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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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Choose 2 events from the last 200 years which have helped shape the views of the nationalists and the unionists.
It created a divide in the population and each side despised each other. This meant that they were unlikely to reach an agreement with each other. The native Irish and the settlers were separated by language, religion and political views. There were also big economic differences between them. The settlers (Unionists/Protestants) held more of the land and power than the Nationalists. They could pay smaller amounts to rent the land than the Nationalists and could also get the good pieces of land, leaving the native Irish small pieces of marshland. This helps shape views of the Protestants and Catholics today.
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'To what extent did Protestant support for an independent Ireland change in the period 1798 - 1921?'
It's suggested that the Catholics triggered the struggle for an independent Ireland though we can see that this is not altogether true as Theobald Wolf Tone was as Pelling said the 'father of separatist Irish Nationalism', though he was 'Protestant' lawyer based in the North. Many historians argue that certain key figures really only wanted democracy for Ireland and felt that British rule was a restraint and Pelling believed that Wolf Tone's views were radicalised by events in France during the revolution there in 1793.
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Why was Ireland such a central Issue in British politics in the first half of the nineteenth century?
who first crossed to Ireland from England in 1169 and 1170, were Norman adventurers. They came to Ireland not for England's interests but their own searching for land, power and wealth. Such Normans integrated themselves into Gaelic society intermarrying with the Irish, adopting their language, customs and in essence became Irish too, for centuries afterwards. Henry II alarmed at Strongbows' self- aggrandizement in Ireland visited the country to assert the feudal ties between the 'old English' and himself. In the sixteenth century the new Tudor state, decided that they would replace not only the independent power of the 'Old English' nobles but also of the power of the Gaelic tribes.
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His Land Act of 1870 gave greater security to some tenants, and those who left their holdings could claim compensation for improvements they had made. However, the act proved unsatisfactory in practice, and agitation for land reform steadily increased. Equally important was the demand for home rule. Gladstone's advocacy of Home Rule for Ireland was a notable recognition of Irish demands, but wrecked his third ministry (1886) after a few months. Many anti-Home Rule Liberals allied themselves with the Conservatives, and the slow decline of the Liberal party may be traced from this date.
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So on the 24th June 1916 the battle began. More than 1.7 million shells were fired, many were duds and because of this the gun crews were out under a lot of pressure and the 4.5 howitzer crew even called themselves 'The Suicide Club' The Ulstermen were to attack a 300 yards front and their target was known as the Schwaben Redoubt. It was a network of trenches, dugouts and machine gun posts which lay south of the Ancre River.
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"The Failure of the British to Solve the Irish Question Arises From Ignorance and A r****t, Imperialist Mentality", How Far Do You Agree With This View of British Policy?
This policy came to dominate British politics from 1886 until 1914. Prime Minister Gladstone split the Liberal Party by converting to Home Rule, forming the Gladstonian Liberals and the Liberal Unionists. It is unclear whether Gladstone's conversion was genuine belief or political expediency. Home Rule policy was not popular with Irish nationalists who wanted total independence, rather than devolution. It was strongly opposed by Ulster Protestants, who said, "Home Rule Means Rome Rule." At this time the British can be seen as imperialist. By allowing Home Rule they were conceding to the Irish but not completely losing Ireland.
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Source 1 is an example of the long-term history behind b****y Sunday. Images like this have been shown to each generation of Catholics at face value, as though the source images show the absolute truth. Propaganda like this, used by both Catholics and Protestants, is used to create hatred towards the other sect. The blind faith people of both sects place in the propaganda, and the hatred this creates, is a key factor in explaining events of b****y Sunday. With this animosity between English and Irish, and the bloodshed it has created in the past, an event like b****y Sunday was inevitable.
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It has been difficult to implement the Good Friday Agreement because of many different issues a few of these are differing aspirations, sectarianism and security.
This year differing aspirations ahs become a worrying problem because of the recent election where we saw the middle ground political groups have been defeated by the more extreme groups the DUP and Sinn Fein, this is worrying because they may not agree on anything, meaning that we might not get any further with the Good Friday Agreement. Sectarianism is also a big problem; these are problems such as the Holy Cross dispute which is as much to do with politics as it has to do with religion.
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Is there sufficient evidence in Sources D to J to explain why the Troubles broke out in Northern Ireland in 1969?
This type of treatment was the start of many exchanged acts of aggression between the Catholics and Protestants that still go on today in Northern Ireland. Both Protestants and Roman Catholics feel it is essential to teach a different version of history to make their enemy appear more in the wrong. Conflicts between the opposing religions are portrayed in different ways to children of the two religions, to try to shift the blame to the other group. Source D demonstrates that a very Irish view of history was taught within the Roman Catholic Schools well into the 20th century.
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The events that occurred in Derry on January 30th 1972 became known as b****y Sunday. Why have these events produced such different historical interpretations?
s****h squads were sent in to arrest troublemakers, but shooting broke out. Afterwards the soldiers claimed that they had come under fire from flats alongside the road, but the marchers claimed that the soldiers had opened fire first. Thirteen marchers were killed and another thirteen were injured. Each side blamed the other for the disaster. The soldiers claimed that the IRA, which had used the march as a means of provoking a response, fired them on first. Catholics believed that the army had deliberately attacked the marchers.
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Explain why the marching season in Northern Ireland still causes tension between the two communities? In 1988 the Good Friday Agreement promised an end to violence and division. Why is the path to peace still proving difficult to complete?
It originally broke out in Ulster but quickly spread to other parts of Ireland. During this year many English Protestants were killed by Catholics and from 1641 -1649, the Irish Catholics controlled Ireland. These massacres helped to create a siege mentality for Protestants. During this time, the English were distracted because they were having their own civil war so the Irish thought that they were victorious. But when the civil war in England had finished, Cromwell was eager to regain control of Ireland. So he sent over soldiers from England to control Ireland again.
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Decommissioning has still not been achieved, despite the Good Friday Agreement of 1998. Loyalist and Nationalist communities still show open hostility towards each other. With reference to the following events can you explain why
A perfect catch 22 situation. There is such a level of distrust in the area that neither is willing to make the first move for fear the other will not keep their end of the bargain, hence leaving themselves totally unprotected from the other. One of the aims of the Good Friday agreement was to aid this, however the levels of distrust, resentment, and fear are too great for any resolutions to be made. In my opinion, one of the greatest causes of distrust towards the Catholic people originated during WW1.
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Gerrymandering was where special commissions set up to organize voting districts and was used to make sure the Protestants got more power and could win elections. The boundary commissioners drew up the boundaries in the protestant favor of which was made much easier as Catholics refused to become commissioners. A further disadvantage faced by Catholics in the1960's was the fact that the RUC, or better known as The Royal Ulster Constabulary were the police force for which the overwhelming majority were Protestant.
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A state of affairs came about in Easter 1998 where there was a chance that peace could be possible. This then led to talks leading to the Good Friday Agreement. This essay will investigate the factors which helped make the agreement possible and how they all link together in a chain. The Catholic Church had wanted peace all along and these were the people who were trying to get Sinn Fein to join the peace processes. The Church recognized that Sinn Fein had an essential role to play if peace was to come about.
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Previous attempts to bring peace to Northern Ireland have failed. What problems will need to be overcome if the current peace talks are to succeed?
This government was set to have influence over a range of issues. This step in the peace process was a step towards the Good Friday Agreement. During all the talks about the peace process, 1995 saw the lowest death toll in the 'troubles'. Through this attempt at peace breakthroughs have been made. Leaders on both sides had pledged their support to this attempt at peace, including David Trimble. The Joint Framework document was a good attempt towards peace as it saw the two opposing sides working together. During any peace attempt support from both opposing sides must be needed otherwise the peace process won't work.
- Word count: 660
What can you learn from Source A about t he disadvantages faced by the Catholics in Northern Ireland in the 1960's?
Q2.Study Sources B and C. How useful are these sources in helping to access the extent of discrimination against Catholics? In my opinion the sources give you a brief encounter but something that you need to read into and develop further and they tell us a lot about what sort of thing they were discriminated with. Things from football to what kinds of jobs you could get. Source B explains to us that no matter how good this boy was at playing football when the manager found out he was a catholic he didn't want anything to do with him.
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Nevertheless, Patrick Pearse (Commandant-General of IRA) and James Connolly (leader of the Irish Citizen Army) still decided to go ahead with the rising. So on Easter Monday, 24th April 1916, Irish Republicans impatient with the delay in fulfilling the Home Rule, marched in an armed group with Patrick Pearse leading in front into Dublin. Raising the Irish tricolour flag Patrick Pearse announced Ireland was an Independent republic by reading the Proclamation of Independence. The rebels occupied the General Post Office (their Headquarters), the Four Courts, Mendicity Institution, South Dublin Union, College of Surgeons, Boland's Mill and Jacob's Factory.
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With neither side offering to compromise, this bill seemed unlikely solve the Irish problem. Despite support for this bill from Redmond and the Republicans, the Conservatives were determined to destroy it believing it was a 'corrupt bargain' between Redmond and Asquith. Moreover, the House of Lords was an obstacle to Home Rule. It still had the power to reject any government bill. As the House was largely against home rule, the bill was easily blocked and it was clear that a reformation of the House would be essential before any type of Home Rule bill could be passed.
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Explain how the layout and organization of space can symbolise the basic principles of society, such as organization, segmentation or hierarchy.
Territory entails a primordial aspect of Catholic and Protestant ethnicity. The Catholics legitimise their presence in Northern Ireland, as well as their existence as an ethnic community, in territorial terms. During the "plantation" (late 16th/17th century), Catholic land ownership was replaced with Protestants, and the Catholics were disenfranchised as confronting a disrupted industry and trade. This historical series of events has become rhetoric in Irish teachings as basic ideas of reciprocity (Catholics want their right to land ownership back i.e.
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The land of the Catholics was confiscated by force and was given to the Protestants Plantations from England and Scotland. The act was a social move as the English Monarchs had more power than the Irish. With an intention of total control over Ireland the English had a fear that someone might use Ireland as a 'back door' and might possibly invade England with the use of the Irish land. This move meant that the Catholics had developed a hatred of the English Government and also the Protestants.
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Protestants are certainly not blameless in sparking of violence. The events at Burntollet Bridge were caused by them; they beat innocent marchers and promoted a lot of violence thereafter. Protestants were again to blame for anger and violence which followed their actions. On August 12th 1969, the Protestants held their annual Apprentice Boys' march; they march through Derry, gloating about their victory years before. These actions were bound to provoke Catholics. Civil rights leaders lost control and marchers rioted in Derry that day. Only 2 days later the troops were sent in because a lot of rage followed these events.
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Previous attempts to bring peace to Northern Ireland have failed. What problems will need to be overcome if the current peace talks are to succeed?
This was agreed between Prime Minister John Major and the Taoiseach, Albert Reynolds. Talks were to be set up to decide on a new form of government for Northern Ireland and that the Northern Ireland government would respect all traditions in Northern Ireland. The Irish government accepted that it might have to drop the parts of it constitution, which claimed the North as part of its territory. The Irish government would set up a Forum for Peace and Reconciliation to promote trust and understanding between the traditions. Only those who rejected violence could be part of this.
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Why and how did the north east of Ireland diverge from the rest of Ireland in the later nineteenth century?
Therefore unionists who were opposed to Home Rule would be in majority were there were other Protestants. Whereas in Ulster Protestants were big in number but divided in social class. Without question the Northeast was the only area that had such an electoral makeup. And in spite of there being many Unionists in the South there was not enough to control the votes. On the other hand they had influence amongst the British Conservatives and good at persuading their vote against Home Rule. Unionism therefore became a political force confined to Ulster and as industry flourish Belfast became a thriving port.
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Assess the extent to which the Northern Ireland Government was willing and able to use its extensive devolved powers to develop distinctive policies between 1921 and 1972.
'The politico-administrative system in Northern Ireland was thus modelled on that of Britain, however, the nature of politics in the two parts was quite different.'II Unionists were mainly involved in Northern Ireland, 'since Protestants remained Unionists and Catholics were nationalists the territorial partition established conditions under which the Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) would win all elections for the Northern Ireland Parliament between 1920 and 1969.'III Northern Ireland consisted of ? of all Nationalists and therefore ? of all Unionists, which was subsequently reflected in Parliament.
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What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Republican/Nationalists and the Loyalist/Unionists?
Nationalists, who are usually Catholic, outnumber the comparatively scarce Unionists. Two main parties represent the often-varied views of the Republicans; Sinn Fein, led by Gerry Adams, a party dedicated to a United Ireland and The Scottish Democratic Labour Party, a party committed to achieving its aims using non-violent methods. Sinn Fein, literally translated as "We, ourselves" has previously used more extreme methods than the SDLP to accomplish its targets, and for many years was banned in the UK, but in recent years the party has become more moderate.
- Word count: 937