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GCSE: International relations 1945-1991

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  1. Castro, Independent Participant or Soviet p**n?

    It has never been possible to prove this theory in light of conflicting opinions and facts. Such facts as the first offensive manoeuvre when Castro ordered his troops to fire on an American U2 spy plane. It was this event that forced President Kennedy to act in protection of the USA. Apart from the use of Russian missiles to bring down the plane, there is no evidence to prove that Russia was involved in the making of this decision. It is strongly believed that Castro made this decision based on the spur of the moment when the US spy plane entered Cuban air space.

    • Word count: 1649
  2. Castro's Cuban social revolution.

    Rather the USA justified such action by ethnocentrically doubting Cuba's ability to govern itself. As the USA's doubts grew so did their control on Cuba's politics. Not only did the US control the Cuban government with policies, but also in 1906 they began to send the navy. US officials, Magoon and later Crowder basically ruled Cuba from their ships in the bay. The USA's intervention escalated even further in the FDR administration to supporting Batista's Sergeant's Revolt in overthrowing the Machado administration. At this point the USA exerted total control over Cuba's government by instating a favorable regime in office.

    • Word count: 813
  3. How far was the USA's military involvement in the conflict in Korea the consequence of a desire to defend democracy?

    South Korea was run by Syngman Rhee. Supported by the Americans he was the 'democratically' elected leader of South Korea. Along with the rest of his government he was extremely corrupt. He suppressed much of the political opposition to him. Although he carried the title of President, he was more like a dictator. His methods were well known to the USA. However he was a staunch anti communist and that was the most important thing to the Americans.. One of the major factor for American intervention had to be containment.

    • Word count: 828
  4. The Environmental, Social and Ethical Consequences of mining, processing and using Uranium.

    This increases radiation risks to the workers, and environmental contamination. To obtain uranium, pitchblende goes through complex milling processes so that in the end it can be sold to nuclear reactors, in a form known as yellow cake (with the chemical symbol U3O8). First, pitchblende is grinded in small grains to increase its surface area, preparing it for the leaching process where it will be treated with strong acids. Then water is added to make it easier for the pitchblende to be transported by pumps to where the leaching process with take place.

    • Word count: 1280
  5. Discuss the reasons why Germany was central to Cold War rivalry between 1945 and 1949.

    The indecisive conferences designed to agree on post war Europe ended with no clear plan for Europe. Germany was split into 4 zones controlled by the USA, Russia, Britain and France who controlled it through the Allied Control Council. The council were at first successful in agreeing to set up ministries and initiatives such as the Ministry of Transport but the French vetoed the ideas because they were intent on not allowing Germany to rise again because as the traditionalists say they feared another invasion so they didn't want to even allow a remote chance of it happening again occur by keeping Germany's economy in a very weak state.

    • Word count: 2763
  6. How Far Was Gorbachev Responsible For The End Of Soviet Union?

    and that he had "overreached himself" (ZA P73). Flaws in his character had caused him to take on reform on a scale he could not handle and this lead to destabilization. This quote is confirmed by the fact "[he was] unaware the scale of the crisis" (R+FotSE P111) and "Gorbachev's task [was] too big" (MG+tEoSP P16). Naivety is a weakness because it makes decisions inaccurate and not as strong as they should be. There was also an element of ego in Gorbachev that could have affected his power, leading too actions which would be done to save personal face, for example he would disavow orders that he gave to troops to open fire on nationalist protestors in Tbilisi, Georgia (ZA P84).

    • Word count: 5382
  7. Little girl's destination.

    She was so thirsty and stopped to look for a little drink. She saw a little pond on the right hand side, with lots of ducks surrounding the pond. She decides to have a little drink before she carries on walking. She was so anxious about her self because she didn't have any one to look after her. She wished her mother and father were alive, which gave her lots of love when she was small. The love from her parents has now been shattered, she cried alone near big rocks. Her life is completely different now she fought.

    • Word count: 858
  8. The Cold War-Who was to blame?

    Therefore the USA committed the first act of war. The USA was also at fault, for the reason that they discovered that atom b**b first. This escalated the cold war, and made the USSR feel very insecure. The development of such weapons, could be seen as the USA was trying to antagonise the USSR, or put them down. * The USSR was to blame. The USSR could have been at fault, because of the way that they reacted to the USA's boosting of western Germany's economy.

    • Word count: 761
  9. Should George Bush Press Ahead with his Plans for National Missile Defence?

    As Vladimir Putin said, it is "like hitting a bullet with a bullet"2. The overarching aim of this system is, as President Bush states, "to protect all fifty states - and our friends and allies and deployed forces overseas - from missile attacks by rogue nations, or accidental launches..."3 It is important to note that this essay will not deal with the technical aspect of NMD, regarding the differing options available, a discussion best left to the experts. This essay will tackle the political questions that it raises regarding foreign affairs and the impact on global security.

    • Word count: 3070
  10. Why did the USA believe it was losing the Cold War in the 1950's?

    In early September Mao's declaration of a Communists Peoples Republic of China sent shockwaves throughout the USA with people believing Stalin was spreading the word of communism and that the President Truman had been to 'soft' on the issue. Many American's now felt that with such a large country falling to communism then the forces of freedom and capitalism seemed under threat. To further add to the USA's dismay in 1949 the USSR makes its first test of the A-b**b meaning it has once again caught up to the USA in the arm's race leading to fears that the USSR would soon match and eventually take over the West in terms of arms production.

    • Word count: 1253
  11. Sociologists and views on family structure.

    The nuclear family was a streamlined unit, which still performed essential functions such as procreation and care of children. Another functionalist, Goode (1963), argues that all over the world the traditional extended family form has been or is in the process of being replaced by the universal nuclear family. However, subsequent research has produced a much more complex picture, contradicting the march of progress / theory of transition. In 1995 the historian David Starkey described this traditional picture as 'nonsense, sentimentalism and not founded in historical fact'.

    • Word count: 2115
  12. " Individuals do not 'shape' historical events; the best they can do is to respond to opportunities." With reference to one or more individuals you have studied, how far do you support this claim?

    Che not only spoke of the fighting, but of what a revolutionary's duty was after the war was over. These ideas were very present around the world in nations where guerrilla warfare was being utilised to fight their oppressors. People all around the world scrutinised his every move, waiting to see what he would do next. Che's plan concerning the future of Cuba was often a topic of many debates. When Che became the Minister of Industry for Cuba shortly after the revolution, he imposed many ideas that were foreign to the country's prior state that would bring changes to Cuba's poor and working people.

    • Word count: 3055
  13. Was the Cuban Missile Crisis a Success for Containment?

    The argument that I am going to argue is that the Cuban missile crisis was a success for containment. Arguments For The Cuban missile crisis was a success for containment because America managed to get the nuclear missiles off of Cuba. This is a success because the USA got the USSR to take the nuclear weapons off of Cuba and secretly took their missiles off of Turkey. Kennedy did this without telling anybody in the USA that he was doing so, therefore the citizens of the USA were total unaware of anything. So in this case containment helped the USA get rid of the threat of having most of their major cities destroyed.

    • Word count: 701
  14. "Describe and explain where applicable the socio-economic, political and environmental factors that influence the residents in the UK and USA."

    A member of the EU, it chose to remain outside the European Monetary Union for the time being. Constitutional reform is also a significant issue in the UK. The Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, and the Northern Ireland Assembly were established in 1999. Britain's American colonies broke with the mother country in 1776 and were recognized as the new nation of the United States of America following the Treaty of Paris in 1783. During the 19th and 20th centuries, 37 new states were added to the original 13 as the nation expanded across the North American continent and acquired a number of overseas possessions.

    • Word count: 1541
  15. Why did relations between the USA and the USSR change in the peroid from the end of the Second World War to the begginning of the Berlin Blockade?

    This in turn meant that Stalin now occupied most of Eastern Europe except Yugoslavia Albania and Greece, in a quest to protect the heart of the USSR from another invasion to reoccur. This was called the Buffer Zone. Next in the long history between the West and East, was that the prime Minister of the U.K, Winston Churchill, made a speech addressing this problem. There were mixed reactions to this. To begin with, the speech was generally outlining what was actually going on in the East so that Westerners would get a good Perspective of the goings on in the East of the continent.

    • Word count: 1698
  16. How widespread was intolerance in the USA in the 1920's.

    The r****m towards immigrants took another turn for the worse by an increased fear of communism. The USA watched with fear as Russia became communist after the Russian revolution in 1917. It worried the Americans that the more recent European and Russian immigrants were bringing similar drastic ideas with them to their USA communities. There was numerous reasons to be fearful when almost 400,000 American workers went on strike . Even the police in Boston went on strike ; looters and theives raided the city's stores and houses; there were 25 riots in towns. Many Americans saw these strikes as worrying signs of Communist interference.

    • Word count: 671
  17. Begrepet Kald Krig.

    Tyskland m�tte okkuperes og det ble delt i 4 okkupasjonssoner (Sovjet, Storbritannia, Frankrike og USA). Berlin ble ogs� delt. Andre konsekvenser for tyskland var at landet ble nedrustet industri konsern ble oppl�st, forbud mot n**i. organisasjoner og Sovjet fikk 1/2 av krigsskade erstatningene. Hele �st Europa var n� viktig for Sovjetunionens tilgang til r�stoff og teknologi. �st Tyskland ble t�mt for ressurser og krigsfanger ble brukt som gratis arbeidskraft. Berlinblokkaden startet med at det ble innf�rt ny valuta i vest tyskland, selv om landet egentlig skulle behandles som en enhet. Denne valutaen gjaldt ogs� vest berlin.

    • Word count: 1494
  18. Explain why the United States became increasingly involved in Vietnam.

    The first of these is the Cold War. This was a battle between communism and capitalism and the biggest countries that represented these views, capitalist USA and communist USSR. After World War 2 USA was very anti communist and the USSR became very anti capitalist. The president of the USA then decided that any country in need of help and was under the threat of communism would get this help from the USA. This was known as the Truman Doctrine, Martial aid would also be given to these countries to encourage them away from communism.

    • Word count: 1427
  19. How Pleased Would Truman Have Been By the Implementation of His Plan In the Years Up To 1962?

    Therefore Germany was divided into 4 sectors, an American, a French, a British and a Soviet. The same was done with Berlin which was in the Soviet sector. Berlin was divided because it was seen as an important city for Germany and an 'Oasis' for the eastern world. Stalin thought that the Allies used their areas as a provocative act where they would show how close they could get to Russia. Stalin consequently decided to set-up a Blockade in Berlin where he cut electricity supply and blocked roads leading towards and out of the Soviet Section.

    • Word count: 1201
  20. The integration and fragmentation of Europe and its implications.

    Although the two sides had agreed to control their respective sides of Germany and the capital Berlin, tension and unrest between the two sides was rampant. This led to the USSR refusing to allow supplies to be carried through their territory to West Berlin by the Western allies. The only way to get supplies to West Berlin was to airlift the supplies in, and so this is what the Western allies did, in huge quantities. When the USSR realised that there was no way they could stop the West from airlifting supplies into West Berlin they agreed to open up

    • Word count: 1270
  21. How important was anti Americanism in fermenting the Cuban revolution?

    This was the main reason America wanted to hold onto Cuba, and not give them independence. America signed the Treaty of Paris on the 10th of December 1898 and the decision did not incorporate the agreement of the islanders. However, Cuba was allowed to elect their own government on 2May 20 1902 when Cuba was declared a republic. Even though Cuba was considered a republic, the United States had the right to intervene at any time 3'for the preservation of Cuban independence'.

    • Word count: 1898
  22. Were contemporaries correct in regarding President Kennedy as the saviour of the Western World after the Cuban missile crisis?

    He was shot down and kept prisoner for two years. He was released in 1962 in return for the release of Russian spies over in the USA. Although some of these incidents drew the countries further and further apart, one incident, and probably the most dangerous and famous incident during the time of the cold war, was 'The Cuban Missile Crisis'. This incident was the closest the world has ever come to a nuclear war. At this time, the USA and the USSR were developing nuclear weapons.

    • Word count: 1628
  23. John Wyndham's The Chrysalids - Discuss and describe the entire setting of the World in the book - What has happened to the world as we know it?

    Although Seanland and Waknuk exist in the same time, their setting of thought, time, and place were completely different. The world in the story is influence by a nuclear holocaust. Some regions are not affected a lot, such as Sealand. The nuclear war begins in the southern Canada and USA region. This story is approximately several hundreds of years in the future. The east coast of USA is now called "Black Coast", which is affect greatly by the radiation; the only reason to go is suicide. Labrador is warm, so it is ideal for faming. Many species are scatter around the world; many are mutated.

    • Word count: 656
  24. The Cuban Crisis.

    This challenge also allowed Russia to get a fresh example of what the government were willing to do when under threat. With missiles in such a position the USA was under constant threat due to the small amount of time it would take a missile from Cuba to reach America, which gave whoever fired first an advantage.

    • Word count: 523
  25. Why Was The Crisis (in Cuba) Resolved Without War Breaking Out?

    The quarantine came into effect on 22 October at 10:00 am. Most of the ships stopped, including all of the ones that the Americans suspected of carrying missiles. This however was not the end of the crisis, because there were already missiles on Cuba being prepared, and the Americans still needed to eliminate this threat. In order to put pressure on the Russians (who, up to this point had denied that they had been placing missiles on Cuba)

    • Word count: 545

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