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GCSE: International relations 1900-1939

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 8
  • Peer Reviewed essays 2
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Was The Treaty Of Versailles Justified?

    5 star(s)

    In the East, Germany was literally split into two parts. The Allies decided that the nation of Poland should be given access to the sea, so they formed the "Polish Corridor." Poland gained a lot of territory from Germany, including a port on the Baltic, Danzig (Gdansk in Polish.) This isolated the region of Germany known as Eastern Prussia, which includes the city of Kļæ½nigsberg. In the Western part of Germany, more changes were made. France gained the much sought after region of Alsace-Lorraine.

    • Word count: 2706
  2. Peer reviewed

    Why did the treaty of versailles provoke widespread hostility among Germans?

    4 star(s)

    Firstly, an important reason why the Treaty of Versailles provoked widespread hostility among Germans was that they felt the treaty was a 'Diktat' forced on them rather than a negotiated settlement. As A.J Nicholls argues, the Germans were not treated as equal participants during the peace conference. This also lead to the German people believing that they would have got better terms without the Kaiser and Imperial Government. However, with Germany in a near state of civil war the allies put the final nails in the coffin, either Germany signed the treaty as it stood or war would begin again.

    • Word count: 2113
  3. Describe the short term causes of WW1.

    will increase. This shows how rivalry between Austria-Hungary and Serbia came about 'Nationalism' could have been the reason why the Serbs were so keen on going back to Serbia, as they believed that each nationality should rule themselves, this was a very big threat to empires, as empires were built upon many nationalities, for example Austria-Hungary was made up off 11 different nationalities, meaning that if they all believed in nationalism, the empire would be separated, leaving what was once a strong and powerful empire weak and wounded.

    • Word count: 2014
  4. Why did war break out in Europe in 1939

    There were in fact several reasons for invading. Japan needed raw materials such as coal, iron and oil as they were lacking. Only 15% of Japan was habitable so living space was required for the growing population, Japan was suffering from depression and many people were starving, a foreign policy success would take peoples minds off of this. Japan was left out of the Treaty of Versailles when it came to giving land away so they needed to build an empire of their own.

    • Word count: 2152
  5. Evacuation of Children

    The date is September 1939, it was from the time of the events were happening, therefore it is a primary source, but the time was during censorship, so therefore the purpose of the source is questioned. From my own knowledge in September 1939, the Phoney War had just taken place and the British government wanted to encourage parents to send their children away for people to foster them. Source C is an interview in 1988 with a teacher who tells of her account as a teacher being evacuated with children from her school. Firstly, it is an interview in 1988.

    • Word count: 2356
  6. AMR essay

    While the invasion itself was a successful operation it caused havoc back in the United States. As demonstrated when 100,000 protesters showed up in Washington D.C. to demonstrate their anger with the decision of invasion2. Nixon's policy of "Vietnamization"3, which included training Vietnamese soldiers to replace American soldiers, worked well and by 1971 has sent many American troops back to the United States. At the same time Nixon also had his right-hand man Henry Kissinger in secret discussion with North Vietnamese forces, discussing peace negotiations. America and North Vietnam reached a ceasefire agreement on January 27, 1973, which officially withdrew Americans from Vietnam and allowed them to achieve "peace with honor"4.

    • Word count: 2464
  7. In February 1943, the German Army surrendered at Stalingrad, Was Hitlers interference the main reason for this defeat? Explain your answer.

    However when attacking Stalingrad the army failed and in the following writing I am going to determine whether Hitler's interference is to blame for the failed attack. When Germany set out for their attack on Russia they knew that they would have to complete the assault in a short period. They set off to complete Barbarossa in June 1941 which left them until the winter before the attack would become increasingly harder. When Stalingrad was engaged in fighting on 17th July 1942, they did not have much time to attack and overrun the city.

    • Word count: 2245
  8. World War 1 - long and short term causes of the war.

    As a result Long Term Cause 3 - The Arms Race:- After 1897, the German government began to build an enormous navy to challenge the British navy - one of the biggest in the world. Britain had a rule. The rule was that they must have a bigger fleet than the next two biggest in line. For example; > Britain has a navy with 20,000 ships > Germany has a navy with 11,000 ships > Russia has a navy with 8,000 ships This means that Britain have a bigger fleet than the next two in line: 20 ??11+8 = 20 ??19 = Rule Works :)

    • Word count: 2007
  9. Long term Causes of World War 1

    There had been several crises before in the decade before 1914 and those involving the major powers in Europe had been settled peacefully. So did something go wrong in the handling of the crisis, or did one or more of the countries involved exploit the situation to plunge Europe into war? (The view that somehow Europe simply stumbled into World War 1 by accident is generally not accepted by historians). It is at this point that controversy begins. The Austrian Response to the assassination The Austrians delivered an "ultimatum" to Serbia an ultimatum that was almost guaranteed to be turned down by Serbia.

    • Word count: 2063
  10. World War I Coursework

    Another turning point in the war was Russia pulling out of the war. In October 1917, there was a Communist revolution in Russia and in March 1918, they pulled out of the war. All German troops were then transferred to the Western front; they were no longer fighting on two fronts and so were stronger on the Western front. Using the extra forces, they launched the Spring Offensive which proved very successful, however, they were too successful and supplies couldn't keep up with the, and so they had to attack. They pushed the Allies back over twenty miles, but then they ran out of supplies, meaning their troops were exhausted, underfed and had low morale.

    • Word count: 2434
  11. History Sourcework- Field Marshal Haig Final

    The purpose of the source must also be taken into account, as it is a comedy, and would not necessarily use accurate facts and it is notable that the source was released after the casualty figures, which were not present at the time of Source A. In conclusion, both sources are useful for representing Haig's reputation at their respective times, as Source A shows how people thought of him as a general after the war, but with limited knowledge of what went on.

    • Word count: 2014
  12. Why the League of Nations Failed?

    In short, Italy was committed to defend Germany and Austria-Hungary only in the event of a 'defensive' war; arguing that their actions were 'offensive' she declared instead a policy of neutrality. The following year, in May 1915, she finally joined the conflict by siding with the Allies against her two former allies. The treaty of Versailles was set on 28th June in 1919. It was signed by France, Britain, USA and Germany at the Palace of Versailles near Paris. It only dealt with Germany; it had over 400 clauses and ran for more then 200 pages.

    • Word count: 2080
  13. World War 1 - The role of the Alliance System

    The Alliance System was 6 countries, allied into two sets of three. They were the main powers of Europe. Germany wanted to maintain and grow its power in Europe, it was going to try and ally itself with Austria-Hungary, Russia, Britain and Italy. This would isolate France. In 1879, Germany and Austria-Hungary formed the 'Dual Alliance', and then three years later, Germany pulled Italy into the alliance, making it the 'Triple Alliance'. However, ruining Germany's plans, France allied with Russia in 1893 (Franco-Russian Alliance)

    • Word count: 2306
  14. Why Did A Stalemate Develop On The Western Front?

    Germany couldn't go straight through France because heavily allies defended the Franco-German borders. The Schlieiffen plan had to be put to work. Germany thought they will be able to march through Belgium and Luxembourg to quickly knock France out of the war; they have done it before they will do it again. They would think that Russia would take time mobilise; it was an all-or-nothing gamble. The main route through Belgium would be through the flat plains of Flanders; 34 divisions would be use to march through Belgium and 8 divisions would be used to hold back the German advance from the German borders.

    • Word count: 2150
  15. The following were equally important reasons why the stalemate on the Western Front were broken: Development of new technology, the American entry into the war, the blockading of German ports and the German offensive of 1918. Explain how far you agree wit

    An example of this is the Maxim machine gun. Invented by Hiram Maxim in 1884, the British were reluctant to use it efficiently/place any dependence on them during the First World War, due to its "unreliability in battle" The Germans obtained the design and consequently used the weapon the devastating use on the battlefield. However, by the later years of the war, both sides were rapidly developing new technologies that would play a crucial part in breaking the stalemate on the Western Front.

    • Word count: 2018
  16. The new deal was not a complete success". How far do you agree with this statement?

    This act was introduced because Roosevelt wanted to prevent this disaster from happening again. If Roosevelt did not shut the banks then more banks would have gone bankrupt, this would then have lead to an increase in unemployment because banks would have made workers redundant therefore unemployment would have been caused. This would have seriously affected the economy because demand would have gone down resulting in a slow in the economy because less demand means less demand for products this automatically cuts jobs because the firm may have realised that people don't buy that product anymore, therefore the firms will layoff workers, which will cause more unemployment.

    • Word count: 2176
  17. WWII Essays

    Germany saw this as an indirect declaration of war. So as much as we wanted not to get involved it could not be helped. On one side, Eng begging us for help, our long time ally and on the other side Japan was provoking us with acts of violence. The US could not run away from being dragged into their problems. We needed to keep our alliance with Eng and we needed to create defenses because Japan kept violating our neutrality.

    • Word count: 2000
  18. How fair was the treaty of Versailles?

    Britain had suffered huge casualties in the war and the general public was demanding revenge. He had also announced in the 1918 election campaign that he expected Germany to pay as much as she could for the damage she had caused. Lloyd George was also prepared to see Germany's military strength reduced. On the other hand he was also aware that the new Weimar leaders of Germany were different to those of the Kaiser's time and that an over harsh treaty might undermine them and create a weak Germany. He was also concerned that if the peace treaty humiliated Germany it might provoke a Bolshevik revolution.

    • Word count: 2547
  19. WW1-planning for war, major battles. War at sea and in the air.

    Britain might enter the war if Belgium was attacked. The Outbreak of War France was happy to be going to war, there was a sense of settling old scores after a humiliating defeat by Germany in 1871. Russia saw the war as an exciting affair and saw the soldiers "dancing" off to war. Even the Germans thought of the war as a good thing. 1914 - The war begins... What went wrong with the German plans? 1. The Schlieffen Plan * It started off well, Moltke who had taken over from Schlieffen had led his army off to war and taken: Liege, Luxembourg, Brussels, Lille and Riems.

    • Word count: 2262
  20. To what extent was the unification of Prussia due to weaknesses of Austria?

    Firstly, the mere idea that ever since 1815 Metternich, the Austrian minister, wanted to maintain the continued security of Austrian great-power status within a stable, non-revolutionary Europe rather than to achieve unification certainly played to her disadvantage as by refusing unification, she allowed another state like Prussia to fill in the vacuum. Although Austria emerged as the dominating Germanic power at the peace conference held in Vienna in 1815 and set up the German Confederation, thus being superior to Prussia in terms of influence, Austria was absent from the first trace of a more unified German state- the Zollverein.

    • Word count: 2472
  21. Explain why events in the Balkans contributed to the growth of international tension in the years 1908 - 1914.

    This resulted in the eventual drifting apart of the two countries over the Balkans, which increased international tension to such an extent, that eventually the major European powers were forced into two opposing camps of three, centered around the tension between Russia and Austria - Hungary: the Triple Alliance, consisting of Germany, Austria - Hungary and Italy and the Triple Entente, consisting of Great Britain, France and Russia. All appeared to be settled in the Balkans up until 1908, but tensions between the opposing alliances mounted to a crescendo.

    • Word count: 2029
  22. The First World War was the result of a badly mismanaged Balkan Crisis in the summer of 1914 rather than the product of long-standing rivalries between the Great Powers.

    After losing her Central ally Russia was facing even more problems of her own. Since the decline of the Ottoman Empire Russia; Austria-Hungary and other smaller, local powers had been attempting to expand their empires. This meant that they were obviously coming into conflict with each other during the competition for territories. The tension caused was increased even more by Russian encouragement of Slav-nationalism since the growth of it was a threat to Austria-Hungary's unstable empire. These problems established some of the long-term rivalries that existed amongst the Powers in 1914.

    • Word count: 2410
  23. WHY WAS GERMANY SO DISCONTENTED WITH THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES

    During the time the peace treaty as being deliberated, Great Britain was still using its naval tactic of blockading as an almost consequential blackmail if they were to refuse. Germany was also in no form to begin another war against the victorious and was pushed for time to stop possible communist gatherings, rebellions or revolts happening- therefore felt it was forced to sign it (nevertheless, an example of Germany's reluctance was of the infamous scuttle, of where the ships that were set to be given to Great Britain were deliberately sunk).

    • Word count: 2101
  24. "The Versailles Peace Settlement failed to secure British Foreign Policy interests"

    How it didn't (failed to) secure British Foreign policy Did not enforce restrictions on armaments Very little was paid in terms of reparations ESSAY There are reasons for why the Versailles Peace Settlement both did and did not in some respects secure British Foreign Policy at the time it was announced and the years following. Main foreign policy for the British government revolved around European Peace, global as well as continental (like most of its policies) so that Britain could protect the empire that she had previously built up.

    • Word count: 2356
  25. ITALIAN UNIFICATION

    After the Congress of Vienna divided the Italian peninsula among the European powers, especially Austria, Carbonari spread into the Papal States, the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy of Modena and into the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia. The government feared them so much that anyone who was caught attending one of their meetings would be condemned to death. Most leaders of the unification movement were members of this organization. The different aims of the four leaders of the Unification: Cavour- sought unity by expelling Austria from the North and gradually and peacefully annexing the South.

    • Word count: 2521

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • " ... The most important reason why Germany hated the treaty Of Versailles was the loss of territory..." discuss

    "In conclusion I believe that it was a combination of 4 main factors, the Diktat which basically meant that all the other things had to happen, the War Guilt Clause which would have caused irreparable damage to their ego, the loss of land that left them weak and vulnerable and the reparations which crippled them economically. It was a combination of these three factors which destroyed Germany."

  • "Britains foreign policy changed between 1900-1907" - Assess the Truth in this Opinion.

    "In Conclusion, the statement "Britain's foreign policy changed between 1900-1907" is essentially true but only to a certain extent. Britain's foreign policy grew. They still employed the same Imperial foreign policies but due to complications to retain their colonies they needed assistance from others. With the threat of Germany, as well, Britain needed to be secure. Under Kaiser Wilhelm II the German navy expanded rapidly and this made Britain anxious about the security of her island. Britain has a very small army and if their navy was matched there could be serious consequences. The thought of invasion encouraged the government to take measure to neutralise the threat by forming closer ties with other powers but Lansdowne figured he could protect Britains Empire at the same time."

  • "The breakdown of the Concert of Europe was mainly caused by disagreements amongst the Powers over the issue of intervention." Discuss the validity of this statement.

    "In conclusion, mutual agreement on basic objecttive is very important if congresses are to be successful. When deciding the use of concerted efforts to solve international probelms, the Allied powers and Britain had different views regarding the intervention of internal affairs of other states. They did not compromise and at last caused the breakdown of the Concert of Europe. However, the importance of insincerity of the Powers, disorganization of the congresses and the death of Castlereagh should not be neglected too. Grade: B This document was downloaded from Coursework.Info - The UK's Coursework Database -"

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