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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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- Marked by Teachers essays 4
Why was there a change in the levels of tension between Unionists and Nationalists between 1968 and 1998?
This resulted in further rioting for two days. These riots would have increased the levels of tension between the Unionists and Nationalists as there would have been fear of even more violence spreading through the Province. This tension led to the government having no choice, but to call in the British army to prevent further violence. At first, the Nationalists welcomed the British troops as they thought that the troops were going to defend the Nationalists from any more violence.
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In sport there was also segregation, for example at Linfield FC, a football club in Northern Ireland. If a Linfield scout saw a good player, he would ask him which school he goes to. If it was saint something then he now kicked with the wrong foot. This means that if he was a good player but was Catholic he would have no chance of being selected by a scout. The unfair treatment of Catholics was maintained through vote-fixing by the Protestants to keep political power. Londonderry town council elections were organised so 2 of the 3 wards had a majority of Protestants (North Ward and Waterside Ward).
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These riots were not unprovoked. Tension had been growing in the surrounding area for some time and the events outside of Holy Cross were a result of the growing hostility that was felt between the two sides. Both the Protestants and the Catholics felt threatened by each other, and neither wanted to show any weakness. There were a number of short term causes for what happened outside of Holy Cross. The first of these was the fact that there were the two separate religious communities, the Protestants and the Catholics, living in such close proximity to each other, both communities
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It was only meant to be a short term solution to give everyone chance to find a reasonable solution that t both religions and the British would be happy with. Direct rule was not a success for the British government as it was not a suitable solution for the two religions as neither wanted to be run by the British and was it destined to cause problems from the beginning. In 1973 after direct rule had failed the British Government Proposed another policy called power sharing and this then began to take action in 1974.
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They were also turned against British rule in 1918 when conscription was introduced. This enabled Irishmen to be forced to fight in World War One for Britain against their own will. The medium term consequence of this was that in the 1918 election many of these ordinary Catholics voted for Sinn Fein and the parliamentary nationalists Sinn Feins members of parliament then decided to set up their own parliament right there in Dublin in 1919 and refused to go to London.
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With What Success Has The British Government Tried To Deal With The Irish Troubles In The Years Since 1972?
Direct Rule helped by creating the UDR (Ulster Defence Regiment) which was an organisation designed to protect Northern Ireland from terrorists, the members were from both religious back grounds and it succeeded in restoring minimal amounts of peace and lasted for 25 years. However near the end the violence started again, even though throughout this action violence had accrued on both sides, this time there was a definite increase. The unionist set up yet another paramilitary the UDA (Ulster Defence Association), this meant other paramilitaries and even members of the general public felt the need to defend its self and fight back.
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So if you were a Protestant company owner you might not want any Catholics working for you because they could be the people who stop people investing in you. Therefore if you were a Catholic seeking to find a job it would be about 100 times harder than if you were a Protestant. To strengthen this point "In Londonderry, an area with a Catholic majority, the highest-ranking Catholic in the education department was the official in charge of school meals."
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Easter rising In 1912 Asquith, then Prime Minister introduced the Home Rule Bill. This meant self-government for Ireland, which had been long awaited. Although the Ulster Unionist Movement opposed it was unlikely this was going to stop it. But war broke out and the government decided to back the war effort and postpone the passing of the bill until the war had finished. Many outraged by this built up civilian armies. On 24 April 1916 a force between 1000 to 1500 men and women based mainly around Dublin, with an of intention political freedom and the establishment of an independent country staged an armed revolt against the British authorities.
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A cartoon in the observer represents 'an Ireland executive' as a shaking tower of cards. There are to clouds labelled IRA and UVF they were both hard-line parties but opposing each others ideas, I believe that this cartoon portrays its idea that the Sunningdale Agreement was already unsteady and with both opposing parties arguing a single blow and it would completely collapse. But over all the agreement did not pull off as in May 1974 it came to a halt. A group calling itself the Ulster Workers Council called a strike, this was to protest about the Council of Ireland.
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I will be exploring the sources reliability, accuracy, whether it is fact, whether it is biased and basically discussing whether they are reliable evidence to show us exactly why the trouble did brake out in 1969. Source D Source D is an adaptation written by a Catholic civil rights spokes person named B Devlin in 1969. B Devlin based this piece of writing on how a young Roman Catholic school girl described her days. Source D tells the reader about how the vice principle of St Patrick's Academy, Mother Benignus felt towards the English and protestants, as well as how she gave her opinion to the students of her school.
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Sometimes it was suspected terrorists had infiltrated peaceful marches and caused violence that often escalated into riots and these caused innocent people to get seriously injured. One of the most famous riots was the Battle of Bogside; this riot took place in Derry and lasted from 12-14 August 1969. The riot saw over five hundred women and children evacuated out of the area and caused over 1000 casualties. It was clear the Irish police and the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC)
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This was because the Irish Church had consistently declined to follow the doctrines of the Church of Rome. In 1171, Henry II accepted the submission of his nobles in Ireland and the Irish Kings and bishops. This marked the beginning of more than seven hundred years of English rule in Ireland. The King of England had been Lord of Ireland ever since. The whole of Ireland was now nominally under English rule but in reality much of the country remained independent.
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He would falsify papers that claimed he purchased land from an Irish landlord. In Irish tradition, the landlord did not have the right to sell land that the people lived on. This would cause a riot or rebellion against the landlord who would try to convince him of his innocence. Henry would send troops down to kill everyone in the town, labeling them 'rebels.' The Reign of Queen Elizabeth was not much different, except that by her time, certain lords who had given allegiance to England had become quite powerful.
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Unionism is a movement that is opposed to a united Ireland and supports the union with Britain instead. They believe that the political union with Britain has economical benefit to Ireland and that if there was a united Ireland, Protestants would be discriminated against. Unionist parties include 'Ulster Unionist Party', 'Democratic Unionist Party' and 'Orange Order Party'. They believe in the means of peaceful protest and therefore are involved in discussions, debates, non violent movements and marches. The Orange Order Party had close links the UUP and is an association that had the aims to defend Protestants and the constitution.
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This is a long term cause of the conflict because today's Catholics feel that their ancestors land was unfairly taken from them. From 1600, when kind Henry the second first conquered Ireland, gradually, England's protestant rulers conquered the whole of Ireland because as the Catholics had been penalised and had no weapons they could not fight back to defend their country from conquest. Oppression against Irish Catholics continued when in 1801, Ireland's parliament was closed down and Ireland was forced into the act of union against its wishes and was ruled by London.
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Explain the role and nature of Paramilitary groups in the Troubles of Northern Ireland from 1968-1998
The nature of the paramilitary groups within the Troubles was seen to differ dramatically between the organizations, yet the notion of using force and terror as a means of political leverage was common in each. According to C.Coulter, 'those who have taken up arms over the last three decades have apparently been animated by an ambition to become, or remain, part of the state which they consider to lend political expression to the existence of that national community to which they imagine themselves to belong.'
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How effectively did Irish Catholic and nationalist leaders advance their cause in the years 1801-1921? (44 marks)
However, other factors also influenced Peel's fear of a revolution such as the revival of localised violence known as Whiteboyism. Moreover, the Emancipation was practically ineffective as the voting qualification was increased from 40 shillings to �10 so most Catholics could not exercise their right to vote. However, despite this, R. Foster describes it as a "formal constitutional revolution" which effectively started the gradual diminishing of the power of the Protestant Ascendancy by securing political concessions. Moreover, Robert Kee argues it showed how "the down trodden Catholic masses had taken on the government and won".
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Many considered their demands exaggerated and they also believed that NICRA was an IRA front. . Protestants viewed these events with concern and feared Catholics were engaged in a conspiracy to undermine their political hegemony. Paisley exploited these fears and mounted counter-demonstrations that provoked riots between civil rights marchers and Protestants. Internment Many of NICRA's marches protested against internment, one of these being on b****y Sunday. On Monday 9 August 1971, 3,000 soldiers backed up by RUC Special Branch officers using out-of-date intelligence, swooped on houses throughout Northern Ireland and arrested over 300 men.
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One way to measure Ireland's success is through Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In 1987 Irish GDP per person was 69% of the EU average, by 2003 it had reached 136%2. Unemployment in Ireland fell from 17% in 1987 to 4% in 2003 and government debt shrank from 112% of GDP to 33%.3 Another means of measurement for Ireland is Gross National Product (GNP). Although GNP does not show Ireland in as favourable a light as GDP Paul Sweeney notes that from 1993 until the end of 1997 GNP growth averaged over 7.5 per cent a year which shows that according to GNP national income rose by an amazing 44% in just five years4.
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The 1913 lockout, 1916 rising, the treaty of 1921 and the causes of the civil war, 1922 John Redmond became the leader of the Home rule party when the English election was a draw
These were transported to Howth. Women took them from there, up their dresses, past the British checkpoints. There were now 2 private armies in Ireland and looking at civil war. The British didn't know what to do but they got lucky and didn't have to anything. World War 1 started and home rule was postponed. The Ulster and Irish Volunteers joined the British army to fight the Germans. Both joined as the Irish Volunteers wanted home rule and Ulster Volunteers wanted it to be forgotten about. Out of the 200,000 Irish Volunteers that joined the British army, 60,000 died.
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The events that occurred in Derry on the 30th January 1972 became known as 'b****y Sunday'. Why have these events produced such different historical interpretations?
Therefore on August 9th 1971 all marches in Northern Ireland were banned under the Special Powers Act 1922. At dawn on that same day British soldiers entered a number of Catholic homes and took away suspected IRA men, which of hundreds were put in internal camps. A march was then organised on January 30th 1972 by a Catholic group, although it was illegal they said so was interning. The final decision was to allow the march to go ahead but to contain it within the Bogside and Creggan estate to prevent rioting in the city centre.
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The search for peace in Northern Ireland is proving to be difficult.What are the main issues that divide this community?
They were developed at the end of the 18th century. The United Irishmen was the first Revolutionary organization founded in 1790; the protestant founder of the organization is still looked upon as a hero by the modern Republicans. Several failed armed rebellions that took place between 1798 and 1867. These rebellions had little support for the ordinary Irish people and it had a bad effect on the Irish parliament whom had to sit later in the British parliament. A secret meeting to plan for a revolution in Ireland took place in 1858 between the Fenian Brother Hood and the IRB.
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The country of Ireland has suffered throughout a terrible history of conflict, violence and brutality. These conflicts, however
Because of this, Louis supplies James with troops, ships and weapons to help him overthrow William and regain his throne. However, on his journey, James didn't invade England straightaway, but landed in Ireland in March 1689. James felt that he would be able to gain support from the Irish citizens, as most of them were fellow Catholics, and further increase his strength. He set up a Parliament in Dublin to confiscate Protestant lands, and this initially worked well for James.
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The Anglo-Irish agreement, 1985, this was agreed between Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and Irish Taoiseach Garrett Fitzgerald
Jack Lynch, the then Taoiseach asserted: The Irish Government can no longer stand by and see innocent people injured and, perhaps, worse. The Irish Government have ... requested the British Government to apply immediately to the United Nations for the urgent dispatch of a peace-keeping force to the six counties of Northern Ireland The British Government responded that 'Northern Ireland had long been an integral part of the United Kingdom and that events there were an internal matter for the United Kingdom Government' The Stormont Government was prorogued and direct rule from Westminster was established in March 1972.
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