows for an open-mind. 4) N/A
All humans learn new, practical things in everyday life which we should apply for our knowledge. We usually learn intellectually by reading books, games. Listening to the radio and watching television (i.e. watching or listening to the news or other educational documentaries or programmes) and there are lots of other ways of getting intellectual needs. Intellectually, we get ability to use information and other knowledge for our own use and use effectively for personal, family and career development.
These needs are also needed for humans to keep our brain working and to develop our brains. Always keeping our minds active helps us get to know what’s around us as well as what’s going on around the world which is really helpful for our mental health.
Our mental health includes mental stimulation, education and employment, if we don’t have enough of this need, we might not only get bored but this will also affect our health. This is what we call Intellectual Needs.
Emotional Factor: Emotional health is concerned with the ability to recognise emotional such as joy, fear, grief, frustration and anger, and to express such emotions appropriately. Emotional health includes the ability to cope with anxiety, stress and depression.
All humans need to feel safe. This is needed for our senses and for other personal needs. We need to feel that people around us cares for us and thinks about us sometimes. Emotional need is the ability of recognising other people’s feelings and expressing our own feelings. This also includes emotions as joy and happiness, anger sad anxiousness, nervous and fear. One of our really important health need is our emotional need health which is all about coping through anxiety, depression, and stress.
Humans actually need emotional need for different for different kinds of things to make us feel happy, relaxed, and other things such as being loved, secured and obviously respected. Emotional need is all about keeping ours and other people’s feelings balanced.
Usually some girls don’t feel confident with their feelings and think no one cares for them and that their feeling does not even count. Sometimes humans have really painful feelings which obviously can be painful. If an emotion is strong, you will know that something in your life needs attention. The main point is to know when and where something needs attention. This is what we call Emotional Needs.
Most of us like to spend time with our friends and have a good chat which is actually important for our social health and well being. This is needed to have the ability and to maintain a good relationship with everyone around us.
Social needs are all about the relationship between us and other people. Everyone likes to be family and stay with their friends and express their feelings to other people. You can also include Emotional Needs in this. You can share your feelings like sadness, happiness and anger with other people.
Social need also includes people making new relationship with others. It also includes how strong our relationship/friendship is to others. This sometimes includes the opportunities to mix with others.
Social needs are those that enable us to build and enjoy good relationships and friendships. These include opportunities to mix with others and an appropriate environment. This is what we call Social Needs.
Different needs also have different importance:
- Food, water and shelter-basic human physical needs-are essential to stay alive
- The next most important is shelter.
- Having achieved the first two needs, a person is in need of emotional and social support.
- Only when all theses needs have been met is it realistic to consider need to self-esteem and finally personal fulfilment.
Francine’s Physical needs:
One physical need for Francine is that she needs a healthy balanced diet. At the moment her diet isn’t good therefore she needs a healthy balanced diet. Francine doesn’t do enough exercise and to be physically healthy she will need to do lot of exercise to keep her fit, she can do this in many ways, such as jogging every morning or join leisure centre or gym. She should especially stop smoking and drinking alcohol to be physically fit and finally should have the right amount of rest to be physically healthy. She has asthma, which affects her health, but that cannot be cured as it is a respiratory disorder characterized by wheezing; usually of allergic origin.
Francine’s Intellectual needs:
Francine isn’t qualified or anything as she stopped going college halfway through after marrying her boyfriend (Jaymin’s father). Even though her job wasn’t something she wanted to do in future, Francine is used to her job, and therefore she has to enjoy her job until she gets a better job, if she can. She could also go tutorial college after Jaymin goes to full time primary school, so that she can get further qualification which can make a big change in her and improve her lifestyle in many ways. Francine could also read books which could be an extra hobby which will also relax her mind as she will be spending time concentrating on her books. She always says that smoking doesn’t affect her health which is NOT true, therefore I will make sure that she will get an understanding of the affects of smoking so she could read leaflets and do research about it.
Francine’s Emotional needs:
As Francine doesn’t have any support from her parents and husband, all her friends treat her really well and give Francine a lot of support, care and respect so that she will feel loved and will be less stressed and depressed when she thinks about her family. She also feels secure emotionally about her home and environment as it is really important for the emotional needs.
Francine’s Social needs:
Francine has an excellent relationship with all her friends, even though she doesn’t have a good relationship with her family. She tries her best to have contact with her family which isn’t quite working, as her avoiding her but she will keep on try to have contact with her parents, at least grand-parents for her child Jaymin, so that he will not feel alone as she feels sometimes. She should also get contact with her sister which will be nice as she could spend time with her too. In addition, Francine meets a lot of people at her job, as she loves meeting new people and her job gives her great opportunity for it. Therefore Francine has a lot of social needs in her life.
There is also another health need called Maslow’s Hierarchy needs.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs-what is it?
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Need is a theory psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation, which he subsequently extended. His theory contends that as human meet “basic needs”, they seek to satisfy successively “higher needs” that occupy a set hierarchy.
This diagram shows Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more primitive needs at the bottom.
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is often depicted as a pyramid consisting of 5 levels: the four lower levels are grouped, together as deficiency needs associated with physiological needs, while the top level is termed growth needs associated with psychological needs. While deficiency needs must be met, growth needs are continuously shaping behaviour. The basic concept is that higher needs in this hierarchy only come into focus once all the needs that are lower down on the pyramid are mainly or entirely satisfied. Growth forces create upward movement in the hierarchy, whereas regressive forces push proponents needs further down the hierarchy.
Factors which positively influence the Health and Well-being of Francine
Health and well-being can be affected positively and negatively. These can be affected by a variety of factors.
Factors that contribute positively to health and well-being:
- Balance diet
- Regular exercise
- Supportive relationship
- Simulating, work, education and leisure
- Adequate financial resources
- Use of health monitoring and illness prevention services
- Rest/ sleep
- Avoiding hazards and staying safe
A balanced diet will make us eat different kind of food which contains a lot of nutrients. Eating a lot of different nutrients is part of well-being which is part of a good health. A good health is called and optimum health. Optimum health is when you have less illness and more energy to be provided for physical activities. Eating a balanced diet will also help you loose weight in a good way. At the same time, you would loose a lot of saturated fat, cholesterol, and refined sugar which keep people fit.
Each individual needs different types of foods each day. It usually depends their age, size, whether they are a male sex or female sex. It also depends on how active they are, like some people need more energy than others, (this can depend on the work they do).
People that don’t do enough exercise will need to cut down food with high energy content, and if you are eating a balanced diet:
- It will be matched to you needs (i.e. if you live in a hotter climate you will need lighter foods than if you would of lived in a really cold climate.) if you have a heavy work such as building builders, will need more food than someone who works in an office as they mostly just and do their work.
- Your will get the right BLI, you weight should be correct for you height.
- You have less probability of getting health problems such as diabetes as you will be eating the right amount of food, healthier and nutritional food.
Good physical health
Less risk of diseases
Get plenty of energy to be active
A Good Balanced diet
Why do we need to eat well?
For different kind of reasons, we all need to eat well. We need to eat well to supply energy, if you eat well, your body will continuously keep your heartbeat beating, keep you breathe a let you stomach digest. When you eat the right amount of food, it gives you the right amount of energy. Energy is needed for your body to grow, repair all your cell tissues and to keep control of your muscles movement. All these energy comes from the food and drinks you have everyday. We measure energy in Kilocalories (Kcal).
What is healthy eating?
Healthy eating is about the right amount and balance of foods. Eating the right balance of foods from the main food groups is the base of day-to-day wellbeing.
There are seven main food groups:
- Carbohydrates: these are fuel for your body. Active and growing people need a lot of carbohydrates.
- Protein: proteins are vital for growth and repair of damaged areas or cells.
- Fats: this acts as a store of energy, which you use if your body runs out of carbohydrates.
- Fibre (roughage): these gives your digestive system an internal work out keeping fit, healthy and working.
- Minerals: these are needed to have healthy bones/teeth, blood and nerves
- Vitamins: these are only needed in small amount; they keep many vital processes happening.
- Water: about 75% of your body is water and all chemical reactions (i.e. digestive system), take place in water. Therefore drinking water is really important as if you don’t drink enough it end up in dehydration.
You have to eat a balanced diet. You shouldn’t eat too much of one type of nutrient and not have a balanced diet. If you eat healthy foods, you have less chance of getting illnesses such as diabetes and obesity.
Good and healthy foods are good for your own health
Francine’s diet is not suitable to be healthy as she needs to eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables, this will have affect her positively as it reduces the chances of disease later in life. She needs to have the 7 type of nutrition in her diet to be fit and healthy but Francine eats too much of fatty food and forgets about eating healthy foods.
The good thing is that Francine always eats breakfast before going work or anywhere, she always prepares food for Jaymin. Eating breakfast is as important as eating lunch and dinner; breakfast gives you gives you the energy that you need for the whole day.
Exercise is really common, some people do it for health benefits and some people do it for fun. As people exercise more often, they get better at it. It is really important that everyone does exercise at least once a day. When you do exercise regularly, you will feel good and anyone that did exercise regularly and stopped for a short while, will obviously loose the habit of doing the exercise easily and quickly.
Doing exercise is really good for two objections which are mental health and physical health. However, you should never do too much of it, keep it balanced. If anyone does exercise, they should have a balanced physical activity, otherwise you will get really tired of it, and it is important to not do too much exercise.
Not doing physical activities or not doing enough physical activity means, you will easily get into illness or disease. So if you don’t do exercise or don’t do enough exercise which is physical healthy you will easily get diseases such as strokes, coronary heart disease, obesity which is being overweight and osteoporosis which is having brittle bones.
Exercise improves stamina, strength and supplement but it depends on how more often you do it and how regularly you do it. If you do exercise all at once, your body will be in shock, and your muscle will be jolted. However, if you do it gradually in the beginning then regularly your body will become habituated because of the increased pressure. As you exercise, your limbs will become ore flexible and your lung and heart will increase their capacities.
By doing exercise Francine will:
Keep her heart healthy
Improve her circulation
Reduces blood pressure
Help muscles, joint and bones to remain strong and help to feel more energetic
Increase self esteem and self-confidence
Helps to control and maintain weight
Helps the body to stay supple and mobile
Francine doesn’t do any type of exercise at all, she can walk to go to work and to shops but she is too lazy that she takes the bus to everywhere, if she walks to places nearby she could also save the money that she uses on the bus journey and it will also give her good exercise, as walking is also a good useful type of exercise also she lives in a flat on the third floor, she could also try to walk up and down the stairs instead of using the lift. She should also join a sports club, leisure centre or gym which is really useful, therefore she should join a club and go and exercise at least once or twice a week. Joining a leisure centre or gym also have other benefits as: social needs as she will meet a lot of new people and make friends, and exercising will also get her BMI to the right level.
Lot of people have strong relationship which are really important to them. These includes our family and close friends. Sometimes when people are with their families or friends, they feel loved or cared. Sometimes when we have quarrels with our friends or family we start to feel uncomfortable and think no one cares for us and we feel unloved.
Supportive relationship is used for some support and other things such as an experience of well-being, for our social needs and emotional needs to back them up with strong relations.
At young age, or even a bit older, a lot of people try to gain friends. Some of them try to look for people at their age. Some people try to get friends who are suitable for them. However, all of them try to get the friends who are rally understandable. They all get close and become close friends. This is needed and is really useful for social and emotional need.
If a child has no friends they will feel miserable, alone and obviously left and this can affect their mental health in many ways.
At adulthood and older ages, people need partnership and strong relationship mostly with children, friends, partner, and other family members for self-esteem and emotional needs. If you have these relationships you wont feel really lonely, isolated and sometimes even depressed.
A different type of relationship exists between people, such as students and teachers, bosses and staff or doctors with patients in these relationships, there is a less relaxed way of speaking and behaving then with close friends or family. These relationships are called formal relationships.
To get on well in society, we need to have both types of relationships. Examples of Formal and Informal relationship are:
Boss & Staff
Teacher & Student
Francine has some supportive relationship such as friends, but not family as she said before, but she knows well how important is having supportive relationship and is sometimes worried about Jaymin, as he doesn’t know his grandparents or any other relatives, that why she is trying to get a contact with her family and she says that she is confident that her parents will soon accept her and will love her to bits.
Francine has formal and informal relationships:
Formal relationship: her boss at her workplace, GP
Informal relationship: her friends and Jaymin
Stimulating work, education and leisure activities:
Taking part in stimulating work, learning and some leisure activities is really good for physical health and mental health. It also gives you less stress and makes you relaxed and especially it makes you feel really good. Physical exercises includes going for a walk, going for a jog and doing some sports and lots more things. Less physical activities includes watching television, reading magazines/books etc, talking to friends, listening to music and lots more. Leisure means different kinds of things for each people, it depends on what they like and dislike. It is also [art of health and well-being.
Doing some activities makes all your stress low. These activities include doing some sports, stretching your muscles (doing some exercise), meeting some friends, reading, watching T.V., listening to music and others.
Sometimes people won’t be able to do all different sports. There are many reasons for this. Sometimes, because of cultural reasons, some girls/ women aren’t allowed to do different kinds of sports such as swimming. There are lots of other reasons like not fortunate enough to pay for the fees for themselves. However, they can still other sports such as jogging, walking, stretching etc. These are still classed as leisure activities.
A number of people have hobbies such as playing sports which includes learning new skills. Quite a few people’s hobbies are also learning new things such as playing any instrument. A few peoples’ hobbies are to create or make things which are usually intellectual skills to develop them in.
Young children will become adolescents and as they become teenagers, they become more independence then they did when they were younger. This makes them
How the health plan is going to help my Client Francine:
In the health plan I am going to measure 2 physical measures. I have chosen BMI and peak flow. The reason that I chose BMI is because she is overweight and the reason that I chose peak flow is because she has asthma.
I am also going to make a health plan, after taking the results into consideration. I am going to give her 2 targets that will help her improve her fitness enormously.
What Is Asthma?
Asthma is a chronic (long-term) lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways. Asthma causes recurring periods of wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe), chest tightness, shortness of breath, and . The coughing often occurs at night or early in the morning.
Asthma affects people of all ages, but it most often starts during childhood. In the United States, more than 22 million people are known to have asthma. Nearly 6 million of these people are children.
The are tubes that carry air into and out of your lungs. People who have asthma have inflamed airways. This makes the airways swollen and very sensitive. They tend to react strongly to certain inhaled substances.
When the airways react, the muscles around them tighten. This narrows the airways, causing less air to flow into the lungs. The swelling also can worsen, making the airways even narrower. Cells in the airways may make more mucus than normal. Mucus is a sticky, thick liquid that can further narrow your airways.
This chain reaction can result in asthma symptoms. Symptoms can happen each time the airways are inflamed.
Figure A shows the location of the lungs and airways in the body. Figure B shows a cross-section of a normal airway. Figure C shows a cross-section of an airway during asthma symptoms.
Sometimes, asthma symptoms are mild and go away on their own or after minimal treatment with an asthma medicine. Other times, symptoms continue to get worse.
When symptoms get more intense and/or more symptoms occur, you're having an asthma attack. Asthma attacks also are called flare-ups or exacerbations. It's important to treat symptoms when you first notice them. This will help prevent the symptoms from worsening and causing a severe asthma attack. Severe asthma attacks may require emergency care, and they can be fatal.
Asthma can't be cured. Even when you feel fine, you still have the disease and it can flare up at any time.
However, with today's knowledge and treatments, most people who have asthma are able to manage the disease. They have few, if any, symptoms. They can live normal, active lives and sleep through the night without interruption from asthma.
You can take an active role in managing your asthma. For successful, thorough, and ongoing treatment, build strong partnerships with your doctor and other health care providers. This is the disease that Francine has as she has inherited from her dad. She hasn’t had any major asthma attacks for a long time, but she should still keep her asthma pump with her all the time.
Features of Francine’s lifestyle which has affected her health and well-being:
She smokes and drinks, this could be due to her job as well, as most of the time she has to serve drinks at her café.
How smoking and drinking affect her health:
Smoking: Harmful Effects of Smoking
Smoking isn't good for one's body. It’s especially bad if you've been smoking a pack a day and/or for a long period of time. But what is the full extent of the effects of smoking on your body?
The effects of smoking vary from person to person as it will depend on the person's vulnerability to the chemical in cigarette or tobacco smoke. It will also depend on the number of cigarette sticks a person smokes per day, the age when the person first started to smoke, and the number of years the person has been smoking.
According to recent studies, every year hundreds of thousands of people all over the globe die from medical complications caused by smoking. Aside from the stench it leaves on one's clothes, breath, and hair, it also has other complications. Here are some of the different effects of smoking:
Immediate effects upon smoking a cigarette stick:
- Raises a person's blood pressure and heart rate.
- Decreases a person's blood flow to body extremities like the fingers and toes.
- The brain and the nervous system is stimulated for a short time and then reduced.
- Watery eyes.
- Weakened sense of taste and smell.
- Loss of appetite.
- Shortness of breath.
- Chronic coughing.
- Reduced overall fitness.
- Yellowish stain on the smoker's fingers and teeth.
- Smokers experience more coughs and colds as compared to non-smokers.
- Difficulty recovering from minor illnesses.
- Impotence for men, infertility for women.
- Facial wrinkles appear at an early age, making them look older than non-smokers of the same age.
Because they experience these different side effects, they have a higher risk of developing diseases like:
- respiratory tract infections (like pneumonia and chronic bronchitis)
- emphysema (collapse of the small airways in the lungs)
- heart attack and other coronary diseases
- different kinds of cancers (lungs, throat, mouth, bladder, kidney, pancreas, cervix, and stomach)
- stomach ulcers
- peripheral vascular disease due to a decreased blood flow to the legs
Once a person becomes addicted to cigarettes, they may find themselves experiencing different withdrawal symptoms when they decide to stop. These withdrawal symptoms include:
- increased nervousness and tension
- loss of concentration
- change in sleep patterns
- strong cravings
For pregnant women, it is important to know that the growing child in their womb may suffer if they continue smoking. The effects of smoking to a growing fetus include: low birth weight, premature birth, or stillbirth. Even those who do not smoke are at risk of incurring diseases. Second hand smoke may cause lung cancer or heart problems to those who passively inhale smoke exhaled by smokers.
Smoking may make a person look cool or macho, but you should consider more than just how it would make you look, but people should keep in mind that it has so many bad effects.
- Tobacco smoke also contributes to a number of cancers.
- The mixture of nicotine and carbon monoxide in each cigarette you smoke temporarily increases your heart rate and blood pressure, straining your heart and blood vessels.
This can cause heart attacks and stroke. It slows your blood flow, cutting off oxygen to your feet and hands. Some smokers end up having their limbs
- Tar coats your lungs like soot in a chimney and causes cancer. A 20-a-day smoker breathes in up to a full cup (210 g) of tar in a year.
- Changing to low-tar cigarettes does not help because smokers usually take deeper puffs and hold the smoke in for longer, dragging the tar deeper into their lungs.
- Carbon monoxide robs your muscles, brain and body tissue of oxygen, making your whole body and especially your heart work harder. Over time, your airways swell up and let less air into your lungs.
- Smoking causes disease and is a slow way to die. The strain of smoking effects on the body often causes years of suffering. Emphysema is an illness that slowly rots your lungs. People with emphysema often get bronchitis again and again, and suffer lung and heart failure.
- Lung cancer from smoking is caused by the tar in tobacco smoke. Men who smoke are ten times more likely to die from lung cancer than non-smokers.
- Heart disease and strokes are also more common among smokers than non-smokers.
- Smoking causes fat deposits to narrow and block blood vessels which leads to heart attack.
- Smoking causes around one in five deaths from heart disease.
- In younger people, three out of four deaths from heart disease are due to smoking.
- Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of low birth weight, prematurity, spontaneous abortion, and perinatal mortality in humans, which has been referred to as the fetal tobacco syndrome.
Drinking: From the second you take your first sip, alcohol starts affecting your body and mind. After one or two drinks you may start feeling more sociable, but drink too much and basic human functions, such as walking and talking become much harder. You might also start saying things you don’t mean and behaving out of character. Some of alcohol’s effects disappear overnight – while others can stay with you a lot longer, or indeed become permanent.
Diseases and cancers
Experts estimate alcohol is responsible for at least 33,000 deaths in the UK each year. While rates of liver disease are falling in the rest of Europe, they are rising in the UK. A 2006 Lancet study found that liver cirrhosis death rates are already around twice as high in Scotland as they are in other European countries.
Liver disease used to affect mainly drinkers in middle age, but now sufferers are getting younger. Up to one in three adults in the UK drinks enough alcohol to be at risk of developing alcohol-related liver disease.
Alcohol misuse is an important factor in a number of cancers, including liver cancer and mouth cancer, both of which are on the increase. Alcohol is second only to smoking as a risk factor for oral and digestive tract cancers.
Evidence suggests that this is because alcohol breaks down into a substance called acetaldehyde, which can bind to proteins in the mouth. This can trigger an inflammatory response from the body – in the most severe cases, cancerous cells can develop.
Chronic pancreatitis is another disease associated with heavy drinking. It’s caused when your pancreas becomes inflamed and cells become damaged. Diabetes is a common side effect of chronic pancreatitis. There’s evidence that heavy drinking can reduce the body’s sensitivity to insulin, which can trigger type 2 diabetes.
While studies suggesting that alcohol can help heart disease often hit the headlines, the reality is that the jury’s still out on the extent of any benefits. And it is clear that any benefits which there may be are limited to very low levels of consumption – probably no more than 1 unit alcohol per day.
Alcohol alters the brain’s chemistry and increases the risk of depression. It is often associated with a range of mental health problems A recent British survey found that people suffering from anxiety or depression were twice as likely to be heavy or problem drinkers.
Extreme levels of drinking (defined as more than 30 units per day for several weeks) can occasionally cause ‘psychosis’, a severe mental illness where hallucinations and delusions of persecution develop. Psychotic symptoms can also occur when very heavy drinkers suddenly stop drinking and develop a condition known as ‘delirium tremens’.
Heavy drinking often leads to work and family problems, which in turn can lead to isolation and depression. For heavy drinkers who drink daily and become dependent on alcohol, there can be withdrawal symptoms (nervousness, tremors, palpitations) which resemble severe anxiety, and may even cause phobias, such as a fear of going out.
If you’re trying to watch your waistline, drinking too much alcohol can be disastrous! Research from the Department of Health reveals that a man drinking five pints a week consumes the same number of calories as someone getting through 221 doughnuts a year.
Drinking too much alcohol isn’t great news for your skin either. As well as causing bloating and dark circles under your eyes, alcohol dries out your skin and can lead to wrinkles and premature aging. If you drink heavily you may develop acne rosacea, a skin disorder that starts with a tendency to blush and flush easily and can progress to facial disfiguration, a condition known as rhinophyma.
Two physical measures of Francine’s health:
BMI (Body Mass Index):
What Is BMI?
BMI (body mass index) is a screening tool used to measure weight relative to height. While BMI does not measure body fat directly, it has been shown to correlate to , such as underwater weighing, and is considered an accurate alternative for body fat measurement. With a simple formula, you can calculate your own BMI.
How Is BMI Calculated?
To calculate your BMI, you will need to divide your weight in pounds by your height in inches squared and multiply that by 703. The formula is:
What Does the BMI Number Mean?
Your BMI will place you in one of the following categories:
- Those with a BMI below 18.5 are considered underweight.
- Those with a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 are considered normal weight.
- Those with a BMI between 25.0 and 29.9 are considered
- Those with a BMI of 30.0 and above are considered .
In addition to BMI, those who have a of more than 40 inches for men, or 35 inches for women, have a higher risk for obesity-related health problems such as , , and .
Peak Flow: it is used to check your lung functions
Peak flow meter is a device that measures how well the lungs are working. A person blows into it and the peak flow meter measures how much air the lungs pushed out. If someone with asthma can't blow out as much air as usual, this may mean he or she is going to have an asthma flare-up.
Using a peak flow meter is simple. Set it to zero. Then stand up, take a deep breath and then blow as quickly and strongly into it as you can. It's kind of like blowing into a balloon. The meter has numbers on it — kind of like a ruler. When you blow into the meter, a little marker slides up the meter to show how much air you were able to get out. An adult can help you by writing down the number the marker points to. This is your "peak flow." To get a good reading, you'll need to do this three times.
Depending on what your peak flow reading is, you'll know if you're breathing fine, if you're going to have an asthma flare-up, or if you need to get help right away. The numbers on the meter are in different color zones. The zones are green, yellow, and red, just like a traffic signal.
The color zones are a way of letting you know how you're doing. For instance, a reading in the green zone means you're breathing is OK. Readings in the yellow and red zones require action, so talk with your doctor about how to handle readings in those color zones.
Not all kids with asthma need to use a peak flow meter every day. Your doctor will tell you when you need to use one. But if you take asthma medicine every day, you may need to use your peak flow meter once or twice a day. These readings also can help your doctor figure out if your medicine is working the way it should.
It's important to use your peak flow meter as often as your doctor asks you to and to talk about the numbers at your appointments. By collecting this information and sharing it with your doctor, you're helping him or her provide the best treatment for you. Remember, you and your doctor are on the same team — the one that wants you to breathe easier!
What is a peak flow meter?
A peak flow meter is a small device that you blow into. It measures the fastest rate of air (airflow) that you can blow out of your lungs. It records airflow in litres per minute (l/min). Your doctor may prescribe a peak flow meter for you if you have asthma. There are different brands of peak flow meter. They all do the same job.
How do I take a peak flow reading?
Your doctor or nurse will show you how to take a peak flow reading. It is important to do this correctly, otherwise the readings can be misleading. Briefly, you must put the marker to zero, take a deep breath, seal your lips around the mouthpiece, then blow as hard and as fast as you can into the device. Note the reading.
Each time you check your 'peak flow', you should do three blows, one after the other. The 'best of the three' is the reading to record. However, when you do three blows straight after each other, the readings should all be about the same. If they are not, then you may not be blowing into the device correctly. A common error is to not to blow as hard as you can. Another common error is to not to put your lips right round the mouthpiece to make sure that all the air you blow out goes through the device.
What is a normal peak flow reading?
Normal peak flow readings vary, depending on your age, size, and sex. The range of normal peak flow readings is published on a chart, and doctors and nurses refer to the chart when they check your peak flow reading.
Normally, in healthy people, peak flow readings vary slightly from time to time. The reading is often slightly higher in the evening compared with the morning.
How can a peak flow meter help with asthma?
To help diagnose asthma
If you have untreated asthma:
- Your peak flow readings will usually be low. No matter how strong you are, if your airways are narrowed, your peak flow will be lower than expected for your age, size, and sex.
- Your peak flow readings will tend to vary quite a lot. Typically, the readings are lower in the morning compared with the evening. This difference is much greater in people with untreated asthma than the normal small variation seen in most people.
Sometimes a doctor or nurse will give you a chart (like the one below), and ask you to keep a record of your peak flow readings for a week or so. You will normally be asked to take a 'best of three' peak flow reading each morning and evening.
Sometimes a peak flow reading is done 'before and after' you take a dose of treatment to open up your airways. If the treatment causes a large improvement in your reading, this too is typical of asthma.
To monitor treatment
Regular peak flow readings can be used to help assess how well treatment is working. Peak flow readings improve if narrowed airways open up with treatment.
Below is an example of a two-week diary of peak flow readings done by a child who has quite bad asthma.
Result for BMI: OVERWEIGHT / 27.55
Result for Peak Flow meter:
Two Physical Needs that I am going to focus on the plan:
- Help her loose weight
- Reduce the amount she smokes
If she looses weight there is a chance of her to gain more self-confidence. This will help her boost confidence in what she wears etc. and she will be more comfortable and she will also be happy to be who she is.
Reducing the amount she smokes will help her in many ways. She will keep her lungs and heart healthy. It will decrease the risk of getting diseases such as cancer, emphysema and bronchitis.
Emphysema: it is the destruction of the air sacs (alveoli) for gas exchange- extreme shortage of breath on exercising and clubbing of fingers.
Bronchitis: inflammation of the bronchi- heavy coughing, thick mucus, loss of breath.
Carbon Monoxide: can cause babies to have a low birth weight if mother smokes during pregnancy due to less oxygen reaching the growing foetus.
To make her loose weight, I am going to make sure that her diet is healthy, and I am going to plan a diet for her. I will have to make sure that it is a balanced diet which is affordable. I am also going to make sure that she goes to the gym and join leisure clubs.
To make her stop smoking I am going to try to make her try methods to quit, mostly the most successful ones.
2 weeks menu for Francine:
I have designed a menu for Francine which she should use to help her loose weight. This is a balanced diet as it contains all 7 food types in the right amount. Even though it is healthy, I have also included some “treats” as she should be able to eat something she that she really likes in between.
Helping to quit her smoking:
The most successful method to smoke smoking so far is known to Hypnotherapy. So to stop her smoking I am going to try this method on her.
What is hypnotherapy?
The term "hypnosis" comes from the Greek word hypnos, meaning "sleep." Hypnotherapists use exercises that bring about deep relaxation and an altered state of consciousness, also known as a trance. A person in a deeply focused state is unusually responsive to an idea or image, but this does not mean that a hypnotist can control the person's mind and free will. On the contrary, hypnosis can actually teach people how to master their own states of awareness. By doing so they can affect their own bodily functions and psychological responses.
How does hypnosis work?
When something happens to us, we remember it and learn a particular behavior in response to what happened. Each time something similar happens, our physical and emotional reactions attached to the memory are repeated. In some cases these reactions are unhealthy. In some forms of hypnotherapy, a trained therapist guides you to remember the event that led to the first reaction, separate the memory from the learned behavior, and replace unhealthy behaviors with new, healthier ones.
During hypnosis, your body relaxes and your thoughts become more focused. Like other relaxation techniques, hypnosis lowers blood pressure and heart rate, and changes certain types of brain wave activity. In this relaxed state, you will feel at ease physically yet fully awake mentally and may be highly responsive to suggestion. If you are trying to quit smoking, for example, a therapist's suggestion may help convince you that you will not like the taste of cigarettes in the future. Some people respond better to hypnotic suggestion than others.
There are several stages of hypnosis:
- Reframing the problem
- Becoming relaxed, then absorbed (deeply engaged in the words or images presented by a hypnotherapist)
- Dissociating (letting go of critical thoughts)
- Responding (complying with a hypnotherapist's suggestions)
- Returning to usual awareness
- Reflecting on the experience
This health has helped Francine in various ways as it has helped her to improve
- OCR Health and Social Care for GCSE
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