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Explain the factors that would lead to suspicion of child maltreatment or abuse

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´╗┐Nicola Sydorenko 50122883 Unit 10 Health and Social Care P3 Types of Child Abuse and Neglect 1. Physical abuse is any physical action by a person that harms, or could harm, a child. It includes hitting, kicking, slapping, shaking, burning, pinching, biting, choking, throwing, shoving and whipping. It also includes using unreasonable force to punish children or prevent them from harming themselves or others. The child?s injuries may range from minor bruises, burns, welts or bite marks to broken bones or ? in extreme cases ? death. 1. Sexual abuse happens when a person uses a child for sexual purposes. It can include: - sexually touching a child, or inviting a child to touch -Intercourse (vaginal, oral or anal) threatening sexual acts, obscene gestures or communications, or stalking. -sexual references (words or gestures) to the child?s body or behavior. -asking the child to expose their body for sexual purposes exposing the child to sexual activity or material, or sexual aspects of organized or ritual abuse. Neglect happens when a parent or guardian ignores or overlooks a child?s basic needs ? to the point where the child is, or could be, harmed. Neglect includes failing to provide a child with food, shelter, basic health care, supervision, nurturing or protection from risks. ...read more.


A child who witnesses parental violence is at risk for also being maltreated, but, even if the child is not maltreated, he or she may experience harmful emotional consequences from witnessing the parental violence. Stress Stress is also thought to play a significant role in family functioning, although its exact relationship with maltreatment is not fully understood. Physical abuse has been associated with stressful life events, parenting stress, and emotional distress in various studies. Similarly, some studies have found that neglectful families report more day-to-day stress than non-neglectful families. It is not clear, however, whether maltreating parents actually experience more life stress or, rather, perceive more events and life experiences as being stressful. In addition, specific stressful situations (e.g., losing a job, physical illness, marital problems, or the death of a family member) may exacerbate certain characteristics of the family members affected, such as hostility, anxiety, or depression, and that may also aggravate the level of family conflict and maltreatment. Child Factors Children are not responsible for being victims of maltreatment. Certain factors, however, can make some children more vulnerable to maltreating behavior. The child's age and development?physical, mental, emotional, and social?may increase the child's vulnerability to maltreatment, depending on the interactions of these characteristics with the parental factors previously discussed Age The relationship between a child's age and maltreatment is not clear cut and may differ by type of maltreatment. ...read more.


Environmental Factors Environmental factors are often found in combination with parent, family, and child factors, as highlighted in previous sections of this chapter. Environmental factors include poverty and unemployment, social isolation, and community characteristics. It is important to reiterate that most parents or caregivers who live in these types of environments are not abusive. Social Isolation and Social Support Some studies indicate that compared to other parents, parents who maltreat their children report experiencing greater isolation, more loneliness, and less social support. Social isolation may contribute to maltreatment because parents have less material and emotional support, do not have positive parenting role models, and feel less pressure to conform to conventional standards of parenting behaviors. It is not clear, however, whether social isolation in some cases precedes and serves as a contributing factor to maltreatment or whether it is a consequence of the behavioral dynamics of maltreatment. Violent Communities Children living in dangerous neighborhoods have been found to be at higher risk than children from safer neighborhoods for severe neglect and physical abuse, as well as child sexual victimization. Some risk may be associated with the poverty found in dangerous neighborhoods, however, concerns remain that violence may seem an acceptable response or behavior to individuals who witness it more frequently. Iformation used from www.google.com and Health and Social Care book ...read more.

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This essay aimed to discuss the factors that may be indicators of child abuse. There is lots of useful information here but the arguments need to be substantiated with supporting references.

An introduction outlining what would be covered would be useful to help the reader get a sense of what will be presented. It is also useful for the writer in terms of using it to check that what it is the main body matches what was written in the introduction.

Keep the font the same all the way through the document.

Marked by teacher Diane Apeah-Kubi 06/06/2013

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