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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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However, Carson was a brilliant public speaker and a very clever leader. The first chance most Ulster Unionists got to hear Carson was in September 1911 when he spoke to 50,000 Orangemen gathered at Craigavon, James Craig's home outside Belfast. James Craig was a perfect deputy for Carson. Craig was quiet, solid and reliable, and he was a terrific organizer. He used his talents to organise a number of mass protest meetings.
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The long-term causes were the home rule issue. Constitutional nationalists supported a Dublin parliament dealing with domestic issues. They did not want total independence from Britain. Working together with extremists from the Land League the Home Rule Party took off in the 1880s. Irish farmers were firmly behind the Land League led by Revolutionary Nationalist Michael Davitt and Constitutional Nationalist Charles Stewart Parnell. British Prime Minister Gladstone supported home rule and tried to get two home rule bills passed in 1886 and 1893. Other MPs and Lords thought that it would lead to independence.
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Carson managed to get a brigade together and the 36^th Division was created, The Ulster Division. The man who encouraged Irish nationalists to join the British army was called John Redmond. In September 1914, when talking to the Irish Volunteers, he said, "I say to you, account yourselves as men in defence of right, of religion in this war." The leaders of the Irish Party wanted to show that they still supported the British Empire in the same way that Canada and Australia do even though they have their own Parliaments. They also expected gratitude in the same way that the unionists did at the end of the war.
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Choose Two Events in the Last 100 Years Which Are Particularly Important in Shaping the Views of Today's A) Loyalists / Unionists / Protestants and B) Republicans / Nationalists / Catholics.
On September 28th 1912, a large crowd consisting of nearly 500,000 protestants converged on the new Belfast City Hall to sign the Solemn League and Covenant in which they pledged themselves to use 'any means which may be found necessary to defeat the present conspiracy to set up a Home Rule Parliament in Ireland. And in the event of such a Parliament being forced upon us we further solemnly and mutually pledge ourselves to refuse to recognise its authority'.
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In what ways were the demands of the Irish Civil Rights Movement similar to those of the American Blacks Civil Rights Movement?
Both movements used the slogan 'one man, one vote'. But these meant slightly different things. The Irish Civil Rights Movement only requested one man, one vote in council elections. But the American Blacks Civil Rights Movement demanded one man, one vote in all elections. Both groups of people suffered discrimination in the allocation of houses. In America and in Northern Ireland, civil rights protesters demanded fair allocation of houses. In Northern Ireland and in the United States, Catholics and n*****s alike suffered from police brutality. In Northern Ireland, civil rights protesters called for an end to this.
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The drugs problem is continuing to grow within Northern Ireland and with it the amount of drugs flooding on to the streets. For instance, In April this year alone, police seized 220,000 e-tablets at Nutts corner in one drug bust operation. Furthermore, between May and August a total of three hundred and fifty-two kilos of cannabis resin was seized by officers of the Police Service of Northern Ireland. The target for these drugs dealers are mainly our young people, who have an expendable income of sorts and are easily manipulated.
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These sources relate to events at Burntollet Bridge on 4th January 1969. Why have these events produced such different historical interpretations.
She is a leading member of the Civil Rights movement; at the age of 21 she became the youngest woman to enter the House of Commons. She was one of the marchers at Burntollet and witnessed what happened but is likely that she will be bias towards other points of view. She starts by describing what happened when they arrived. "A curtain of bricks and boulders and bottles brought a march to a halt" she describes that the protestants ambushed the marchers and attacked them with several different types of weapons. Some marchers escaped but the rest were left behind.
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Explain why the civil rights movement of the 1960's led to the outbreak of violence in 1968/69. Northern Ireland.
They aimed to have equal rights and wanted to achieve this by having peaceful marches. I do not think that the civil rights marchers really believed that their marches would be non violent because they intended to march through Protestant areas which would evidently aggravate Protestants, and especially extremists like Ian Paisley. Whenever Ian Paisley saw some peace arising, he stirred it up again. For example when Terrance O Neil shook hands with a man from the Republic of Ireland and when Protestant churches started talking to Catholic churches saying that they should have mixed churches. The people opposed to the civil rights movement were the Protestants because they were loyalists i.e.
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Kevin and Sadie become sick of Belfast and the violence and so leave. Kevin and Sadie realize that 'The Troubles' aren't going to go away and that there's no hope for change in the future. In this paragraph the importance of the characters will be discussed. Kevin McCoy is Catholic and works in Mr Kelly's scrapyard. Kate Kelly likes Kevin but Kevin loves Sadie. "Kate tried to cling to Kevin but most of the time she irritated him". Kate thus tries to get Kevin into trouble by telling the police about Brian's gun.
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The Good Friday Agreement has been a failure and the problems are still Impossible to over come. Do you agree?
They hoped to find ways to persuade Unionists and Nationalists to respect each other's rights and views. This was a failure Unionists resigned seats, strike and has demos and violent clashes with RUC. The Downing Street Declaration was an agreement, which happened in 1993. It was an agreement between John Major (the prime minister at the time) and Albert Reynolds. The talks were to try and set up a new type of government for Northern Ireland. The new government would respect all of Northern Irelands traditions e.g. the march for William of Orange. The people and parties who could be involved were those who were peaceful.
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The reactions to this meeting were very positive with Ulster's first minister David Trimble stating that it was a great meeting and the future looks very bright because of the friendliness of all the people involved. The Ulster unionist leader had no complaints about sitting at the same table with ex-IRA (Irish republic army) and Nationalist Martin McGuinnes dissipate them being sworn enemies. This suggests that times are changing for the better and peace is perhaps starting to be achieved because these two sworn enemies are having a civil conversation.
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What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Republicans / Nationalists and the Loyalists / Unionists?
The Unionists can be slip into four major segments; The UVP or Ulster Unionist Party, The DUP or The Democratic Unionists Party, The Orange Order and The UDA/UVF or Ulster Defence Associations and the Ulster Volunteer Force. Each segment has its own differentiated beliefs t the beliefs of their religion/group. The SDLP is almost all Catholic. It wants Irish Unity but does not believe violence is the answer. It is very peaceful and represents Parliamentary Nationalism. Sinn Fein is a strong traditional Revolutionary party, with a long past of violence.
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North-South bodies where also setup as well as a British-Irish council. The Northern Ireland Human Rights Commision is also drafting a Bill Of Rights for N.Ireland. Decommissioning of weapons was also a term to the agreement, those accepting the agreement would do all in their power to bring about decommissioning by April 2000, Unions argued that this means that weapons should have been decommissioned by this date, whereas Sinn Fein argues that that doing all in their power doesn't necessarily mean succeeding, small amounts of LVF weapons have been destroyed while Republicans have opened arm dumps for inspection - they see this as part of decommissioning.
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Partition. The Unionists believed that Partition was better than a united Ireland, as they were still separate from the U.K, and there was the feeling of betrayal from the Catholics
This was this was profusely opposed and was quickly shut down. This led to a guerrilla war between the IRA and Britain. A civil war looked likely, but neither side was well enough equipped to have a huge effect. In 1921 Sinn Fein sent representatives to London to talk with the British Government. They agreed to set up a partition of Ireland, establishing an Irish Free State in the southern 26 counties that became separate from the UK but still within the commonwealth.
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Other parts to the Good Friday agreement included the decommissioning of terrorist weapons, reform of the 'Royal Ulster Constabulary to stop persecution from the mainly Protestant police force and the release of paramilitary prisoners. This was hopefully the start of equal rights for everybody in Northern Ireland. When the vote for the Good Friday agreement was held, 71% of people voted for it. The vast majority of people wanted peace and communication and it was mainly the hard-line unionists who were against the agreement, as they had had the power of the Catholics.
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But I suppose you wouldn't remember em days would ye. In em days Ireland was truly a great nation. Everyone was united and always happy to help out a fallen comrade, I can remember going for a whole week without food jus so a neighbours daughter could go and see a doctor. But nobody was keen to help me where they. when I had no money and couldn't get a job because of me terrible pains in me legs. I think of the tings I have done for Ireland's people and look at the way I am repaid I tell ye the whole place is in a state of chassis.
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By accepting such Acts as the proposed compromise 'Emancipation Bill' (basically a 'corrupt' Emancipation Act allowing Catholics Civil Rights, but only because loyalist clerics could be appointed), O'Connell felt that the Catholic cause would only be taking a step back to the days of the Penal Laws. In his efforts to rid Ireland of English (and thereby Protestant) domination, he became known as the 'Great Liberator'. He was a man of great political ambition - one who could win support and reign supreme with his gifted tongue.
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Another reason that Bill Clinton helped out the Irish immigrants was because he came from an Irish background, both of his grandparents were Irish so he naturally wants to use his power to sort out the problems in Ireland.
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The marchers were to march from the Creggan estate into the center of Derry. At about 2:00pm, the crowd began to gather in the Creggan estate and the march commenced. As they got closer to the center of Derry, the march had attracted about 25,000 supporters. It was about 4:00pm when the civil rights marchers turned onto William Street and into a tragic situation that would forever be in the minds Irish people. Unknown to the peaceful marchers, the British Government fearing the worst, thought that the march would become a massive riot. The British Government called upon its 1st Parachute Regiment to back up the Royal Green Jackets and other battalions.
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The role Northern Ireland Office is to support the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland in securing a lasting peace, based on the Good Friday Agreement, in which the rights and identities of all traditions in Northern Ireland are fully respected and safeguarded and in which a safe, stable, just, open and tolerant society can thrive and prosper. This involves the work of the Junior ministers at the moment there are four and they are also dedicated to helping the Secretary of State through his work.
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If a protestant and a catholic apply for the same job, no matter how many qualifications and/or experience the catholic had, the protestant would always get the job. Another description of the discrimination directed at the Catholics is that the Harland and Wolff shipyard had 10,000 employees and yet only 400 of those were catholic. Catholics had no fair treatment or equal opportunities compared to the p protestants in the housing either.
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After the War of Independence, in 1919, the country of Ireland was divided into two parts; The North, here there was a large Protestant Majority, each of the six Ulster counties had their own parliament and their own government.
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This caused Internment to be brought into action. This meant any Catholic who caused any protest; violence or disruptions in Northern Ireland were imprisoned. This resulted in more people disliking the British and supporting the IRA. In 1972 an illegal Civil Rights March held in Derry against the use of Internment ended in great violence with many injured and 13 dead, many of these being catholic marchers. After the events of b****y Sunday on the 30th of January 1972, support for the IRA rapidly increased. In 1972 the British government imposed directed rule of Northern Ireland.
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there were less Catholic householders for example gerrymandering which is the changing of the election boundaries to influence results so the protestants would win the vote every time. Catholics responded to this by wanting civil rights in Northern Ireland and so they set up a civil rights movement in 1968 and this led to outbreaks of violence and paramilitary groupings such as the Irish Republican Army (IRA) clashed with 'loyalist' militant organizations such as the Ulster Defense Association (UDA) and the Ulster Defense Force (UDF).
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Also they may be threatened with violence by the IRA to become a part of the Republic of Ireland. If we delve deeper, we come to partition in 1920, Protestants remained part of the UK and the Roman Catholics, who wanted independence. In Northern Ireland, 66% of the republicans were Protestants and 34% were Roman Catholics. This partition, which introduced Protestants settlers from England and Scotland into an over whelming Roman Catholic country, establishing a Protestants control over the settlers and the native population in politics and society.
- Word count: 566