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GCSE: International relations 1900-1939

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  1. (3) How did the hostility between Austria and Serbia lead to the outbreak of War

    Austria saw Serbia as greatest troublemaker and military plans were made to destroy Serbia. * After the first Balkan War, a new state Albania was created on suggestion of Austria to block Serbia's path to Adriatic Sea. This increased tension between Austria and Serbia. * After the Balkan Wars, Serbia became the biggest winner; her size of territories doubled and emerged as the leading Balkan power that posed a threat to Austria.

    • Word count: 433
  2. (2) Why and how did the alliance system lead to the outbreak of War

    This suspicion prevented their diplomats from devising a suitable solution to many of the crisis preceding to war. Thirdly, since the European powers had made alliances with one another, any quarrel between countries within the two camps would easily involve all other countries of the camp. e.g. Serb vs Austria - to WWI. Fourthly, the powers became less willing to settle disputes by peaceful means as they believed their allies would give them military support. e.g. Blank Check - to war Fifthly, the alliances were originally strictly defensive but by 1910, many alliances had changed their nature.

    • Word count: 525
  3. As demonstrated by these five historians, the theories on the primary cause of WWI are extremely varied. While both Schmitt and Taylor

    Since 1870, European politics had been characterized by secret alliances and rivalling military and imperial expansion. These elements combined created an environment inclined to war, but do not justify its outbreak in 1914. Previously, all the military alliances in Europe had been passive, defensive agreements. However, in 1912, the Franco-Russian alliance was altered to become an offensive treaty, through which the Russian and French diplomats, Izvolski and Poincare respectively, hoped to achieve the repossession of Alsace-Lorraine, and control of the Straits. They understood that it would require a general European War to achieve these aims, and therefore planned their provocation in such a way that as many countries as possible would be drawn in, with the majority on their side.

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  4. France for Tourists

    These people who live in the relaxed provinces, lead for the most part, a prescribed and traditional lifestyle. The elegant expensive cities of France such as the world-renowned capitol Paris and the famous Monte Carlo offer endless opportunities for those who enjoy a look in the shops or a flutter in the casinos. The Provinces however, offer the chance to escape the liveliness of these cities, and is what makes France such a unique country with its massive range of environments and societies.

    • Word count: 1067
  5. The apparent division of the Great Powers after 1830 into two opposing ideological camps, the Liberal Alliance and the Holy Alliance, contained a potential threat to the working of the Concert of Europe

    As Carlos was supported by the absolutists in both Spain and Portugal, Ferdinand's widow turned to the constitutionalists for support. The French, who had become supporters of constitutionalism, offered Great Britain an alliance in 1834, to work together in support of the constitutional governments in Spain and Portugal. Although Palmerston rejected the offer, in 1834 he accepted a wider Quadruple Alliance of Britain, France, Portugal and Spain in order to defend constitutional institutions and to exclude Miguel from Portugal and Carlos from Spain.

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  6. The Long Term Causes of WW2 World War Two was not caused solely by short term events in the 1930's such as Austria and

    This process set the mould for the 1930's and any would-be dictator would have been very well aware that the League did not have the ability to enforce its decisions as it lacked an army. Those nations that were best equipped to provide the League with a military force (Britain and France) were also not prepared to do so for domestic reasons and the aftermath of the Great War in which so many were killed or wounded. From a political point of view, the British and French publics would not have tolerated a military involvement in an area of Europe that no-one had heard of.

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  7. What Caused World War One? It has been suggested that naval rivalry was the main cause of World War One

    To try and prevent this from happening Britain launched the new state of the art battleship, the 'Dreadnought' in 1906. In response to this Germany built their own dreadnoughts and widened the Kiel Canal to enable its navy to enter the north and Baltic sea. This sparked off a race between Germany and Britain; build as many ships as quickly as possible, which became particularly vicious during 1911-1914. In total Britain produced 18 Dreadnoughts which were constructed in Scotland. This whole ordeal contributed to World War One because it caused great tension between two of the most powerful countries in Europe.

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  8. How far can Germany be held responsible for WWI?

    The Kaiser's insistence to make Germany a distinguished power and his use of foreign policy to draw attention away from domestic issues and gain public support was another feature, which encouraged fear for Germany within Europe. The Kaiser's antics, such as in the case of both Moroccan incidents, angered his neighbors and drew their patience thin. Germany during this time also consisted of one of the most highly trained, educated and skilled armies. Industrialization within Germany was booming, allocating more money to be spent on military reforms, etc.

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    During the time the peace treaty as being deliberated, Great Britain was still using its naval tactic of blockading as an almost consequential blackmail if they were to refuse. Germany was also in no form to begin another war against the victorious and was pushed for time to stop possible communist gatherings, rebellions or revolts happening- therefore felt it was forced to sign it (nevertheless, an example of Germany's reluctance was of the infamous scuttle, of where the ships that were set to be given to Great Britain were deliberately sunk).

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  10. How and why did Piedmont-Sardinia play an important part in Italian Unification

    One of the most significant undertakings was the campaign for the building of railways. It was clear to men like Cavour (who in the 1840s was active in providing rails for the Turin-Genoa line, and in helping to found banks to fund the operations) that railways would transform the Italian economy by linking the various regions together and creating new trading opportunities. Even D'Azeglio (prime minister of Piedmont before Cavour [1852]) was noted to remark that railways, which started with the Lombardo-Venetian line in 1835, "would provide stitching for the Italian boot". The campaign for railways was not only economical but it was also political.

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  11. Should France have invited Germany to taken part in the sixtieth D-Day commemoration in 2004

    The post war period is over and more than 50 years of French partnerships in NATO and the EU have reconciled the nations. France has a responsibility to unite internally and externally against future conflicts and terrorism, so that such atrocities won't have the chance to be repeated. Nowadays, for France, D-Day has become representative of the struggle for freedom and democracy, which is symbolic of France's resistance movement.

    • Word count: 522
  12. There are many causes of World War one, some long term and some short term

    Prussia, which was the main state of Germany at the time, had a war with France. Germany was not a well developed country and only after this war did they start to build an empire the felt they deserved. Everybody expected France to win the war of the Prussians but unexpectedly the Prussians won and they gained control of Alsace and Lorraine. Although Alsace and Lorraine was mostly populated by French, Prussia claimed that it was theirs and won the battle and control over Alsace and Lorraine. This made the French angry for revenge. This can be seen as the point where the feud in Europe started.

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  13. The Successes and Failures of the Treaty of Versailles in Addressing the Causes of Conflict and Restoring Peace and Normality

    The League of Nations, which was written into the Treaty of Versailles, had an aim of addressing the causes of conflict and restoring and maintaining peace and normality by an unprecedented level of international co-operation although had some initial success, was ultimately a failure. During the 1920s, the League of Nations had several successes in preventing conflict, settling the Yugoslavia-Albania dispute, resulting in the withdrawal of Yugoslavian troops from Albania. It also created a feeling of increased international understanding and therefore security, allowing 15 major powers to sign the Kellog-Briand Pact, which stated that the participating nations would reject 'war as an instrument of national policy'.

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  14. Is the Treaty of Versailles justified?

    That is the reason why the treaty has taken so long to finalise. The main aims of the final treaty are: *To stop a war happening again. *Make Germany pay for the damage caused by the war. So that countries can rebuild their economies. *Punish Germany for the start of the war. The terms of the treaty can be divided into 5 parts: War guilt- The Germans have accepted the blame for starting the war. Germany's armed forces- The army has been limited to 100,000 men, conscription has been banned, No aircraft, armoured vehicles or Submarines allowed, only six battleships and the Rhineland has now become a demilitarised zone.

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  15. The impact of the treaty of Versailles on Germany

    The economy in Germany is already in tatters all our colonies and main sources of making money have been taken away from us, I don't know how the British and the French think we are going to repay them. We have tried to reason with them but they just ignore us. We paid �50 million for our first instalment in 1921 but last year we just couldn't afford to pay it. Our leader Ebert tried his best to negotiate for more time, but the French just ran out of patience.

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  16. To what extent can it be said that the First World War was caused by the alliance system?

    An example of this was when the Franco-Russo Alliance was formed, which caused Germany to be in fear of encirclement. As a result, Germany evoked hostility amidst its neighbours. Thus, this demonstrates that the alliance system was a cause of WWI because it created unnecessary tensions throughout Europe - thus, a cause of WWI. Among the other problems of the alliance system were the expectations of the countries that had plunged into war. The dangerous effect of the formation of the alliances was that it forced countries to support their allies.

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  17. Explain the part played by the land fronts other than the western front in the allies' victory in World War 1

    They were wrong in each of these cases. Germany planned to cut through Belgium and meet the rest of the army in Paris dispose of France easily and move on to attack Russia. Russia attack straight away meaning that Germany that to leave a great deal of men on the eastern front lowering the pressure on the western front, this shows how the eastern front was important from the outset, where it was most important to win ground. Belgium did resisted attack and this meant the two armies could not meet in Paris.

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  18. "The Versailles Peace Settlement failed to secure British Foreign Policy interests"

    How it didn't (failed to) secure British Foreign policy Did not enforce restrictions on armaments Very little was paid in terms of reparations ESSAY There are reasons for why the Versailles Peace Settlement both did and did not in some respects secure British Foreign Policy at the time it was announced and the years following. Main foreign policy for the British government revolved around European Peace, global as well as continental (like most of its policies) so that Britain could protect the empire that she had previously built up.

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    After the Congress of Vienna divided the Italian peninsula among the European powers, especially Austria, Carbonari spread into the Papal States, the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy of Modena and into the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia. The government feared them so much that anyone who was caught attending one of their meetings would be condemned to death. Most leaders of the unification movement were members of this organization. The different aims of the four leaders of the Unification: Cavour- sought unity by expelling Austria from the North and gradually and peacefully annexing the South.

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  20. To what extent was Austria the main obstacle to the unification of Italy in the period 1815-1849

    The Austrian chancellor Metternich had a totally negative and reactionary approach meaning that he was strongly opposed to nationalism and had no intention of allowing nationalist ideas to undermine Austrian control. This meant that there was little chance for nationalists to work for a united Italy as they would be immediately suppressed and crushed. The military supremacy of the Austrians was evident in the revolutions of 1820 and 1831. In 1821 the Austrians crushed the revolution in Naples led by General Pepe and also defeated the Turin Rebels who had tried to defend the constitution granted by Charles Albert.

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  21. Why did it prove impossible to solve the problems created by Balkan nationalism before 1914

    The Bosnian crisis of 1908 resulted form the annexation of the Balkan provinces of Bosnia-Herzegovina by Austria Hungary. This riled Serbian nationalism, and thus caused them to look to their Russian allies whom were already angered by the move that was in direct defiance of the 1879 Treaty of Berlin between the two powers that had agreed upon keeping status quo in the Balkans. Russia's desires for influence in the area and an increase in Pan Slav nationalism were becoming even more obviously at odds with Austria Hungary desires for control over the Balkans 9 their 49% Slav empire depended to dampening such nationalism).

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  22. To what extent was The Treaty of Versailles fair, and what were the consequences for Germany?

    * Part of Germany was given to Poland so that the new country would have access to the sea at Danzig (Gdansk). This separated East Prussia from the rest of Germany. * The Rhineland was demilitarized, no soldiers, military equipment or buildings were allowed within 30 miles of the east bank of the river. Although these consequences mentioned above were awaful for Germany, the biggest problem that they had was article 231 (war guilt clause) stated in the Treaty of Versailles.

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  23. '"The FirstWorld War was the result of a badly mismanaged Balkan crisis in the summer of1914 rather than the product of long-standing rivalries between the greatpowers."

    The rivalry over the Balkan area at this time was also very strong, with Germany and Austria-Hungary uniting, creating a 'super power' in order to conquer the Balkans - in 1879, the Dual Alliance had been formed between the two countries in order to accomplish this. Serbian nationalism was beginning to grow in Serbia, which consequently were starting to cause unrest in rivalries such as Austria-Hungary. Even though not completely related to the First World War, the Anglo-German naval rivalry did increase tension - one cause for quarrel between the alliances was to do with the size and power of their armed forces, especially their navies.

    • Word count: 1980
  24. Why was there a stalemate at the western front?

    Even theorists from ancient warfare had far more reason on their side , for example Sun Tzu ( to pretend he was just a single person ) writes: "Victory is the main object of war ... delay ... [means] morale [is] depressed." "[When leadership morale diminishes] ... advisors ... [will do badly]." "Do not put a premium on killing. To subdue the enemy without fighting is the acme of skill. Capturing [an enemy soldier] is better than killing [him]. Attack first the enemy's strategy, second his alliances, third his army, and lastly his cities and strongholds ."

    • Word count: 698

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