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GCSE: International relations 1900-1939
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The army was a symbol of German pride and an important political source of nationalism. Having almost half of it taken away ruined Germany's Great Power status, and made her an easy target for other countries. In addition, the Rhineland became a demilitarised zone, meaning that Germany was open to attack by France. On the other hand, some groups believe that the military clause was fair, as it punished Germany as well as giving the smaller countries of Europe a chance to establish themselves.
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There are many more reasons that the Germans hated the treaty of Versailles. When the treaty was announced on the 7th May 1919, Germans were horrified. One of the reasons why they were horrified was Germany had been blamed unfairly for starting the war. However, the allies could blame Bosnia for killing Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, in Sarajevo. Germany was not allowed to join the League in 1919. As Germany had started the war, according to the Treaty of Versailles, one of her punishments was that she was not considered to be a member of the international community and, therefore, she was not invited to join.
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This massive bill caused the German economy to go into a stage of Hyper-inflation were the value of one German mark dropped from 4 marks being equivalent to $1 an 1914 to an all time low of 4.2 billion marks being the equivalent to $1 in 1923. This meant that Germany's economical stability was destabilising and Germany couldn't see why they had to pay for all the damage and that the countries that they were forced to give money to were as guilty as they were and therefore should pay as well.
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As a whole, The Central Power's soldiers in army count of 3.76 million (approx. 60% from Germany) exceeded that of the T.E's (Triple Entente) 3.25 million- securing victory for The Central Powers on that front. Furthermore, Germany, itself, had an impressive amount of warships (85 and 23 submarines) in naval rivalry to Britain (122 warships and 64 submarines) proving a harsh contender with a vast and dynamic military. From a defence view, the geographical position of the members of T.C.P (The Central Powers)
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The Germans went to the treaty of Versailles expecting to be treated as equals but they were treated the opposite ways because the allies thought they had won the war and were now superior to Germany. So the Germans had no other solution but to sign the treaty. They called the treaty of Versailles a 'Diktat'. The treaty was devastating for Germany it had to surrender their biggest glory, their army. The German army had to be reduced to 100,000 men (all men had to be volunteered)
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The Lusitania was a passenger ship but since Germany did not want America to have any trade with Europe, Great Britain and France, America could not stop the business interest, so the United States used a passenger ship to ship war materials and food supplies. But during May 1915, the Germany U-boats found out and sunk the Lusitania, 1300 people were killed and 128 of then were American.
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Several small, weak states now existed where there had previously been on large state. It was impossible to give every national group self-determination. Most of the new states contained dissatisfied minorities who continued to create problems. Britain and France didn't gain anything from the treaty of St Germain, but Italy gained land. Italy got Trentino, South Tyrol, Trieste, Istria and several Dalmatian islands. Austria accepted the breaking up of the Austria-Hungarian Empire and didn't rebel against any of the terms of the treaty.
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An example of this rise is the Manchurian Crisis of 1931. Japan's main trading partner was USA. When USA was hit with depression, they stopped trading internationally. This was a disaster for Japan, a country with no raw materials of its own. The Japanese army then decided to invade Manchuria (part of Northern China), which had a lot of valuable raw materials. Additionally, all big European powers were following the 'Appeasement Policy'. This was when they ignored or turned a blind eye against aggressors, in this case Japan.
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If the Appeasement policy had been abandoned by 1935, ww2 probably could have been avoided. Britain was economically damaged and knew that war was impossible to avoid, so they tried to buy time. The production of arms was stepped up. What Chamberlain brought back from his talks was time and it proved the balance between winning an unprovoked war. Britain had not the economy or manpower to risk and survive a full-scale war with any country. I think Chamberlain made a wise decision to appease Germany, who was in great debt after signing the Treaty of Versailles. Chamberlain also believed that peace and diplomacy was the answer in dealing with a leader such as Hitler.
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This suburb contained the most valuable coal mines and the Poles refused to accept this decision. Though no more wholesale violence took place, the two countries continued to argue over the issue for the next twenty years. Success or failure? _Failure __________________________________________________ 2. Vilna 1920 What happened? This area was claimed by both Lithuania and Poland. It was included in the new state of Lithuania set up at the end of the war but it had a majority Polish population. Taking action against Poland would have required armed forces, but League members were not was not willing to supply them. Success or failure? Failure 3. Upper Silesia 1921 What happened?
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This caused peril between them, since Austria was a patchwork country. In 1911, Italy attacked Turkey, forcing them to surrender after which the Balkan league was formed, seeing a much weaker Turkey. It consisted of Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia. The First Balkan war in 1912 saw the end of Turkey's control in Europe; however the second war was much worse. In 1913 saw Bulgaria's greed for more land grow until war was declared on Greece and Serbia. The war ended with a Bulgarian defeat having been attacked by Romania and Turkey as well.
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All these alliances meant that a small conflict between two countries would possibly up-scale into an 'unnecessary' world war because the alliances would be dragged into it. Also this would mean that war in itself would be more unlikely due to the intimidation and power spread by the world powers, but this would also mean that if there was one, it would be a large world war indeed. Secondly, one should look at the rivalry between the countries. Although a vague topic, rivalry was a large factor in the cause of WWI.
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Defeated countries, such as Germany were not allowed to join until later on, which upset them. Also, if there was any disagreement with the League, the country could just leave, resulting in lack of proper control. The fact that the League had no army of it's own made it very difficult to take any direct and effective action. If a country didn't want to do something, it asked help from the League, but the League had no powers to do anything.
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Clemenceau saw the Treaty of Versailles as an opportunity to cripple Germany, so that it could no attack France again. Describe how the Treaty of Versailles weakened Germany.
Also, a Plebiscite was to be held after 15 years to decide whether it stays German or becomes French. France were still worried Germany may fight back so they had Germany limit their army to 100,000 men, the Navy had to restrict their vessels to 10,000 tonnes, submarines were not allowed at all and their air force was restricted. This made Germany very angry because the army was a symbol of pride. Also before the war the army was ten times a bigger.
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They would feel confident as they would have had a bigger ally to back them up, the lone of ally's goes on until many countries are dragged into the war. The chain reaction got Russia and Germany involved, and later Britain and France. Without the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente, we would just have had a minor war between Austria - Hungary and Serbia. Another key long term cause was Nationalism. Nationalism is a devotion and pride in a country.
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The Causes of WW1. The First World War was a war of turbulence. It was ironic a war that issued over 35 million deaths was thought by most other people at the time as a defensive war.
The Balkans was an unstable area in the early 20th century. In 1908, the Austrians took Bosnia and Herzegovnia. Russia and Serbia objected, but Germany supported Austria, and so Russia and Serbia backed down. However, Austria and Hungary did not give Serbia its loyalty. The emperor Franz Ferdinand had in mind to give the Serbians their loyalty.
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He had Italy's armed forces prepared and ordered the invasion of Abyssinia in 1935. The Abyssinian emperor Haile Selassie appealed to the league for help. The League agreed to commence negotiations with Mussolini to settle the dispute, but they handled it terribly. At the first the leading members of the league, Britain and France didn't take the problem seriously enough. They both desperately wanted to maintain good relations with Mussolini as he was potentially a strong ally against Hitler's Nazi Germany. In 1935 Britain, France and Italy signed the Stresa Pact, an agreement to stand against Germany.
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Why was a victory like Vimy Ridge so important to the Canadian soldiers, the people back home in Canada, and indeed the Allies in general during the war?
By capturing the Ridge which was the key to the German defence system, it benefited the Allies because of its naturally strong defence (trench systems, and underground tunnels linking natural caves). Success was achieved by Canadians at Vimy Ridge because they studied previous attempts to capture the ridge and in doing so constructed a detailed and thorough plan, which was the reason for their won.
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Hitler and the Munich Agreement. The Munich Agreement was the final policy of appeasement that showed Hitler he could take over Europe.
Fearful of starting another war, Great Britain and the other nations of Western Europe engaged in the policy of appeasement. Appeasement is when one nation pacifies another by giving in to the other one's demands. Source A shows the passive nature of the British. Chamberlain was willing to let Germany exert its influence on weaker countries as long as war was prevented at the time. In 1937, Great Britain allowed Germany to militarize the Rhineland. Then, in March of 1938, Great Britain and France allowed Germany to unify with Austria.
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Russia was also not in the League, this meant that one of the most powerful post war nations was viewed as an outlaw state and felt that its interests were not represented. It also leads to a large amount of chaos over the following years, as Russia attempted to regain lost territory. Russia forms an alliance with Germany that allowed both of them to work around any kind of League action against them, including treaties banning German rearmament and military buildup.
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Was the Treaty of Versailles a Mistake? This peace treaty compelled Germany to accept the entire war guilt clause. However, as Wilson believed, this only made Germany bitter. Hence, many historians argue that the treaty of Versailles was the
Source 1- a British cartoon drawn subsequent to the treaty of Versailles argues against the treaty. In it is the USA president, Italy, Britain and Clemenceau, the French Priminister. Clemenceau nicknamed Tiger, sees a child crying. Above the child is the writing 'class of 1914'. These children would grow up to become soldiers of World War II. Hence, this cartoon indicates that the treaty of Versailles made Germany bitter and Germany would come for revenge. Source 2, in hindsight, also argues that the treaty was a mistake. It argues that the treaty failed to create peace and failed to weaken Germany for long enough.
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WW1. Some historians agree with the statement that the war at sea was more important the Western Front while others dont. In my opinion, it was obvious that the war at sea was much more essential than the western front. Here are some reasons to s
If you see the western front, they always had thousands of casualties with little gain for immense number of battles they had. However, it took only a few fighting at the war at sea therefore they had much less casualties. Second of all, because the war at the sea was about getting supplies such as food and weapons blocked, both sides were very cautious about it. One little tiny mistake would've led them to losing.
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Were the Heavy Allied Casualties on The Western Front Caused Mainly by the Tactics Used by Commanders?
Trench life was a terrible aspect of the war that lead to many unpleasant deaths, and because antibiotics such as penicillin had not been invented many diseases in the trenches were unable to be attended to with suitable treatment or in sterile conditions. There were many cases of tactically unsound strategy being implemented throughout the war; however, this was clearly not the only reason for casualties as shown above. To clarify the meaning of the question, the fundamentals of the point of discussion must be made clear before considering the subject further.
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a) I think the reparations clause was inserted into the treaty because Belgium and France share long land borders with Germany, and many towns, villages, buildings etc. Were destroyed during the war. b) The war guilt clause was made to justify the other terms of the treaty and to make Germany accept this as the reason for the treaty. c) The loss of territory clause was made because Alsace and Lorraine were originally part of France but was lost to Germany in wars before World War One.
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To what extent was the economic crash of 1929, and the depression which followed, damaging to the League?
One party promised to solve all of Germany's problems, both economic and social. The NAZI party, led by Adolf Hitler, quickly rose to power and they made no secret of the fact that they wanted to overturn the Treaty of Versailles and regain lost German territory. However, Britain were also suffering from high unemployment following the crash and were unwilling to get involved in sorting out international disputes when its own economy was suffering and so didn't help against the growing threat in Germany.
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