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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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With what success has the Britain government tried to deal with the Irish Troubles in the years since 1972?
Power sharing was the British government's first attempt at trying to stop the 'troubles' from continuing. The British believed that in 1974 a new scheme needed to be put in place to insure that both the Catholic nationalists and the Protestant unionist both got a fair share of the power in Northern Ireland. The British believed that a new government needed to be introduced to allow both religions a chance to vote and campaign. For the very first time in Irish history the Catholics and the Protestants had to work together and share there power. The British would make sure that voting would be equal and this would then decide the amount of power each party would hold.
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The following events have all helped shape the course of Irish history in the 20th Century: a. The Easter Rising b.The deployment of British troops c.b****y Sunday Which of these events has had the biggest impact on the history of the conflicts in Ireland
Many Nationalists stopped campaigning against British rule and joined the army to fight Germany. However for many extreme Nationalists, who wanted independence or at least home rule, fighting and dying for Britain was unacceptable. Republicans regarded Britain as a foreign country which did not deserve their loyalty. James Connolly led the Irish Citizen Army, and together with the Irish republican brotherhood they planned to take over Dublin at Easter in 1916, but their plans went wrong. The rebels were outnumbered by British troops, but still more came to the city to help fight.
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When the First World War broke out in 1914, Ireland was called upon by Britain to go to war against Germany; many Nationalists postponed their campaigning and became soldiers of Britain. Fighting was strongly looked down upon by extreme nationalists, including Pierce and Connolly who still continued to seek independence, or at least to re-establish Home Rule. James Connolly believed that dying and murdering for Britain was seen as risking both yours and other lives for a foreign country that did not merit their allegiance.
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The Irish strongly held this against the British. The main short term cause was the emergence of the three paramilitary groups. These were the Irish Volunteers, the IRB and Irish Citizen Army. The Irish Volunteers consisted of ten thousand members and the leader was Eoin Mac Neill. The IRB were very small and possibly had one hundred members, they were run by Patrick Pearse and The Irish Citizen Army also had around one hundred members there leader was James Connolly.
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In 1959, Unemployment was rapidly increasing which mainly affected the Catholics. They knew they were being discriminated upon over unemployment but the wasn't a lot they could do about it because the Catholics had no political power. Ian Paisley is the founder of the 'Democratic Unionist Party' and has played a central part in Northern Ireland politics since the 1960's. His followers formed 'Ulster Protestant Action' and they believed that Protestants should be kept in employment in times of depression in preference to their fellow Catholic workers.
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Which Of The Following Events Has Had The Biggest Impact On The History Of The Conflict In Ireland? Easter Rising 1916, Deployment Of Troops 1969, b****y Sunday 1972
were both killed in the event. The creation of these Martyrs led to the yearly celebration of their deaths, which in turn led to Protestants rebelling and celebrating their own events the most famous of which is the anniversary of William of Orange (King William the iii of England) who many Protestants heralded as a champion of their faith as he punished Catholics. This then led to a lot more violence between Catholics and Protestants leaving David Lloyd George no choice but to send the Black and Tans in, to control the violence.
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The Orange society represents their identity in their march. The Orange Order is a popular movement, it has about 75000 members in Northern Ireland today. It mixes political, religious, social and cultural activities and has a powerful influence. The Orange Order parade is important for its members to march because it shows their culture and their identity to the world. They end their meeting by singing God Save the Queen; this demonstrates that they are extremely proud to be British. The Orange Order also forbids their members from marrying Catholics, this shows that they don't like to mix with Catholics.
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The faith Protestant was formed against the catholic faith by a group of Catholics who began protesting against. This hences the name Protestants. The group grew bigger and protested at how the pope in Rome and his Bishops were too wealthy, also at how the Catholic Churches were too richly decorated. The Protestants complained and protested at how ordinary people could not understand the services because they were all in Latin. All this happened around 1500. These people were now called Protestants as a result of all their protesting, and they set up a different form of Christianity called Protestantism.
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The 1829 Act overhauled this restriction on Catholic rights, enabling the Catholic cause in Ireland to take the political centre stage on a national scale. This is a great testament to the effectiveness of O'Connell as in future the Irish Catholic cause would represented in the House of Commons and Irish reform would be subsequently much more viable. O'Connell's Catholic Association was key to his high level of effectiveness in defeating the major obstacles that had hitherto prevented an Emancipation Act.
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A million people died in the potato famine of either starvation of hunger related diseases. The British Government refused to give food to the poor Irish, they would only sell it, few Irish tenants ever had money. Irish tenants were unable to pay their rent to their landlords, so they were evicted. Many were forced to leave Ireland and went to America or England. Nearly 4 million people left Ireland between 1845 and 1900. The Catholics thought that the British Government had deliberately allowed the famine and emigration to continue. The republican Michael Davitt formed the land league in 1879 and this league used violence to make landlords give fair rents and give loans to their tenants to buy land.
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Beliefs of Loyalists/Unionists Like Scotland and Wales, Northern Ireland is part of the UK. About, 2/3 of the people that live here are Protestant Unionists. The term Loyalist is used to describe the group because they are loyal to Britain and the monarchy. They also believe that being part of Britain is good for the economy of Northern Ireland. The most outspoken leader for Unionists in Northern Ireland is Ian Paisley. He is the leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP). He wants Northern Ireland to remain part of Britain and for it to be governed by Britain.
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How far are the tensions in Northern Ireland due the events f 30th January 1972 and how far are they due t historical events before 1972
b****y Sunday was a Nationalist protest on the 30th January 1972. British Soldiers shot dead 13 Nationalists. It resulted in the impression that the British were prepared to use violence to defend the Unionists of Northern Ireland. This led up to more conflict and attacks on not only Unionists in Northern Ireland, but the British in England as well. Examples of this were the Brighton Bombing in 1984, and the Harrods b**b and assassination of Lord Mountbatten in 1979. The IRA took full responsibility for these terrorist attacks. The tensions in Northern Ireland still exist today, as do the violent campaigns of paramilitary organisations.
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These were called the penal laws, and were as follows: � Catholics could not bear arms; � Catholic children could not be educated; � Catholics could not own a horse valued above �5; � Catholic Archbishops and Bishops had to leave Ireland; � Priests were not replaced when they died; � Catholics could not buy property; � On the death of the owner, catholic estates ad to be divided equally between the sons (although if a son became a Protestant he would obtain all the land); � Catholics could not have leases on land for over 32 years; � No Catholics could be lawyers, army officers of public officials; � Catholics could not vote or be MPs.
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The Northern Ireland government introduced internment in attempt to curb the increasing violence. This meant that anyone suspected of terrorism would be arrested and put in prison without the need for a trial. It was intended to work against all terrorists and not just the IRA although most were Catholic. This backfired, the information that was used for the arrests was out of date and none of the current IRA leaders were arrested. Now rumours of torture from these arrests also circulated and fuelled Catholic anger, as civil rights were being abused. All these factors led to the events of b****y Sunday.
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The IRA is prepared to give up their weapons in return for all their prisoners being released. However the release of any individual who has committed murder is bound to cause controversy. Magee committed the crime because he was part of the IRA. He joined the IRA because his father had been killed by loyalist policemen. He joined to get revenge for his fathers death and because his farther was also in the IRA. The IRA stands for a united Ireland. They are Republicans and want both North and South Ireland to join to form one independent country.
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The Irish are naturally an open-minded and accepting people who have great respect for other cultures and traditions. The best example of this mentality is the spread of Christianity which St. Patrick introduced there beginning in 432AD. It must be noted that the spread of Christianity in Ireland was bloodless, unlike in many other parts of the world.4 By peacefully accepting the new faith, elements of openness and tolerance are evident in their natural character. The Irish people's actions were morally based on tradition and precedents set by their ancestors.
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Northern Ireland Assignment Section 1: How have groups within each community tried to achieve their aims between 1968 and the present day?
Both groups are equally passionate about their aims for the future of Northern Ireland. Between 1968 and the present day they have used a number of different violent, peaceful, persuasive, threatening, and contentious methods to achieve their specific aims. There were many different sub groups of the Republicans/Nationalists and the Loyalists. Some of the main ones were the Sinn Fein a Political Party who supports the militant campaigns to achieve a united Ireland. The Social Democratic & Labour Party (SLDP)
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Ireland coursework-Part AIreland has had a lot of trouble over the years for many reasons causing major publicity internationally
He is still claiming that what they did was not terrorism and was acceptable; he even praised the IRA's "determination, selflessness and courage". He also said they had "faced down a huge military foe, the British crown forces", who were sent in to control the IRA's violence. He congratulated them on showing Ulster couldn't be ruled on Westminster's terms. However, he made an "address to the IRA" praising their past actions but now claiming that their struggle should "be taken forwards by other means"; he wanted them to "fully embrace and accept this alternative".
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There is a good deal of conflicting information regarding the number of attacks committed by the Real IRA. According to the MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base, the rIRA have participated in 29 total incidents, while the State Department says that there have been more than 80 attacks since 1999. Another report stated that the rIRA was responsible for nine terrorist attacks in 1998 alone, including its most deadly (Melaugh). The most effective attack by the Real IRA occurred on August 15, 1998 in Omagh, Northern Ireland.
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How Effectively did Irish Catholic and Nationalist Leaders advance their Cause in the years 1801 - 1921?
In addition to this, the clergy were generally persecuted: bishops were banned from the country and ordinary priests were forced to register and allowed to practise only in limited areas. In 1824 the association introduced the Catholic rent of a penny a month to finance its work. The leaders were professionals, but the rent made all the members feel a part of it. This provided the basis for mass support and the feeling of a crusade rather than just a pressure group.
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During the First World War, a man called Roger Casement had persuaded the Germans to sell him and all the other rebels' shiploads of guns and ammunition. The British found out and captured a ship heading towards Ireland with 2000 rifles and ammunition. Pearse and Connelly didn't let this deter them, and went ahead with only rifles and no artillery. They hoped that the British Army would not use artillery as too much important property may be damaged, and a lot of it was owned by British companies.
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In this essay I am going to try and decide whether the cause of the Northern Island troubles were long term or short term.
This pushed the Catholics out and made them resent the Protestants. In 1641, England was split by a Civil war between King Charles I and Parliament. The Catholics in Ireland thought that this was a good time to rebel and many atrocities were committed against Protestants. The Civil War ended in 1649 and Cromwell was sent to Ireland to deal with the rebellion. Cromwell confiscated nearly all land owned by Catholics - it was given to soldiers and to people who had lent the government money. This once again alienated Catholics from society.
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The Ireland all Nationalists longed for. England would be using most of their men in Germany to fight, this mean that less attention would be paid to Ireland and fewer soldiers would be available to send out to Ireland. James Connolly and Pearse are seen as the leaders of the rising and in 1916 they took over the post office using violence. Other Nationalists who were fighting took over other important buildings where many British were based. During the Easter Rising there was a week of fierce street fighting and the British army fired two 18-pounder guns at close range in the streets, while the gunboat, Helga, fired shells from the river Liffey.
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These divides strengthened further after the Act of Union because the Irish Protestants and Ulster Presbyterians gained both economically and religiously from the Act. They continued to control Ireland and run its policies; therefore became pro-union. Whereas the Catholics in Ireland felt betrayed, because they had not been granted Emancipation like they had hoped and the Ascendancy had been made stronger and it still controlled Irish Politics. Another downfall of the Act was that it failed to address the other issues in Ireland at the time, which made up the Irish Question and created new ones as well, such as, Catholic Emancipation, Parliamentary Reform and Equality for Religion.
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However, Source B states how "there was a shooting in the morning" and "trouble was expected." This infers that the demonstrators did have a warning. Both Sources give different statistical evidence about the ratio of police men and protestors. In Source A, Tyler said, "There were crowds in the streets...there were plenty of policemen too, well armed." This portrays an equal balance in numbers. However, Source B states there were "A dozen Saracens... thousands of Africans." This infers that there were too many demonstrators for the small police force to handle. Both Sources also seem to have a contrasting opinion as to who initiated the violence.
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