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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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Describe and explain the reactions of Unionist groups to the Anglo-Irish Agreement of 1985 and the idea of further links with Southern Ireland.
However in 1985, the 'Anglo-Irish Agreement was signed by the British and Republic. (The full agreement is shown in the Personal Research section of this project.) A joint committee was set up with the two governments to decide matters such as justice, the laws in Northern Ireland and security forces. They all hoped to find ways of getting the Unionists and Nationalists to respect each other's rights and views. Although, the Unionists claimed that since the partition in 1921, the British were allowing the government of the Republic to have a say in the running of the North for the first time.
- Word count: 541
O'Neill resigned in 1969 and British troops were sent to restore the order. Four reforms were also introduced: - 1. Gerrymandering was stopped 2. The 'B Specials' were abolished 3. Houses were allocated more fairly 4. Financial grants were given to new industry All four reforms were unsuccessful and so in 1971 Internment was introduced. This allowed suspected terrorists to be imprisoned without trial. However, this also failed to stop the violence. By 1972 the IRA, the Ulster Volunteer force (UVF)
- Word count: 894
Describe and explain the reactions of unionist groups to the influence of the Catholic Church on life in Ireland since 1921.
The bans remained in place until the 1960's. In 1987, the church's total assets in Dublin alone amounted to �100 million. It owned 234 churches, 473 houses, 713 schools, and 100 community centres in Dublin. In 1979, in the middle of appalling poverty, they spent �2.5 million on the Pope's visit! As well as it's wealth; it has a massive amount of control in State institutions. The Catholic Church worked hand in glove with the British government, while engaging in nationalist posturing to keep its credibility with the masses, and after 1921 worked to prop up the weak Irish ruling class.
- Word count: 595
How did Protestant politicians explain the social economic and political differences between Catholics and Protestants?
Not all politicians felt this way, Terrence O'Neill, for example, even being a Protestant realised that the political differences was not simply about their supposed allegiance to Rome. He admitted that the electoral system was in favour of the Protestants and that I was unfair to the Catholics. This is why he introduced amendments to change it. Politicians like Ian Paisley assumed that the RUC, the courts and the B'Specials did not treat the Catholics unfairly. They claimed that the Catholics were treated more severely because they committed more crimes.
- Word count: 968
Previous attempts at peace in Northern Ireland have failed. What problems need to be overcome if the current peace initiative is to succeed?
Politicians on both sides have been trying to sort this situation for years. For years there were no agreements, just severe punishment for suspected or convicted terrorists. Some religious traditions got in the way of peace too, like the marching of the Orange Order through Nationalist areas. The terrorists on both sides refused to decommission their weapons to help stop the violence. This led to distrust and suspicion of each other. Then, in 1973, William Whitelaw proposed The Power Sharing Executive which involved electing a new assembly to govern Northern Ireland making sure that there were representatives from both the Loyalist and Nationalist sides.
- Word count: 593
Industries had not changed their employment policies. According to a Sunday Times newspaper article (Source1) written in 1961 it tells us that in a Belfast shipyard that had 10,000 workers that was 'the biggest single source of employment in them city -just 400' were Catholics. During this time the Civil service mostly employed Protestants. The newspaper article also states 'the population of Fermanagh was more than half Catholic.' The article tells us despite the more Catholic population the City Council employed 370 people in which, '322 of the posts, including the top ones were filled by Protestants.'
- Word count: 704
Use the sources, and your own knowledge, to explain why this city became a centre of the civil Rights movement in Northern Ireland?
In source E we can see that 14,429 Nationalists voted, whereas only 8,781 Unionists voted. This gives an indication of the religious as well as political range. There are almost twice as many Catholics as Protestants living in the area. Despite this the Protestants had more jobs as we can see in Source A.
- Word count: 329
Strikes and demonstrations followed after Unionists and Loyalists outraged over Dublin been given a role in government of Ireland, but the British government gave little sympathy to the Unionists, After this campaign ran out of steam because Loyalists and Nationalists felt treaty was wrong and wouldn't compromise, violence continued and got worse. Another attempt at peace in my lifetime is the Good Friday agreement in 1998 this was a new Northern Ireland Assembly with 108 members would be set up.
- Word count: 587
The assembly will be suspended if it does not establish the co-operative body within a year. * There would be a new British Irish council. Members will be drawn from the Northern Ireland assembly, the British and Irish governments, and devolved bodies in Wales and Scotland. *The Irish government will amend 2 and 3 of its constitution, which lay claim to Northern Ireland. London will repeal the 1920 Government of Ireland Act. *The British Government will reduce numbers of police and armed forces and remove security installations.
- Word count: 929
Firstly he reviews the Hillsborough Treaty, which was signed in 1985. He especially pinpoints one article in this treaty as being a "bulwark against Irish unity". He then proceeds to summarise the failures of the treaty during the three years since after its signing. A few examples of the British acting as arbitrators in justice are also given. Gerry Adams gives a very good definition of peace not simply the absence of war or conflict but that "it is the existence of conditions of justice and equality that eradicate the causes of war or conflict."
- Word count: 753
What are the chances of peace in Northern Ireland? Choose two events from the last 400 years, which are particularly important in shaping the views of:
English lords asked James II daughter Mary who was a Protestant husband William to rule instead of James II, James then went to France to see Louis XIV who intern gave him troops to fight against William, then in 1689 James went to Ireland to gather more Catholic troops and only Ulster held out against James and Londonderry particularly wouldn't join him, so then James tried to attack Londonderry but wasn't successful, for another 3 months after that a siege followed and many Protestants suffered, but because they suffered for what they believed they became heroes in the Protestant community,
- Word count: 644
But this had not always been the case, Catholics had been continually protesting against the British Protestants taking over Ireland and they had tried many forms of protesting. An example of this would be the Easter Rising in 1916 where they tried to take over the Post office in Dublin. There had also been growing tension during the 1960s. There were many reasons that made the Catholics feel insecure in Northern Ireland during this time. Ireland was facing economic difficulties of high unemployment, with both Catholics and Protestants affected, but the Catholics were most affected.
- Word count: 686
Those who lived in the wrong area were forced out. The Protestants set up the RUC, which was a slack police that allowed arms to be carried. There were terms of the RUC called "special powers" that allowed them to search houses without a warrant, arrest people for suspicion and whip them. These laws were taken for granted and Catholics were discriminated against very badly: "The area was peaceful and deserted at 2am when a mob of policeman came from the city shouting and singing: Hey, hey we're the monkees, And we're still going to monkey around, Till we see your blood flowing, All along the ground They broke windows
- Word count: 742
The orange order encouraged Protestants to discriminate against Catholics. In 1933 sir John Davison (the grandmaster of the orange order) said "...Protestants should employ Protestants." Discrimination was even at the highest levels; Catholics rarely got jobs in the civil service. Richard Dawson Bates (the Minster for home affairs) refused to use his own telephone until the Catholic operator in his department had been changed to a Protestant one. The socialist party was in control and they were making education available and free for everyone.
- Word count: 823
How did the attitudes of the Protestants develop in the 19th Century? (eg towards issues such as Home Rule)
This meant that in the 19th Century the industrial revolution in Britain also developed in the North of Ireland were great industrialization took place. Such as shipyards were built were the biggest ship in the world was made the Titanic.
- Word count: 296
This was even more occurring in areas where Catholics were the majority. Source j is evidence of this, where it shows that there were more Nationalist votes, but there were still more Unionist councillors. Council boundaries were redrawn so that as many protestants as possible were elected. This shows that gerrymandering was in use. Northern Ireland is a democratic country, but it still uses these methods of voting. Gerrymandering is undemocratic.
- Word count: 562