Developing effective communication in health and social care settings. Examples of one-to-one and group communication.
DEVELOPING EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE
One-to-one communication- Reading a book with a service user
My task was to work with Nicky who was one of the service user’s who actually had slight hearing problem. I had to listen to him and work out what level of ability in reading he is at. This task ensured each person communicating has each other’s attention in a given moment. I felt that this one-to-one task with Nicky would make him feel special and cared for as it is a mean of saying to him that I am making time for him and he will have my undivided attention. Even though Nicky was a good reader overall as he tried his best at reading with me, but every time he made a mistake or pronounced a word wrong I would say “No Nicky that’s wrong” he felt that it was me who was wrong and could not read properly so he just totally ignored that it may have been that he didn’t not hear the right answer clearly or just felt embarrassed that he was making mistakes during the task. This task may have been overwhelming for him due to him not having a one to one attention before or he may have felt isolated through a lack of opportunity to communicate with the other care workers. This task had taken place in a room with many other service users who were doing a variety of different activities. I placed my chairs right opposite to him so it would enable me and Nicky to get the privacy of space. After he had finished reading the book i asked him what he understood about it and whether or not he enjoyed reading it for this type of communication I used one of the non-verbal skills which are reflective listening. I asked him some questions relevant to the book to ensure that he fully understands what he was reading. Even though I could not understand him properly due to the noise in the back I figured out half of what he was telling me about the book. He actually had a fairly good idea about what the book was actually about because he has read it before. Listening to the Nicky helped his confidence level to build and to not be so shy anymore. I used eye-contact to help me listen and understand what Nicky was saying as this gave me an idea of how he felt towards reading the book. Having eye-contact helped Nicky feel a lot more comfortable with me. The book which I had chosen for Nicky to read to me consisted of a lot of pictures in it and helped Nicky in a positive way.
GROUP COMMUNICATION- PAINTING WITH THE SERVICE USER’S
My task was to get three service users into a group and work with them separately as the other service users in the care home also had carers working with them in groups. My task was to help them paint a picture of themselves. The service user’s names were Annie, Kim and Sally. Annie had dementia, Kim had weak joints/muscles and Tony who had behaviour problems. All three service users in my group had a chance to speak and express their opinions. I helped them with any problems they had with the painting and I just had to assess them on how well they paint together as a group. There was a lot of communication skills used in the interaction. Annie had dementia she kept on forgetting her task on what she had to be drawing; a few times she got mistaken for drawing the other service user’s rather than herself, so I had to constantly remind her to draw herself. Kim kept on dropping the paintbrushes as it was quite big and thick for her to hold on to at times. Tony had behaviour problems; he kept on making a lot of noise during the task because of the other service users in the room doing other tasks, this lead him to get distracted easily and could on focus properly on the actual task in hand. He was sitting in between Kim and Annie and because of that he kept on pushing their arms with he’s elbows; he just couldn’t keep his arms to his self and just paint. He could not sit in one place and kept on moving and looking to other places constantly. There was a lot of communication skills used in the interaction. The first communication skill I used with them was appropriate language. It was used so that they could listen and understand what I was saying, I had to chose formal English language as I found that an appropriate language to use with them. I also used a non-verbal skill in the group interaction because I could encourage the service user’s to participate in the interaction a lot more.
GROUP COMMUNICATION- PAINTING WITH THE SERVICE USER’S
To make my communication interactions with the service user’s in one-to one interaction and group interactions effective I did not use any slang or jargon with the service user’s because we were having a formal interaction therefore the use or jargon or slang was not suitable there. I had to use good communication skills to get my point across clearly and effectively just to make sure that each of them understood what I was talking about. I feel that there should always be a care worker-service user relationship between people in day care centre’s. Effective communications with the service users is related to positive outcomes. Tone of voice is a type of verbal communication. I had to have an appropriate tone of voice as this would enable the service user to feel comfortable with me while the task was proceeding. I used a clear and calm tone of voice as this helps create a positive atmosphere and assists the service user’s to ask each other or me any questions they have and it helps them to understand what to do, whereas if my tone of voice was loud and aggressive then the service user’s would not felt comfortable with me and they would got scared of me, this may well have led them to getting upset and having to leave the interaction as soon as possible. My tone of voice was normal because I could not speak quietly and slow because the service users would not have got the message but it was not loud either. My tone of voice was very clear and the students who participated in the interaction heard my voice clearly. This tone of voice enabled the interaction between me and the three other service user’s to flow nicely and the message that I was trying to put across was interpreted by the service users in a positive way. I knew that they had received the message of what to do as they began to paint straight after my instruction before they had started the task. I was also being very talkative as when the service users would stop I would just talk to them during each stage of their painting and ask them how they are doing whether or not they are finding the task difficult, I was also making it fun and enjoyable for them to do because I was complementing their hard work and effort which they put in their paintings. Therefore their confidence would have increased enabling them in join in the interaction. If they were having any problems I would help them solve them. If I had not done that then questions may have not been invited, some of the service user’s may not be able to interpret the information and some may not have heard or understood the messages clearly. I encouraged the students to use more eye-contact because when some of the students were talking, they were looking at other distractions like their peers playing or talking. The messages that I gave to the service users in my group were all given objectively and they were factual and informative.
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I used signs such as thumbs up (meaning good) and open palm (meaning stop) during the interaction, as signs can often promote effective communication and reduce barriers to interactions.
One-to-one communication- Reading a book with a service user
With the one-to one and communication interaction that I had with Nicky out chairs were put opposite one another so that we were able to see and hear each other clearly. This enabled myself and Nicky to feel comfortable around each other has we had didn’t no each other well enough. If we were to close to one another we may have felt uncomfortable or shy with each other which then would have led to Nicky having a negative experience with me. I used verbal communication when I explained to Nicky what he had to do for the task. There should also be a little proximity between us because if there was not much space between each other, then the atmosphere might have become too hot and unbearable which might have caused Nicky to get bored and tired easily with the reading. Leaving enough proximity, between the both of us allowed us to sit and feel comfortable; this led us to talk properly to each other without anyone interrupting or distracting our conversation as we our personal space. I used good facial expressions and body language with Nicky so that he thinks I am a friendly person and so he becomes more comfortable with me. Most of the time, Each time he read correctly I would complement him on well he was doing and I also would put my thumb put and say “excellent” to boost his confidence a little more. This helped create more of a positive atmosphere to be in. his tone on voice when he was reading showed me that he was trying his best and was really enjoying it. I used a lot of eye contact which actually showed Nicky that I was listening to him and that I understood what he was reading to me. I used appropriate eye-contact to enable him to listen and understand me properly. Eye-contact help a lot in a one-to-one basis because when listening to someone expressing their point of view, eye-contact is very essential and shows that the listener is listening and understanding what person actually speaking is saying. At the end of the reading session I spoke to Nicky about the level of reading ability he is on and I also asked him to speak to me about any difficulties and anything he is uncertain about in the book, this helped me to him more confidence to speak up loud and it also empowered him. I had to use interpersonal skills when I was telling Nicky he had made a few mistakes during his reading time which is why it lead to him ignoring that and getting embarrassed and wrong –footed. Interpersonal skills are people interacting with each other. Interpersonal skills involve the ability to work with others around.
I could have been in a quieter room with less noise so that just the three of the service users in my group do not get distracted as easily. I would not have put Tony in between Kim and Annie if I had known he would distract them from their painting.
I could have given Kim a lighter brush to paint with rather than the thick one which I gave her, as she was not able to keep control or hold the brush at times. This led her to getting disappointed with her painting.
I should have given Annie a mirror so it would be easier for her to paint herself and also she wouldn’t have to think and struggle as much, as she suffers from dementia.
Telling the Service user’s to use more eye-contact with one another could have created a better interaction between them. They kept getting distracted by the other service user’s who were with their care workers in the same room as them but doing the different activities. If we had used more eye contact in the interaction, it would have allowed the interaction to flow easier.
If I had used promotion of rights towards the service users in both the one-to-one and group interaction I could have improved the interactions a lot more. In the group interaction I could have let them choose what they want to paint rather than me telling them and them finding it difficult to do and also for the one-to-one interaction I could have let Nicky chose the book himself, it would have made him more interested in the book whereas because I chose a book he had already read once before which could be the reason to why his was not interested in it as much as I thought he would be.
I could have had my one-to-one interaction in a separate room away from all the other service users who were reading aloud, as this led to Nicky not concentrating properly and not hearing the feedback I was giving him during the reading and after the reading.
I used verbal skills which could actually have been improved in the interactions and that were respecting diversity through the use of appropriate language. Even though I spoke English in both interactions, I could have used less complicated words to enable that the service users understand what I was saying at al times and try to decode the message. I used words which I thought they would be able to understand and know the meaning of; instead I should have known about their level of English and understanding which would have depended on the words I was using with them.
In the group interaction I could have offered the service user with the best paining a prize, as this would motivate them a lot more, they would show more interest in their painting rather than others around them and they would not get easily distracted by others around them. My tone of voice could have been improved in order to improve the interactions. In both of my interaction I should used a higher pitched voice due to the level of noise in the background, so that the children could to hear and understand me more clearly. I kept the same volume of voice throughout the interaction, when the class was quiet or loud, I could have increased or decrease the volume of my voice to get my opinion across clearly. The problem with me using a normal tone of voice might have been the service users have problem with understanding what I am saying to them. I could have empowered the service users more to enable them to participate in the interactions and get a clear view of the subject. I should have taken into consideration, all of the service user’s different needs and try to understand and meet them. This way I will be promoting each of their rights and needs.
Effective one-to-one communication is a skill that can be learned and involves the use of an orderly approach to running the come across with the patient or client. Effective communication in the work place has always been difficult as it involves hierarchies.The most important skill I used was the ability to listen. This goes beyond just giving the appearance of attention. I was able to adopt the Nikcy’s perspective in order to understand fully the message being sent. Poor communication skills, disagreements and misunderstandings can be a source of anger and distance. I should have checked if Nicky had his hearing aid on before even stating the one-tone interaction with him. Nicky could have used a hearing aid as it provided an opportunity for people who have hearing loss to restore the ability of hearing to its original state. These are used by people with hearing impairment. I could have used signers for Nicky as they are for the deaf or hard of hearing. It offers a service of interpreting to and from a person who cannot hear and who uses sign language. It helps people who cannot understand sign language and those who cannot normal vocal language. Effective communication is vital in health and social care settings. For example if instructions are misunderstood or certain information is not shared properly then it is the service users who will suffer. Enabling service users to share information concerning their needs so that the car workers can carry out their roles in supporting them effectively is an example of the need for effective communication. Communication between people enables ideas and information. It involves much more than simply passing on information to others. Communication enables people to feel safe, to make relationships and to develop self-esteem. Poor communication might make a service user feel vulnerable, worthless or emotionally threatened. If a service users feel that they are being ignored and their individual needs are not being met, this may result in aggression,
Communication between people enables us to exchange ideas and information but it involves much more than simply passing on information to others. Communication enables people to feel safe, to make relationships and to develop self-esteem. Poor communication might make service user/patients feel vulnerable, worthless or emotionally threatened. There are many types of different communication such as body language.
Using effective communication is essential for service users in a health and social care settings. When using effective communication skills towards the service users will help them be more confident towards the care workers and also they will have and increase in their self- esteem. Discriminating or looking down on a service user and feeling uncomfortable around service users because of their illness or disability will lead to negative outcomes and negative experiences with them.
Effective communication is vital in health and social care settings. For example if instructions are misunderstood or certain information is not shared properly then it is the service users who will suffer. Enabling service users to share information concerning their needs so that the car workers can carry out their roles in supporting them effectively is an example of the need for effective communication.
Effective one-to-one communication is a skill that can be learned and involves the use of an orderly approach to running the come across with the service user. Effective communication in the work place has always been difficult as it involves hierarchies.The most important skill is the ability to listen. This goes beyond just giving the appearance of attention. Carer workers must be able to adopt the the servcie users perspective in order to understand fully the message being sent. Poor communication skills, disagreements and misunderstandings can be a source of anger and distance.
Written communication skills in health and social care has the ability to express ourselves effectively when we write, it is recognised as being a vital business skill. When we write something down we are inevitably telling our reader a great deal about ourselves. That is why when we write we should write clearly and check for spelling, punctuation and grammar mistakes.
Formal communication is mostly in black and white. Formal communication is used when the matter is serious or important. With both formal and informal communication people must speak in a well manner, have a good posture, body language and smile so that facial expressions show well.
Effective listening means active contribution in a conversation, only interrupting to recognize understanding and give appropriate feedback. Active listening incorporates several features of a conversation.
When communicating with a patient, especially elderly patients, it is important to always put yourself in their shoes.
Communication is essential to the peace of mind of a patient. Even if a care worker has no good news to report, just continually communicating with a patient's family to report no changes will be greatly appreciated in hospitals. Patients need comforting and consoling words. Care workers can infuse courage and confidence in the mind of patients by their soothing words. By constantly informing the patient of what is taking place, the carer can effectively calm the patient during care.
Care workers must take time to listen, especially if a patient has questions. They must respect the patient, and the relationship will go better between the both of them. Care workers must understand that patients have pain, frustration, worry, anxiety, and similar emotions. Calm, non-threatening, but not-putting-down behavior on the part of the care-giver helps a lot to ease potential tension situations.
Empathy can be used to improve the communication skills and listening skills a health care professional has with the service user/ patient because it enables them to connect with the service user/patient. It also shows that their situation is being respected and not ignored. Before support can be provided in the relationship the professional must have good communication skills both verbal and non verbal this can be done by the tone of voice used and the use of language. Supportive relationships enhance and make better the life of the service user by aiding them in their everyday lifestyles and giving them options and fair treatment. The elements of a supportive relationship all advance the individuals life and empower him or her to help their selves as well as the care workers making their life easier for the service user/patient.
During both the interactions the one one-to-one and the group interaction the factors which I influenced, the interactions were quite related because both of them had taken place in the same day care center. One of the factors that influenced the interactions was the individual’s preferred language. The service user’s understood the basic English but found some words difficult to understand which is why I had to use simple and proper English and repeated any words or sentences which they could not understood.
This communication skill helped influence the interactions in a positive way because it enabled me to think what kind of communication methods I should use when I interact with them. Within the few children I was working with, there was one child who had behaviour problems. Tony was an attention seeker who kept trying to distract Annie and Kim by either pushing their arms of the table or trying to joy in with their painting rather than get on with his own. This had caused a distraction for the other children because they were more focused on him instead of the interaction. Annie and Kim both felt uncomfortable sitting next to him and they felt I was giving him more attention than them. Because of Tony having a behaviour problem I had talk to him a lot more and keep him focused on his task and it also caused me to speed up the conversation, as I had less time to spend with Annie and Kim. Due to me being in a hurry and helping Tony behave might have made the Annie and Kim upset, uncomfortable, not able to understand me and not interested in the task anymore.
Another factor that influenced the interactions was environment we were doing out interactions in. Both interactions were taken place in a room which had many other activities and interactions going on with other service users.
The room we were in caused a lot of disruption during the interactions.
I used silence as an effective listening skill as it helped the service users collect their thoughts, so that they do not feel rushed or hurried and it allows the stimulation of more conversation.
I used visual cues as this encouraged conversation with the service users. During the task I nodded my head, tilted head to side, smiled and maintained eye contact. This influenced the interactions.
Due to other service user doing activities which my group found more exiting to take part in led them wanting them to join them and be a part of their group. They were not paying much attention to what they had to be doing in the task they were given to do by me so this had a negative effect on the interaction because they were not focusing. This lost their interest in the task due to the level of noise and people in one small room together and also mixed signals were given out to the service users at times. The room which we were doing our interactions caused sound and visual communication coming in. I had a good posture, body language and smile so that facial expressions show well.
There was too much noise it was loud, disruptive and did not allow anyone to concentrate on the task in hand.
In any type of interaction, being able to use the communication cycle makes a big difference. The communication cycle has six stages which are:
- Aiming-Ideas occur
- Encoding- Message coded
- Transmitting-Message Sent
- Receiving- Message Received
- Decoding- Recipient interprets the message
- Responding-Message understood
1. Ideas Occur
The first stage of communication about what a person is actually thinking of what to say. Things that could affect the thinking process could be too much unnecessary noise from the environment or distractions from people or things.
2. Message Coded
The second stage of communication is where the ideas from stage 1 are formatted into how to be said. This stage shows how the person is going to say the ideas that they would like to share with the other person. The first person would also think about how the other person will react towards what they say.
3. Message Sent
This is the stage where the person knows how to say it and actually sends the message. This is communicating to the other person using speech.
The problems that could occur are during this stage are wasted time if the message is urgent or giving out the wrong signals of what is supposed to be said.
4. Message Received
The fourth stage is where the person who is receiving the message starts to question the person who sent the message.
5. Message Decoded
The fifth stage is where the message is received and broken down so that other person understands what is being said.
6. Idea Understood
At this stage the receiver has understood the message clearly which was initially sent at the start.
The communication cycle may help a person to communicate difficult, complex and sensitive issues as each stage will be able to predict the other persons will reactions.
When I was having my one-to-one interaction with Nicky I used many stages from the communication cycle.
Before starting my interaction i used Aiming because I chose a book and chose where I would have to sit with Nicky to read. This was the first stage and it was used before the interaction to help it become more effective. One of the points of Aiming is to know how you will be interacting with. The first thought that came into my head was that I was going to participate in a one-to one interaction with Nicky. I thought carefully about what language I would use in our interaction and how I will interact with him. I knew I could not use any slang, jargon or any complex words with Nicky because he would not understood what I will be saying to him.
While participating in the one-to- one interaction with Nicky I used the second stage of the communication cycle which was encoding. Encoding consists of using appropriate language and pictures to assist the user. I used encoding because I had to assist Nicky in his reading and help him understand the concept of the book more clearly. Around the room, on the walls and on some of the windows, there were several of pictures and symbols which were very colourful. When Nicky was struggling to explain the some of the words and pictures to me, I used the pictures to help him understand and guide him on the right path. I knew the message was sent.
Nicky did not actually receive the message I had sent to him properly because of the amount of noise in that same room. This led him to getting easily distracted and not focusing on his reading.
Nicky could have received the message if we were in alone in a quiet room without any other service users and any distraction. If there weren’t any distractions outside the quiet room, Nicky would have been a lot more interested in the book rather than the other service users. Even if one stage is missed during out in an interaction it means that the rest might not be included. The setting that the one-to-one interaction had taken place in was not a very good place because it allowed all the distractions to come in and it would divert Nicky’s attention and focus on to that. Whatever the others were doing, the carers and the service users made Nicky want to go and join in.
For my group interaction I firstly used the first stage of the communication cycle which is Aiming. Before I even formed a group I had to think of what kind of picture, language I am going to chose and how I going to interact with my group members. I chose to bring coloured paper, lovely designed brushes and bright coloured paint along with me for the service users to enjoy and to also make my interaction with them a lot more fun.
I let all three of them chose the paint and coloured paper which they preferred to use for their painting themselves.
I used certain communication skills and objects to guide them through and help them get a clear picture of what I was trying to convey.
I felt that the transmitting and receiving part of the communication cycle were used in the interaction because when they listened to what I was saying; they were asking me question by putting up their hands. This gave me the satisfaction that they understood what I trying to explain to them.
I knew that they had interpreted the message and worked out what it means jus when they started painting their pictures.
Using effective communication is essential when you are helping the service users in a health and social care setting. By using effective communication skills towards the service users will help them be more confident towards others around them and their self- esteem will increase. I took the time which I was given to do my task in into consideration and all the service users managed to complete their painting in the time they were given to do so. The environments which we were in doing our tasks had a negative effect on both of the interactions as there was a huge loss of concentration.
I used a high pitched tone of voice with the service users in my group so that the same message can be delivered the whole group, saving time, also so that the service users hearing the message may not have to give an opinion or answer as the information is simply given to them. Whereas if I dint speak in a high pitched voice the service users would not be able to hear and understand what I am saying to them due to the amount of noise in the background. Some people may not have been able to interpret the information and questions may not be invited. . Effective communication is vital in health and social care settings. For example if instructions are misunderstood or certain information is not shared properly then it is the service users who will suffer. Enabling service users to share information concerning their needs so that the car workers can carry out their roles in supporting them effectively is an example of the need for effective communication.
One-to-one interactions help enable attention to be given to an individual person. The person may feel comfortable communicating personal information, it enables feedback to specific questions or concerns, interactions may take place over a series of formal or informal sessions and confidentiality is more likely to be guaranteed and maintained.
The disadvantages of a one-to-one interaction is dependent on the skills of the person giving one-to-one, the person may feel uncomfortable with specific attention, preparation may be required to give accurate and information answers to questions, it may be difficult to arrange several successive meetings and also interactions may be misinterpreted by individuals unless they are checked for understanding. Appropriate verbal and language skills towards the service user will help the care workers to meet the service user’s needs. Using effective communication can help the service user in several of ways. Being able to speak clearly and getting your point across the service users in an appropriate manner will remove any misunderstanding between the worker and the service user. By using acceptable language and skills towards the service user will remove any differences. This will enable the service user to feel comfortable when talking about problems and make them feel as if someone is there listening to their problems. This will make them feel wanted and will form a positive relationship between the health and social care worker and the service user.
Using a good tone of voice and eye-contact will help enable the care worker to provide the service user with the most relevant information relating to them and their treatment.
An individual’s facial expression can give a positive or a negative impression to the service users. If good facial expressions are used whilst communications then service users will feel comfortable and safe around care workers this will enable better communication between them both and the service user’s confidence will increase rapidly.