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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85

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  1. Previous attempts to bring peace to Northern Ireland have failed. What problems will need to be overcome if the current peace talks are to succeed?

    This government was set to have influence over a range of issues. This step in the peace process was a step towards the Good Friday Agreement. During all the talks about the peace process, 1995 saw the lowest death toll in the 'troubles'. Through this attempt at peace breakthroughs have been made. Leaders on both sides had pledged their support to this attempt at peace, including David Trimble. The Joint Framework document was a good attempt towards peace as it saw the two opposing sides working together. During any peace attempt support from both opposing sides must be needed otherwise the peace process won't work.

    • Word count: 660
  2. Explain how the layout and organization of space can symbolise the basic principles of society, such as organization, segmentation or hierarchy.

    Territory entails a primordial aspect of Catholic and Protestant ethnicity. The Catholics legitimise their presence in Northern Ireland, as well as their existence as an ethnic community, in territorial terms. During the "plantation" (late 16th/17th century), Catholic land ownership was replaced with Protestants, and the Catholics were disenfranchised as confronting a disrupted industry and trade. This historical series of events has become rhetoric in Irish teachings as basic ideas of reciprocity (Catholics want their right to land ownership back i.e.

    • Word count: 932
  3. Previous attempts to bring peace to Northern Ireland have failed. What problems will need to be overcome if the current peace talks are to succeed?

    This was agreed between Prime Minister John Major and the Taoiseach, Albert Reynolds. Talks were to be set up to decide on a new form of government for Northern Ireland and that the Northern Ireland government would respect all traditions in Northern Ireland. The Irish government accepted that it might have to drop the parts of it constitution, which claimed the North as part of its territory. The Irish government would set up a Forum for Peace and Reconciliation to promote trust and understanding between the traditions. Only those who rejected violence could be part of this.

    • Word count: 724
  4. What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Republican/Nationalists and the Loyalist/Unionists?

    Nationalists, who are usually Catholic, outnumber the comparatively scarce Unionists. Two main parties represent the often-varied views of the Republicans; Sinn Fein, led by Gerry Adams, a party dedicated to a United Ireland and The Scottish Democratic Labour Party, a party committed to achieving its aims using non-violent methods. Sinn Fein, literally translated as "We, ourselves" has previously used more extreme methods than the SDLP to accomplish its targets, and for many years was banned in the UK, but in recent years the party has become more moderate.

    • Word count: 937
  5. Choose 2 events in the last 100 years, which have been particularly important in shaping the views of today?

    This led the Catholics to get frustrated at the lack of progress, which meant that the Catholics organised the civil rights movement in 1967. A year after they began to organise a series of marches. The fact that O'Neill promised the Catholics equal rights also meant that the Protestant community also began to worry about the Catholics becoming to powerful in Northern Ireland. b****y Sunday was one of the most crucial points in the Northern Irish troubles. This came about when soldiers fired onto a non-violent march and killed 13 civilians.

    • Word count: 651
  6. Previous attempts to bring peace to Northern Ireland have failed. What problems will need to be overcome if the current peace talks are to succeed?

    The Irish government also set up a Forum for Peace and Reconciliation. This declaration was accepted by all the moderate parties involved, the hardliners such as Ian Paisley rejected it, "sold out Ulster to buy off the fiendish Republican scum". The paramilitaries all tended to study it carefully and ask for clarification of details as a way of not rejecting it out of hand. Sinn Fein were unhappy with the Downing Street Declaration, however in 1994 president Bill Clinton allowed Gerry Adams, the Sinn Fein leader, to visit the USA to talk to Irish American Groups who supported the IRA.

    • Word count: 794
  7. There are two main groups of people in Northern Ireland, both who have different beliefs, they are the republicans/nationalists and the loyalists/unionists.

    The IRA was then split into two splinter groups called the real IRA and the continuity IRA. Both protecting the catholic community from protestant violence. These 'freedom fighters' who wanted progress quicker, said that the British army and the RUC were discriminating against the Catholic community. An example of their violence is the car bombing, by the IRA, in Birmingham last year. 2. An event, which has happened in the last 100 years, is The Troubles, 1668-1972. The troubles is when the tension began to rise in Northern Ireland. It was when people started to demand changes in how Northern Ireland was run.

    • Word count: 933
  8. What is the long-term history of relations between mainland Britain and Northern Ireland?

    Penal Laws were introduced to prevent Protestants 'Inter marrying' with Catholics. These laws also made it impossible for Catholics to buy land and work for the Government. When the British Government decided that it was too dangerous for Ireland to continue to have it's own parliament, by an Act of Union in 1800, Ireland was united with Britain. Ireland was to be ruled from the British Parliament. After the Act of Union King George III refused to allow Catholics the right to become MPs.

    • Word count: 807
  9. The Partitioning of Ireland.

    Were there was a mighty rebellion, which Oliver reacted in a very harsh and b****y way killing everyone. Before the British settled the country was one country all owned by Ireland with 26 counties, but when they came most went to Ulster the top half and made it British land. This split the country into two, which as you can imagine the Irish, didn't like and they have tried to rebel ever since. In 1969 the army under control of king James tried to take the town of Derry, when they got there the Apprentice Boys locked the town gates.

    • Word count: 763
  10. b****y Sunday.

    It was here when members of the First Battalion of the Parachute Regiment stepped in to control the situation. The events from here on in are somewhat cloudy; no one knows exactly what happens from here. What is clear is that the soldiers came under fire from petrol bombs and stones, they responded by shooting 13 unarmed men. This event made global news, and a united global anger. If the 13 that were shot unarmed, then how could the Army justify their deaths?

    • Word count: 683
  11. Why British Troops Send in to Northern Ireland in 1969.

    Between 1921 and the mid 1960s Catholics in Northern Ireland faced many problems. The South, largely occupied by Irish Catholics, most opposed the idea of dividing Ireland, but in 1921 a group of Sinn Fein, and IRA members signed an treaty with the British, accepting the seperation of Ireland. This was known as 'Northern Ireland' was created, dominated by Protestants. However, Catholics had wanted a united and Independent Ireland, so resentment grew. For many years after the split, it was the Unionists in the north, many hardliners who held the power, so when the elections came round, the Protestants fixed the elections, so no Catholics could get into power.

    • Word count: 636
  12. Why Did Home Rule Divide The Liberal Party So Decisively?

    He knew that he would lose the Whigs' support, but knew that he would lose them under almost any policy anyway. Also, he knew that Chamberlain had spoken previously of some greater independence for Ireland within a federal structure, so thought that he may have Chamberlain's support. However, Gladstone made the huge error of not involving his party in his consideration of Home Rule, and instead his son Herbert Gladstone leaked information of Gladstone's intentions to the press in December 1885, in what was known as the 'Hawarden Kite'.

    • Word count: 759
  13. "Was internment the main cause of the events of b****y Sunday?"

    The long-term causes were events that took place in the 14th Century to the early 20th Century. These long term causes are the Plantation of Ireland, the protestant takeover and Cromwell, the Battle of Boyne, the potato famine that took place in the 1840's in which 1,000,000 Irish Catholic peasants starved to death, the 1916 rebellion and the discrimination against the Catholics. The Battle of Boyne was a turning point for Ireland. The hopes of James and the Irish Catholics were dashed in 1690. The new Protestant king, William of Orange, followed James to Ireland with his own army and defeated him at the Battle of Boyne on the 11th of July 1690.

    • Word count: 874
  14. Trouble in Northern Ireland.

    If anything, it was the catalyst for the start of the Irish problems. Whereas before the Battle, it seemed that tensions went no further than playground jibes and disagreements. After the battle, it evolved into full-blown war. As a direct consequence of the Battle of Boyne, Partition was bought in, splitting Ireland into two chunks for the first time. This brought about irrevocable problems, and led to the first traces of major violence other than the Battle. Now I'm going to shift a couple of hundred years down the line to the 1960's when the Civil rights movement came over from America, with the realisation that Protestants got better treatment with governmental services over Catholics.

    • Word count: 938
  15. Northern Ireland troubles - source related work.

    Source E is a nineteenth century Protestant cartoon showing Erin (Ireland) bound in ropes by a Catholic priest. This shows a symbolic Ireland being tied up by a Catholic priest. This picture was drawn at a time when nationalists were looking to get Home Rule in Ireland and this is to show that the Catholic Church controlled Ireland at this time. They felt if Catholics got home rule it would be bad for Protestants, as it would mean the Catholic Church would control them.

    • Word count: 936
  16. Consequences of the 1916 Easter Rising.

    The Easter Rising had been organised by the secret Irish Republican Brotherhood. Few people had heard of the IRB and they mistakenly thought that Sinn Fein had been behind the rebellion. Sinn Fein in fact played no part in the Easter Rising but afterwards the survivors used Sinn Fein as their political party. In 1917 Sinn Fein was reorganized as a new republican political party. Sinn Fein stood in the general election of 1918 and won 73 out of the 107 seats, which were available. The IPP was reduced to six seats why the unionist won a mere 26.

    • Word count: 763
  17. Causes of the 1916 Easter Rising.

    Home Rule would have given the Irish their own parliament that could make laws relating to domestic (Irish) issues but Major decisions about the economy and foreign affairs would still be made in London. Home Rule was a very popular idea amongst the Irish population and was supported by the Liberal government of the day. Attitudes towards Home Rule changed as a result of the Easter Rising which was shown at the 1918 election as Sinn Fein won 73 seats while the Home Rule party won only a mere 6 seats while the unionists won 26 seats.

    • Word count: 976
  18. Describe the disadvantages faced by the Catholics in Northern Ireland in the mid- 1960s.

    The Protestants and occasionally a few Catholics filled the majority of the posts that were occupied in County Councils. This was incredibly unfair as the council was for a county, which did not just consist of Protestants but Catholics as well, the Catholics needed to be heard by their council as well. This was very hard as there were hardly any Catholics. An example of this was in the county Fermanagh. The county council had 370 posts, 322 of which were filled by protestants and the rest Catholics, this was very unfair as more than half the population of Fermanagh was catholic.

    • Word count: 590
  19. Ireland - What are the main differences in belief of the Republicans/Nationalists and the Loyalists/Unionists?

    Both parties believe they are democrats and the Republicans would like to see the whole of Ireland vote to decide on whether Ireland are united, when the Loyalists believe that only the people of Northern Ireland should have the right to decide on their future. The main groups for the Unionists are: * The Ulster Unionist Party, headed by David Trimble * The Democratic Unionist Party, headed by Ian Paisley * The Orange Order * Alliance Party The Ulster Unionist Party was formed in the late 19th Century to defend the interests of Northern Protestants.

    • Word count: 565
  20. Why do Orangemen march each summer? Why and how far have these marches created conflict between Nationalist and Unionist communities in Northern Ireland?

    Regular marches are organised by the Orange Order to celebrate the traditions of the Protestant community. Protestants believe the yearly marches to be an essential part of their culture, as it shows their faith and gives thanks to God for the revolution in the summer of 1960. The conflicts in Ireland centre around problems from around 800 years ago, during the medieval period. The British and the Irish, as two opposing national groups could have set off the debates and differences between them.

    • Word count: 429
  21. "Since 1972 the British Government has tried a number of solutions to the crisis in Northern Ireland" How successful has this process been?

    The answer to this problem was to split the country and have the six counties of Ulster to be Protestant and ruled by the UK called Northern Ireland and the rest to be the Republic of Ireland. Everything was fine with this there were no major incidents for fifty years. In the 1960's Catholics were protesting for civil rights as they had poor housing and unemployment these protests became increasingly violent and in 1971 the British sent in soldiers to sort out this problem.

    • Word count: 450
  22. Catholics have been disadvantaged many times during history but the time that the Catholics were most disadvantaged was during the 1960's.

    (Taken from Billy Sinclair, a former player-manager of Linfield, a football club in Northern Ireland, talking in 1984) This clearly shows that Ireland was divided and segregated and this was a disadvantage to Catholics as they got the worst education and social upbringing. Job salaries and employment were also segregated. Protestants were better paid, with higher positions in jobs and in predominantly Protestant areas while the Catholics were stuck with menial jobs and scanty wages. This meant the Catholics couldn't improve their standard of living. "The big employers were privately run companies and although Catholics regularly anti-Catholic prejudice among foremen or personnel managers, it is a hard thing to prove.

    • Word count: 838
  23. What Are the Main Beliefs of the Republicans/ Nationalists and the Loyalists/ Unionists?

    The Unionists want partition in Ireland, as they believe separation to the country will help them control t with their laws and their political policies. Nationalists were against this, as they believed in a united Ireland whereby they would control their own country with their own government and they thought that the partition of Ireland could not offer them anything. The Unionists did not believe in democracy and so gerrymandered the elections of local councils to gain control. They believed they had to do so, so they could "win" and not let the "Traitors" stay in control.

    • Word count: 785
  24. During his seven years as Taoiseach, Sen Lemass' government achieved much. The years 1959 to 1966 saw considerable, though often exaggerated, change in Ireland in the fields of politics, the economy, the standard of living and international relations.

    This enabled Lemass, as Taoiseach, to bring in a troupe of young people to ministerial positions. These included Jack Lynch, CJ Haughey, Donogh O'Malley and Brian Lenihan. This created a flexible cabinet, in total contrast with conservative Fianna F�il governments of the past. However, it is likely that many of the older generation would have retired anyway due to old age; a similar shift occurred in other political parties. The economic improvement is often exaggerated; after the slump in the fifties, any recovery would be welcome. Significant improvements were made, but there were also failures. The continuation of high emigration figures show that these years were not absolute prosperity.

    • Word count: 813
  25. Why did violence increase between the arrival of the British Troops in August 1969 & the imposition of Direct Rule in March 1972?

    In 1968 a civil rights movement emerged to protest against this discrimination, often provoking violent reactions within the Protestant community, known as the NICRA. When the British Troops arrived they found themselves in the middle of a conflict, the Protestants did not want the troops increasing fairness for the Catholics and the Catholics did not want help from the British. Tension was mounting and the British were the "Piggy in the Middle". The British Troops were at the disposal of Stormont (Northern Ireland government mainly composed of Protestants and Nationalists)

    • Word count: 642

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