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GCSE: Germany 1918-1939
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Furthermore, Clemenceau resented Wilson's more generous attitude to Germany. They disagreed over what to do about Germany's Rhineland and coalfields in the Saar. In the end, Wilson had to give way on these issues. In return, Clemenceau and Lloyd George did give Wilson what he wanted in Eastern Europe (which was self-determination), despite their opinions about his idea of self-determination. However, this mainly affected the other four treaties, not the Treaty of Versailles. Clemenceau also clashed with Lloyd George, particularly over Lloyd George's aim- which was not to treat Germany too harshly.
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How did Hitler and the Nazis change the German economy and the lives of Germany workers between 1933 and 1936?
In 1934 Hitler appointed Hjalmar Schacht, already President of the Reichsbank since 1933, Minister of Economics. Schacht was to thank for many of the Third Reich's economic policies, and managed to combat the effects of the Great Depression by keeping the policies introduced by Kurt Von Schleicher's 1932 government. Deficit-supported public work programs (provided through the RAD, in which all 18-25 year old men had to serve six months) were the foundation of these policies, and so rearmament and military spending eventually supplemented this economic policy by boosting demand.
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In June 1941 the Nazis invaded Russia and millions more Jews came under Nazi control. There is some debate among historians concerning when the Nazis actually decided on the final solution, but the mass killings of Jews began in summer 1941, especially in Russia. It would only be a short step from mass murder like this to a complete genocide of European Jews. In January 1942 at the Wansee Conference - a meeting of top Nazis - the "final solution" was systematically organized. The purpose of the final solution was to solve the "Jewish Problem" by murdering all the Jews by gassing them to death in organized death camps such as Auschwitz.
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Nazi Germany Revision. This article is divided into two sections. One will deal with Nazi Methods of Control and the other with Life in Nazi Germany.
Jews, Socialists, Communists, trade unionists, homosexuals, churchmen and any critics of the regime ended up there. The Judges were not impartial and the courts usually supported the Gestapo. The Camps were run by a branch of the SS, the Deaths Head Units. The SS and German Police were under the overall command of Heinrich Himmler. Although the Gestapo targeted 'enemies of the state' recent research has demonstrated that the Secret Police was at its most active at the beginning of the regime (1933-4)
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We demand the creation and support of a healthy middle class. 25. We demand the creation of a strong central government in Germany. Quite clearly many of these points were the result of Hitler's influence (though later he would quietly drop many of the 'socialistic' ideas). What is also striking is that the party was attempting to appeal to a broad spectrum of the electorate, something that most Weimar parties did not do. Following a power struggle in 1921, Hitler became the leader of the party with unlimited powers and in August he formed the SA (Sturm Abteilung -stormtroopers)
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Naturally there were many radically different political parties; Including a communist party to the extreme left and a nationalist group called the 'Freikorps' to the right, both of which tried to stage a revolution. The main problem, however, was that because of its strict adherence to democratic principles, The Weimar Republic allowed such parties, which were so openly anti-democratic, to exist and take part in the governing process. Seats in the Reichstag were determined by proportional representation, so each party got the same percentage of seats as the percentage of votes they got from the public.
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At a mass meeting of around 20,000 sailors and workers a German republic was demanded and a sailor/workers soviet was set up. After this uprising in Kiel and Wilhelmshaven there was an additional uprising in Munich. In Munich the monarchy was overthrown and an independent socialist republic was declared by its leader Kurt Eisner, a former member of the moderate SPD. HE turned to the USPD as he wanted more extreme methods to destroy the enemies of democracy. During the revolt Eisner followed the Russian model and created Red Guards and workers soviets.
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This was a set of radical and liberal reforms of the SA, which were verging on socialism. This included pushing for nationalization of major industrial firms, expanded worker control, confiscation and redistribution of the estates of the old aristocracy and finally, social equality. These reforms were obviously far from Hitler's ideology as an extreme capitalist. Therefore, one reason why the Hitler had to abolish the SA was that their ideology was highly contrasting to what Hitler's philosophy as a very strong Nazi. The concept of a 'Second Revolution' which the SA proposed was not only contrasting with Hitler's beliefs, but also with the army.
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There were also uprisings by the right wing, in the Kapp Putsch of March 1920, and the Munich Putsch of November 1923. The Munich Putsch was a protest against the Ebert's Government and the policy of passive resistance adopted in response to the French invasion of the Ruhr. This example exhibits the unpopularity of the Government's decisions and their failure to follow a policy more popular to the German public. In fact the disastrous economic outcome of passive resistance only lowered the Government's popularity.
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However, in private Lloyd George was also very concerned with the rise of communism in Russia and he feared that it might spread to Western Europe. After the war had finished, Lloyd George believed that the spread of communism posed a far greater threat to the world than a defeated Germany. Privately, he felt that Germany should be treated in such a way that left her as a barrier to resist the expected spread of communism. He did not want the people of Germany to become so disillusioned with their government that they turned to communism.
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If the cameramen did managed to record footage of the British failures or losses, then those sections of the footage would be censored by the War Office. This was because the War Office would have had an editing and production team who would have put the film together, and who would have been very selective in what it included, making sure that no negative thoughts were suggested. However, even though the film may not be as trustworthy as other sources may be, there are still many ideas that are supported by other source collections.
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and in 1934 it was the 'Year of Training' where the kids learned vocational training, and in October were sent to the country to harvest the crops. This was apparently to show them the value of hard manual labor, and how it pays off. The next year was 'The Year of Physical Training' which consisted of rigorous sport competitions and gladiator like fitness standards. Hitler felt that his youth should have more of a strong character and look more physically healthy rather than to be well educated in the classroom.
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This allowed Hitler to gain more attention and have more German people turn towards him. He made it clear to the Germans by telling them that if he was elected he would refuse to abide by the rules of the treaty such as the reparations and the military restrictions. Hitler thought that Germany was far more superior to any other country and that it should be strong. Hitler indented to strengthen Germany by having a third Reich. To make this plan succeed Hitler wanted to join up with Poland, Sudetenland and Austria.
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To be ready for war the country should have the capability to survive for a period during the war by growing its own food. However the Powers should have land available to grow the food. Money also plays a significant part in deciding whether the Powers are ready for war. To be ready, the Powers should be financially capable to support their nation and its people. Also the cost of the war should not lead to nation bankruptcy. Prior to 1914, Wilhelm the second rejected Bismarck's careful foreign policy and under went a period of military expansion both in army and navy.
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Do you agree with the view that until the end of January 1933 it was by no means certain that Hitler would come to power?
that it was not the German people to whom he had been appealing in all this time that elevated him to the position, but instead two powerful political figures whose decision was based upon poor judgement, misguidance and highly dubious motives It is indisputable that democracy in Germany was born out of defeat of the First World War thus rendering its foundations weak and open to opposition from the left and the right. The German people readily adopted the belief that the new government was responsible for losing the war and the subsequent humiliation at Versailles, and as such held them in great contempt, branding them the 'November Criminals'.
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Nothing was as bad as to what was going to happen to them though. 1933: Hitler came to power. How did life change for the Jews? In 1933, Adolf Hitler led the Nazis to power, promising to make Germany powerful and respected by the rest of the world. This meant terrible things for the Jewish people. Hitler's speeches all consisted of hate for Jews. He encouraged local people to attack innocent Jews. The problem was, when Jews decided to go and get justice they couldn't because the Nazis took over courts and controlled the police.
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There was 16 per cent of its coalfields, and half of its iron and steel industry gone! This meant people lost jobs and money and went in to other countries which caused resentment towards the government and also affected the wealth of the Germany. The area of Rhineland was turned into a demilitarised zone with the treaty disallowing German forces within 50 kilometres of the Rhine. This meant less defence as many people were lost in the army and the army was cut down to just 100,000 people. The biggest loss of land had 45,000 square kilometres of land and 2,023,000 people were given to Poland.
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The Weimar Republic was created after the First World War. Germany found itself in chaos as soldiers were coming back from the front mentally unfit, violence and demonstrations broke out. As a consequence the Weimar Republic was born. It was not a straightforward birth, trying to settle Germany was no easy feat. This is why some historians suggest the Weimar Republic was doomed from birth; however, many call the period from 1923-1929 the golden era, as this was the period of relative stability for the Republic, therefore maybe we can suggest that Weimar was not doomed from birth, but that
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A suspicion about the source is why Hesse would have written his account so long after the events had happened. This could have been to clear his name from the Nazis, because he did not want to be punished for war crimes just because he was a journalist for the Nazis. However, it could have been because he wanted the fame and money, as people would pay to read about these things, and he would see important as he was having dinner with Hitler.
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Source C gives the impression that Kristallnacht was planned. This source is saying that the local people were horrified by the acts of violence, so if it was spontaneous then many people would know about the events. This account also says that one reliable source informed Buffman that SS men and Stormtroopers out of uniform, carried out the attacks and were provided with weapons. David Buffman implies that the attacks were planned because he wrote that the fire-service 'made no attempt to put out fires' on Jewish buildings, so this suggests pre-planning.
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The second part of Jewish life attacked by the Nazi's attacked their legal standing. Laws called the Nuremberg Laws were made (September 1935). They prevented Jews from being citizens of Germany, voting, being civil servants, marrying or having sexual relations with a German. The Nuremberg laws conclude that anti-Semitism is now legal. These laws greatly affected Jews, as they were now official 2nd class people, with a lack of basic rights such as citizenship, right to a partner of their own choice and right to a career of their own choice.
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He wanted to incorporate Germans into a racially homogeneous Germany. 1 Above is a table showing the several national minorities in Czechoslovakia, the most numerous being the "Sudeten Germans" Britain would have an armed military in case of German attack on Czechoslovakia. Chamberlain learned though that although he had supported British rearmament it would not be ready for at least another year. Chamberlain was the offered three choices to consider to the Czech question. The first choice was the formation of the 'Grand Alliance' with France, Czechoslovakia and then possibly the Soviet Union to warn Germany away from any other aggressive advances.
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The Nazi party versus the state can by seen as revolutionary because a dual state was different to anything that had ever occurred before. The army was at the centre of German life and Nazis understood the need for its support. Hitler needed the army's support and the army needed Hitler in order to gain action. Hitler purged the army of all non German's and made them wear the swastika. The importance of the army was underlined during operation Hummingbird however They did not have as much influence as the SS.
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He also awarded prizes to mother who had given birth to lots of children. Mothers with more than 4 children were awarded medals (4 - Bronze, 6 - Silver, 8 - Gold). He also encouraged unmarried women to have children via Lebensborn's (Source of Life). This was where women got pregnant by racially pure SS officers. It claimed to be a child welfare and relocation program initiated by Nazi leader Heinrich Himmler. It was, however, one of the most secret and terrifying Nazi projects. They kidnapped children believed to be true Aryans and then the SS organization took over that child's education.
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Long term causes like the economic depression 1929-1933, and the failure of the Weimar government were key reasons why Hitler became chancellor of Germany in 1933. But there wer
Without any industrial wealth, and in order to pay the workers, the Germans printed extra money. This caused hyperinflation. Money had no value, prices shot up, and many Germans were ruined. The Treaty triggered a number of political reactions in Germany. After Ebert had signed an armistice, bringing the fighting to an end, he and the other politicians became known as the 'November Criminals' because they had 'stabbed Germany in the back'. Germans were used to being ruled by a Kaiser, and found it difficult to accept rule by parliament (the Reichstag). In the early years of the Republic there were many potential threats to the new Government.
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