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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85

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  1. Modern World study - The Events of b****y Sunday

    On October 5, 1968 in Derry Northern Ireland, police turned what was a peaceful civil rights demonstration into a small riot. Overwhelming evidence points to an unprovoked attack by the police on the demonstrators with batons. The demonstrators retaliated with stones and petrol bombs. In 1969, England sent in troops to quell riots that had erupted over the inequality. By 1970, a resurrected PIRA was carrying out attacks against the British troops (Byrne, 2001). It is important to note that this escalation in Irish Republican Army (IRA)

    • Word count: 739
  2. Free essay

    Why has b****y sunday been represented in such different ways?

    You can tell that the authors view is biased as he uses strong words to make you fell sympathetic for the marchers and be angry towards the British army. John Mullin uses words like "innocent" and "defenseless" to describe how helpless the marchers and how vicious the army were. John Mullin has developed sympathy as he probably had to ask them about the b****y Sunday incident and to give their view, which could lead him to become more bias. I think this source is reliable as a lot of information is used even though it is trying to prosecute the Para-troopers.

    • Word count: 852
  3. why were british troops sent into Ireland?

    Irish Catholics were furious about the take over of Ireland so they decided to rebel, they burnt houses and barns, crops and food; they also killed thousands of protestants (2000 - 3000). This made England retaliate so they sent a Scottish army of 10,000 men into Ulster and the English army took hold of Cork and Dublin, the rebellion resulted in the whole of Ireland being taken over. When King Charles II died, James II became his successor, the problem with James II being king is that he is catholic.

    • Word count: 938
  4. The main reasons for partition within Ireland

    became increasingly popular and even more so powerful. Sinn Fein had close links to the infamous IRA and strongly supported the believes of being a fully catholic nation. This in many ways caused the Guerrilla war (hit and run terrorism attacks)and led up to the Anglo Irish War, England did not like the idea of Ireland getting this power and England also needed to keep their control over Ireland.

    • Word count: 563
  5. why were british troops sent in to northern ireland in 1969

    Catholics suffered huge discrimination and inequality throughout the 20th century which eventually led to civil rights campaigns. These acts of Catholics sparked sectarian violence across Northern Ireland. On 14th August 1969, during the battle of the Bogside, 500 Catholic houses were torched by Protestants (mainly UVF and Orangemen) who were angry at the Civil Rights movement. As a result of this, British troops were sent into Northern Ireland in an attempt to pacify the conflict. As the Civil Rights movements across the world were growing, so was Irelands' and the reactions of unionists to the movement were violent.

    • Word count: 624
  6. Why were British troops sent into Northern Island in 1969?

    This meant taking vast quantities of land from the Catholics leaving many homeless. This, lead to rebellion against England in 1641 and spread to other parts of Ireland. The rebels managed to reclaim land whilst the English where fighting a civil war. This meant many massacres against the Protestants in Ulster. Once the civil war had concluded with Oliver Cromwell as its head he caused more massacres, this time against the Catholics killing soldiers and civilians before taking more land leaving many starving and ill. The two massacres in the 1640's where recorded and examined in two ways, street history and historically.

    • Word count: 889
  7. Irish History (Unionist/Nationalist) Coursework

    They do not want to be run by the queen. Although all the Catholics share the same goal, they go about it in many different ways. For example the IRA uses very violent methods to achieve what they want. However on the other hand there is the SDLP (Social Democratic Labour Party) are totally committed to democratic, peaceful methods. So although they both want to become an Independent countries there are different ways the two groups try and achieve it.

    • Word count: 641
  8. Do sources H and I support Reverend Ian Paisleys view of the Civil Rights Movement given in Source G? In a television interview Ian Paisley states his views plainly.

    Ian Paisley is trying to link together the IRA and everyone else in the Civil Rights movement. Source I gives clear information on the Civil Rights Association and the personal that supported it. The report was produced for the British Government in the 1970's, and so perhaps we should treat the contents as factually accurate. The report states that 'membership was politically varied and undoubtedly included persons of extreme Republican views and activities'.

    • Word count: 403
  9. (Q1) What Are The Main Differences of Beliefs Between Nationalists/Republicans and Unionists/Loyalists

    Nationalists consider themselves Irish because they do not favour union with Britain. When it comes to election time, unionists usually vote for unionist political parties and Nationalists tend to vote for Nationalist political parties. Most unionists follow the Stormont Government and trust it's leadership but some highly distrust the Irish Government. Nationalists generally support the Irish Government; but most Catholics have a high distrust of the Stormont Government. The distrust in the Governments has increased due to events such as b****y Sunday where the British Army murdered fourteen Catholics. The main political are obviously the Nationalists and Unionists.

    • Word count: 707
  10. history assesment

    I think the aim of the source was to show the dislike between the Irish and the English, however the source is only 1 sided. Source E shows a nineteenth century protestant cartoon, showing Erin (Ireland), bound in ropes by a catholic priest. My interpretation of the image is that Ireland is bound by Catholics and the Catholics keep trying to take over and control Ireland, also if Ireland was rid of the Catholics then Ireland would be free and he protestants could rule Ireland.

    • Word count: 765
  11. What are the main differences between the Catholics and the Protestants

    They are the majority of the population of the whole of Ireland but the minority in Northern Ireland. They hate Protestants, as they remember from history how they grabbed land from Irish Catholics. They also hate the British from when Oliver Cromwell slaughtered thousands of Catholics and how Britain brutally crushing the Easter Rising in 1916. The Loyalists/Unionists/Protestants see themselves as British and want Northern Ireland to stay united with Britain. A Loyalist is a person who is loyal to Britain union and a Unionist wants to be united with Britain. They both feel British forces protect them from terrorism.

    • Word count: 655
  12. Lies of Silense: speech

    We should be able to ensure families that they won't be bombed in their routine lives. Do you want your children living in a dangerous place like that? Every night we have had to bear the horrifying scenes of more killings on television. Seeing those terrifying scenes makes me ask myself, why am I still here? It is because I have faith in Ireland. It will prosper again. Michael Dillon, a hotel manager, was recently brutally killed. Even in England he wasn't safe. We have to stand up and look this struggle in the face, we will fight it, beat it, and defeat it.

    • Word count: 538
  13. What was the main reason why the British army faced many problems during the battle for peace in Free Derry?

    After the Battle of the Blogside, Derry was known as the 'community of revolt'. This was because Free Derry had been uncontrolled for many years, since Derry declared it self independent and separated themselves from the Blogside. This made it hard for the army to prepare for entering Ireland; they did not know what to expect, or how the Irish would react to their arrival.

    • Word count: 484
  14. how did protestant politicians explain social economic and political differences between catholics and protestants

    Politicians blamed that the differences between Catholics and Protestants had been brought about by some historical events such as the plantation schemes, Cromwell's invasion, the Battle of Boyne and the great famine to show how cruel and unjust Catholics were; The Protestants also proved that Catholics were "lazy and untrustworthy traitors who would use terrorism to achieve a united Ireland".

    • Word count: 490
  15. Why were British troops sent to Northern Ireland in August 1969?

    were told to attack anyone who defied the ban on demonstrations with batons... And so after riots started braking out on the 14th of August 1969 British troops were sent into Northern Ireland. Catholic population had recently begun a civil rights movement to try getting the world to notice that they were being treated unfairly. During the Craigavon Bridge incident in October 1968, the Catholic marchers approaching the bridge where confronted by the RUC by pushing the marchers back with water cannons and assaulting them... After the Burntollet Bridge incident in January 1969 where RUC officers made little attempt to protect the marchers against loyalist mobs, 80 people's Democracy marchers were taken away.

    • Word count: 643
  16. disadvantages faced by catholics in Northern Ireland in the mid-1960s

    After the actual partition of Ireland in 1922 a parliament in Northern Ireland was established. It had power over education, housing, local elections and policing. This made some citizens believe that Northern Ireland was a one party state and undemocratic because in this government most ministers were Protestant who gave some benefits to the Protestant districts making the Catholics annoyed. The problem was that changing the government was nearly impossible through voting; Housing allocation affected the voting system as homeowners and tenants had more votes than other people (like most Catholics)

    • Word count: 829
  17. In 20th Century Northern Ireland, there are three main events that take place they are the Easter Rising, Deployment of British Troops and b****y Sunday.

    On 30th January Connelly's citizen army members and the IRB went out and occupied parts of central Dublin. Pearce then proclaimed that the Irish republic was now established Although the Easter Rising only lasted for one week it had a lot of short term and long term consequences. One of the most significant long term consequences was that the rebel leaders were executed, this led to more hatred and distrust between the Catholics and protestants and could of led to a civil war. British people also hated the Irish as they couldn't believe that they were fighting with each other when there was a world war going on.

    • Word count: 734
  18. With what success has the British Government tried to deal with the Irish 'troubles' in the years since 1972?

    The British aim behind power sharing was to reduce the support for the IRA by giving Catholics a say in how Northern Ireland was run. The unionists disliked this idea as they felt the link between London, Belfast, and Dublin would bring a united Ireland. They also felt betrayed by Britain. In the long term power sharing failed as it was linked to the Sunningdale agreement however there was political success as the main parties sat at the 'table' together and stated to discuss their ideas.

    • Word count: 872
  19. The events that occurred on 30th January 1972 became known as "b****y Sunday". Why have these events produced such different historical interpretations?

    Since the British Troops had entered Northern Ireland their initial welcome had changed to resentment. Nationalist groups such as the IRA and Sinn Fein emerged; this increase in paramilitary action posed as a threat to the troops and to Britain. On the day thousands congregated for the march and continued moving until blocked by a British roadblock. The aggravation between the two sides grew: at one point a group of young men managed to break the barrier. Rocks were thrown at troops and the paratroopers used a water cannon and rubber bullets to disperse the crowd.

    • Word count: 825
  20. How accurate is it to say that the main cause of this ill feeling and suspicion between the two groups dates back only to Partition in 1920?

    However for the few Protestants or Catholics left in each others rule their time was extremely hard. Protestants introduced 'The Special Powers Act.' This was a discrimination act against Catholics saying that they couldn't have the best jobs or they couldn't have good land. Whilst the Protestants received the good land for the same price as the Catholics had to pay for the poor land. All of this led to discrimination between the two religions led to the civil rights movement. This occurred because the Catholics got tired of being discriminated. The rights included the same treatment to be given to all religions, race or background.

    • Word count: 683
  21. Why were British Troops sent into Northern Ireland in 1969?

    This meant the Catholics were unemployed and could not look after their Children. They were sent to the worst schools which didn't teach them anything about Catholicism. They lived in the run down areas, and many Children died from malnutrition because of poor diets. The Catholics were hugely influenced by Martin Luther King and the American Civil Rights Act, which were going on at about the same time. In 1968 a Civil Rights movement came forward to protest against discrimination, often starting violent reactions from the Protestant Community. Trouble began when the annual March of supporters of William of Orange began, the police were forced to use tear gas, for the first time in history, to try and bring the violence and rioting back under control.

    • Word count: 996
  22. What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Republicans or Nationalists and the Loyalists

    Unfortunately, many citizens of the Republic of Ireland were against the island being divided, and set up groups, many of which were illegal, to try to combat and reverse this split. However, this resulted in more groups being set up, which opposed these. Groups wanting Ireland to be united are known as Republicans or Nationalists, while those wanting Northern Ireland to remain independent are known as Loyalists or Unionists. Republicans or Nationalists are generally Catholic and see themselves as Irish rather than British.

    • Word count: 635
  23. All of these sources refer to a single city in Northern Ireland. Use the sources, and your own knowledge, to explain why this city became a centre of the Civil Rights movement in Northern Ireland.

    The name Londonderry has its own little bit of significance. The first half of the word is the same as the English capital London. This name has been adapted by the Protestants because they are loyalists and want to be connected to Britain, unlike the Catholics who call the city Derry. There were also many different political arguments that were staged on Londonderry. The main one was Austin Curries argument about the housing of Catholics. In Londonderry, at the time, Protestants were allocated houses more often then Catholics. Catholics were forced to live in slums as it shows in source D.

    • Word count: 813
  24. What problems will need to be overcome if the current peace talks are to succeed?

    Sinn Fein was offered a seat provided that IRA violence was ended. As a result the IRA declared a cease fire in August 1994 and were followed a month later by a cease fire declaration from Loyalist groups. The Joint Framework Document was drawn up and published in February 1995 as an agreement to set out a plan for a peace process in Northern Ireland. The greatest significance of the Framework Document was that it secured any developing political process to a steady pace and as source 2 shows this plan included a new assembly for Northern Ireland and a North-South council of ministers with powers over a range of issues.

    • Word count: 629

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