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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85

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  1. Development of Irish Nationalism 1798-1921

    through Ireland - a starving and tired people could hardly have much interest in a political movement that had so little chance of success 1848 Young Ireland They looked back to Wolfe Tone and their ultimate aim was independence for Ireland. However, under the influence of Finton Laylor who argued that ......... they also committed to land reform. Violent Rebellion (1848) The rebellion was a complete failure, but the Young Ireland movement left an important legacy. 1867 Fenians established An independent Ireland Violence - ultimately, a mass rebellion like that of Wolfe Tone.

    • Word count: 2199
  2. The build up to b****y Sunday, and why it happened.

    Once being pushed out of the Bogside the RUC used CS gas to again enter the area. (This was to become known as the battle of the Bogside, which lasted for two days). On the 13th of August serious rioting spread across Northern Ireland from Derry to other catholic areas stretching the RUC. The rioting was between Catholics, Protestants and many more people. The majority of Catholics were forced from their homes. After this two days of rioting, the Stormant government asked the British government for permission to allow British troops to be deployed onto the streets of Northern Ireland.

    • Word count: 2408
  3. The events that occurred in Derry on 30th January 1972 became known as 'b****y Sunday'. Why have these events produced such different historical interpretations?

    The new inquiries on the events of the b****y Sunday shootings are being investigated by Lord Saville. The former Paratroopers and their supporters were annoyed when a new forensic report was released. The paratroopers believe that the report would change the public opinion against them and even end up with people being put on trial. The report was greeted with triumph from the Nationalist politicians and the families who have longed for a new investigation. The Nationalists wanted a new investigation because it was their fellow citizens who were killed. They believed that the last inquiry was to cover up the wrongful actions of the British Army.

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  4. How did Protestant politicians explain the social, economic and political differences between Catholics and Protestants?

    He admitted that the elections system were in favour of the Protestants and that it was unfair to the majority of Catholics. This is why he later introduced amendments to change it. Politicians like Ian Paisley assumed that the RUC, the courts and the B'Specials did not treat the Catholics unfairly. They claimed that the Catholics were treated more severely because they committed more serious crimes. Because of the Catholics loyalty to the South and the Catholic Church, the Protestants had to be vigilant and cautious.

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  5. The Irish Question

    They also think that Southern Ireland is doing very well economically and they want to be part of this Irish economic prosperity. To achieve these aims the Moderate Nationalists use peaceful methods such as persuasion, argument and the ballet box, they do not believe in achieving aims by violence. They look back in history to different Nationalists who achieved power and influence peacefully either by protest or the vote, these people include Daniel O'Connell who in 1829 was granted Catholic emancipation following a successful campaign, Redmond and Parnell.

    • Word count: 2556
  6. Northern Ireland

    They were both established to fight the IRA. They have taken a tough and uncompromising view leading to them being responsible for the murders of innocent Catholics. Nationalists are made up of Catholics wanting Ireland to be one country and ruled by Dublin. They think British troops in Ireland should go home. Nationalists have three main groups they are; SDLP (Social Democratic and Labour Party) Founded in 1970, IRA (Irish Republican Army) Established in 1919 and Sinn Fein. SDLP and Sinn Fein are both political however Sinn Fein back up revolutionary violence and work of the IRA.

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  7. In what ways did the Irish Question change between 1800 and 1922?

    Whereas many Catholics in Ireland felt betrayed, because the Act of Union was not followed by Emancipation like they had hoped and the Ascendancy had been made stronger and still controlled Irish Politics. Therefore the Act of Union as a whole caused more separation and dissociation and instead of solving the Irish Question it created more problems. Emancipation would be the focus of the Irish Question from this point onwards. Daniel O'Connell became the key individual at this point as he formed the Catholic Association in 1823 and he believed that Emancipation was a step towards Home Rule.

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  8. In Northern Ireland there are two main groups of people with different views and opinions on Ireland and its future.

    The Ulster Defence Association/ Ulster Volunteer Force (UDA/UVF) are on the other hand violent Loyalist groups who were set up to fight back against the IRA, like the IRA the UDA and the UVF are both illegal paramilitary groups. Part 2 There have been many events in Irelands history, which have helped to shape the views and opinions of those who live there. The two events which I have chosen to illustrate this are the Plantations of the 17th century and the Partition of Ireland, 1920-21. The plantations of the 17th century helped towards shaping the views, mainly of the Catholics in Ireland.

    • Word count: 2025
  9. Watch the TV documentary

    Ida McKinney thought it was a peaceful march because she even packed her husband with sandwiches which shows she or her husband thought it was going to be a peaceful march. The narrator also thought it was a peaceful march he says in the documentary that "there was an air of carnival about the march" this proves that he expected no trouble. Doctor Raymond Mclean also thought it was going to be a peaceful march, we know this because in the TV documentary he says "I left all my medical gear in the car" this suggests that he thought there was no need for his medical gear because he thought it was going to be a peaceful march.

    • Word count: 2007
  10. Is Religion the Source of Conflict in Northern Ireland? Discuss.

    Ireland, a Catholic country, was brought under the rule of predominantly Protestant England under Henry VIII in the sixteenth century. In the seventeenth century, Protestant immigrants, many of them Scottish Presbyterians, took root in parts of Ulster, imposing a social pattern on several areas that was distinct from that of the rest of Ireland. Sir Arthur Chichester, the Lord Deputy of Ireland, decreed that Ulster land be seized and settled by Protestants from Britain, after its native government had collapsed.

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  11. Why were British Troops sent into Northern Ireland in 1969?

    The original Irish, almost all Catholics were called Nationalists and wanted to become independent with their own government. From the point when James II the Catholic king was defeated by William of Orange who was a Protestant in 1690 at the Battle of the Boyne. Catholics suffered discrimination from the reforms onwards; they saw this as part of being ruled by Britain. Many poor Protestant and Catholic farmers and citizens were swayed towards nationalism between 1845 and 1851 when Ireland suffered from a tragic famine in which many people died.

    • Word count: 2528
  12. Northern Ireland - source related questions and answers

    And if it's Saint something, then all of a sudden the boy isn't good enough. He kicks with the wrong foot." Now although this shows clear discrimination against Catholics in sports: Protestant Linfield scouts would find a problem with any player no matter how good they were on the basis that they were catholic. The context it was in leads to problems, the quote is from a talking in 1984. Unfortunately we do not know what preceded this quote or what followed it so we have no idea why he talked about this and what the point he was actually trying to make was.

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  13. Northern Ireland - b****y Sunday.

    There was also Civil Rights Movement of the 1960's; Northern Ireland hoped to put pressure on the British Government. Their aim was to hold peaceful demonstrations and ask the government to give them: * The vote for everybody as in the rest of the United Kingdom. * The redrawing of electoral boundaries to ensure fair representation. * Laws against discrimination. * Fair allocation of housing. * The repeal of the Special Powers Act which allowed internment. * The disbanding of the B specials.

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  14. The Irish Republican Army: Before and After 1968

    The second section would hence look at the events of 1968-69 in Ireland and explain why the there had been a resurgence of IRA violence during that period. Like any active movements in the world, the IRA has its own ideological motivations. It could be argued that the ideological basis behind the IRA has been that of an ethnic or religious nationalism. This view is strongly demonstrated in the six counties in the north of the island where the IRA, whose members are predominantly Catholic, has been fighting for an Irish Ireland that is free and Gaelic1 for decades.

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  15. What were the short and long term effects of the hunger-strikes in Northern Ireland?

    The prisoners were housed at Long Kesh which "in many respects resembled a World War Two prisoner-of-war camp" 4 . The IRA hoped that by achieving this the republican prisoners would have effective political (and even prisoner-of-war) status that would legitimize their stand. The IRA hoped 'special category status' demonstrated that the prisoners were "different from other inmates jailed for criminal as opposed to paramilitary offences"5. Whitelaw later conceded that "he had made a mistake in introducing 'special category status'"6 as it led to the "political upheavals"7 of 1980 and 1981.

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  16. What were the causes of the Easter Rising?

    The fenians got frustrated as the war went on longer than expected. This was a major cause of the Easter Rising. The potato famine of 1845 to 1849 was another long-term cause of the Easter rising. This caused great resentment towards the British, as it seemed they did little to relieve it. This caused approximately 1 million deaths. The biggest problem was that too many people were trying to scrape a living off the land. British landlords who were only interested in making a profit owned much of the land.

    • Word count: 2103
  17. Causes of conflict in Northern Ireland.

    religions they hate each other, and so the two different religions are a major and fundamental cause of conflict and it is probably the most well known reason for conflict. The bitter rivalry between the two religions began in the 1500's (the 16th century) and so this is a long term cause of conflict. In 1845 to 1846 the Catholic Irish had great famine and so a lot of them emigrated to America more specifically Boston which means that a lot of Americans are Irish and so naturally they gave donations to the Southern Catholic Irish and so this naturally

    • Word count: 2549
  18. Why was Ireland such a central Issue in British politics in the first half of the nineteenth century?

    who first crossed to Ireland from England in 1169 and 1170, were Norman adventurers. They came to Ireland not for England's interests but their own searching for land, power and wealth. Such Normans integrated themselves into Gaelic society intermarrying with the Irish, adopting their language, customs and in essence became Irish too, for centuries afterwards. Henry II alarmed at Strongbows' self- aggrandizement in Ireland visited the country to assert the feudal ties between the 'old English' and himself. In the sixteenth century the new Tudor state, decided that they would replace not only the independent power of the 'Old English' nobles but also of the power of the Gaelic tribes.

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  19. What Were the Characteristics of Ulster Unionism From the 1880's Until The Partition?

    His Land Act of 1870 gave greater security to some tenants, and those who left their holdings could claim compensation for improvements they had made. However, the act proved unsatisfactory in practice, and agitation for land reform steadily increased. Equally important was the demand for home rule. Gladstone's advocacy of Home Rule for Ireland was a notable recognition of Irish demands, but wrecked his third ministry (1886) after a few months. Many anti-Home Rule Liberals allied themselves with the Conservatives, and the slow decline of the Liberal party may be traced from this date.

    • Word count: 2557
  20. "The Failure of the British to Solve the Irish Question Arises From Ignorance and A r****t, Imperialist Mentality", How Far Do You Agree With This View of British Policy?

    This policy came to dominate British politics from 1886 until 1914. Prime Minister Gladstone split the Liberal Party by converting to Home Rule, forming the Gladstonian Liberals and the Liberal Unionists. It is unclear whether Gladstone's conversion was genuine belief or political expediency. Home Rule policy was not popular with Irish nationalists who wanted total independence, rather than devolution. It was strongly opposed by Ulster Protestants, who said, "Home Rule Means Rome Rule." At this time the British can be seen as imperialist. By allowing Home Rule they were conceding to the Irish but not completely losing Ireland.

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  21. Is there sufficient evidence in Sources D to J to explain why the Troubles broke out in Northern Ireland in 1969?

    This type of treatment was the start of many exchanged acts of aggression between the Catholics and Protestants that still go on today in Northern Ireland. Both Protestants and Roman Catholics feel it is essential to teach a different version of history to make their enemy appear more in the wrong. Conflicts between the opposing religions are portrayed in different ways to children of the two religions, to try to shift the blame to the other group. Source D demonstrates that a very Irish view of history was taught within the Roman Catholic Schools well into the 20th century.

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  22. Assess the extent to which the Northern Ireland Government was willing and able to use its extensive devolved powers to develop distinctive policies between 1921 and 1972.

    'The politico-administrative system in Northern Ireland was thus modelled on that of Britain, however, the nature of politics in the two parts was quite different.'II Unionists were mainly involved in Northern Ireland, 'since Protestants remained Unionists and Catholics were nationalists the territorial partition established conditions under which the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) would win all elections for the Northern Ireland Parliament between 1920 and 1969.'III Northern Ireland consisted of ? of all Nationalists and therefore ? of all Unionists, which was subsequently reflected in Parliament.

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  23. Describe the efforts that have been made to reach a political solution to the problem of Northern Ireland since 1969.

    By 1972, the British Government was still faced with the task of governing the province of Northern Ireland, where two communities lived in fear and hatred among each other. To this day there have been four main attempts to reach a reasonable solution. There was a conference held at Sunningdale on the 6, 7, 8 and 9 of December of 1973, between the British and Irish Governments and the parties involved in the Northern Ireland Executive. The results of these conferences were summarised in the "Sunningdale Agreement"; it aimed to introduce power sharing between the nationalist and unionist communities in Northern Ireland.

    • Word count: 2229
  24. The following factors are all equally important reasons for the continuing conflicts between Unionists and Nationalists in Northern Ireland

    This concern was brought to the forefront with the closing of the well-known prison to accommodate these convicts; the Maze Prison. There is an article in the Telegraph stressing this matter dated 17th September 2000. "Ulster Unionists are also infuriated by the way Mr Adams produced a list of 41 people for whom he wants amnesty from prosecution. The list is said to include IRA suspects wanted for such atrocities as the Enniskillen Poppy Day bombing and attacks on army bases in Germany and Northern Ireland."

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  25. Why Is It Proving So Difficult To Implement The Good Friday Agreement?

    Soon, plans for talks with Sinn F�in were announced. The agreement itself was drawn up not so much as an all round solution, as the situation is beyond an immediate cure, but more as a compromise that would provide a more stable environment in which to progress forwards with the peace process. The agreement caused mixed feelings from each side, some points benefiting one greatly, other points upsetting either side. Although this caused both sides to hold criticism to the agreement, it also gave each side benefits to the agreement.

    • Word count: 2372

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