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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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How important were the following two events;The Easter Rising 1916 and The deployment of British troops in Northern Ireland in 1969, in shaping the views of Loyalist/Unionist/Protestants.
Although most thought that war with Germany was very unlikely, it did happen, giving the government a new priority, and pushing the Home Rule bill and Ireland's fight for freedom to the sidelines. In 1914, violent groups had been formed on both sides, the Unionists creating the Ulster Volunteer Force and the Nationalists responding by forming the Irish Volunteers. The UVF received a massive public delivery of weaponry in April 1914, the police responding in no way at all. The Nationalists, unlike their opposites, had to smuggle in arms in the summer of the same year.
- Word count: 1870
Prior to the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, all attempts to bring peace to Northern Ireland had failed. If the Good Friday Agreement is to succeed, what problems will have to be overcome?
Negotiations often end in no direct positive result, and the main reason that little had been achieved pre-1998 is because the two sides often failed to communicate. Normal, non-governmental Catholics dismissed Protestant views as unimportant, and the Protestants did the same to the Catholics. Any huge factor to violence, tension and all-round bitterness between the groups is the large amount of discrimination against Catholics in previous years. Protestant policemen have previously been proven to differentiate Catholics and Protestants, often favouring Protestants.
- Word count: 3124
As Protestants controlled the state, the history textbooks were altered to portray the Protestant slant of history. So Catholic schools were often run by the Catholic Church. This tells us that even from an early age, the Catholic and Protestant children were segregated. They went to different schools, and learnt different versions of the same event, so this was sure to cause trouble in later life. As they would see themselves as different species, also as they learnt to different views of the same event arguments were sure to follow about history.
- Word count: 1970
However this strike would have clashed with the Easter Rising, so the leaders of the I.R.B. who were planning the Easter Rising had to get Connolly to join with them. So eventually he was one of the seven in the military council. The founding of the I.V.F. (Irish Volunteer Force) was another cause explaining why the Easter Rising happened. It was founded by Eoin McNeill, and it was going to make sure that Home Rule was passed, even if violence must be used.
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Therefore, the difficulties faced by Catholics in the 60's were that they were discriminated against by the Protestants. This only shows the job problems they had, but they did face many other daunting problems in the 60's. 2) Source B helps assess the discrimination of Catholics to a certain extent. This is because it is coming from a reliable source. Billy Sinclair used to be the manager of Linfield football club and saw the sort of discrimination he is talking about with his own eyes. The sort of discrimination he is talking about is that if a football scout for a Northern Irish club spots a good young footballer that is from a catholic school, they won't take him on as a player.
- Word count: 1243
Ireland is a place of conflict; the conflict is between the Catholic minority and the Protestant majority.
The 'RUC' and 'B Specials' did everything they could to stop the violence and calm everything down; their best just was not good enough. They became very discredited after the events, as they had fought back violently it was of no credit to them. Eventually British troops were called in to help them out of the situation, as it was too much for them to handle. The troops helped to bring law and order to the Irish troubled areas. There are several factors that may have caused the riots and the troops to be called in.
- Word count: 1403
Choose 2 events in the last 100 years, which have been particularly important in shaping the views of today?
This led the Catholics to get frustrated at the lack of progress, which meant that the Catholics organised the civil rights movement in 1967. A year after they began to organise a series of marches. The fact that O'Neill promised the Catholics equal rights also meant that the Protestant community also began to worry about the Catholics becoming to powerful in Northern Ireland. b****y Sunday was one of the most crucial points in the Northern Irish troubles. This came about when soldiers fired onto a non-violent march and killed 13 civilians.
- Word count: 651
Previous attempts to bring peace to Northern Ireland have failed. What problems will need to be overcome if the current peace talks are to succeed?
The Irish government also set up a Forum for Peace and Reconciliation. This declaration was accepted by all the moderate parties involved, the hardliners such as Ian Paisley rejected it, "sold out Ulster to buy off the fiendish Republican scum". The paramilitaries all tended to study it carefully and ask for clarification of details as a way of not rejecting it out of hand. Sinn Fein were unhappy with the Downing Street Declaration, however in 1994 president Bill Clinton allowed Gerry Adams, the Sinn Fein leader, to visit the USA to talk to Irish American Groups who supported the IRA.
- Word count: 794
There are two main groups of people in Northern Ireland, both who have different beliefs, they are the republicans/nationalists and the loyalists/unionists.
The IRA was then split into two splinter groups called the real IRA and the continuity IRA. Both protecting the catholic community from protestant violence. These 'freedom fighters' who wanted progress quicker, said that the British army and the RUC were discriminating against the Catholic community. An example of their violence is the car bombing, by the IRA, in Birmingham last year. 2. An event, which has happened in the last 100 years, is The Troubles, 1668-1972. The troubles is when the tension began to rise in Northern Ireland. It was when people started to demand changes in how Northern Ireland was run.
- Word count: 933
Penal Laws were introduced to prevent Protestants 'Inter marrying' with Catholics. These laws also made it impossible for Catholics to buy land and work for the Government. When the British Government decided that it was too dangerous for Ireland to continue to have it's own parliament, by an Act of Union in 1800, Ireland was united with Britain. Ireland was to be ruled from the British Parliament. After the Act of Union King George III refused to allow Catholics the right to become MPs.
- Word count: 807
To what extent can it be argued that the Jesuits were the most important feature of the Counter Reformation?
By upsetting and unsettling the Protestants, weren't the Jesuits just provoking the Protestants to carry on their reformation? The Jesuits, even by the Catholics were loved or hated. Many people looked on them, how a modern day person would look upon an organisation like the freemasons. They were highly secretive and selective about whom they would let in. This made the ordinary laity wonders what actually went on behind the welcoming front of their organisation. Though the Jesuits seemed to be protecting Catholicism, they always seemed to have some ulterior motives.
- Word count: 1205
Inmates remember him as the one who led all the political discussions among fellow prisoners about Northern Ireland's cause and the history of Ireland. For 18 years Gerry Adams has been the undisputed leader of the republican movement through war and the peace process. The Sinn Fein president has, of course, been a pivotal figure for almost 30 years. In 1972, he was released from jail to join the IRA delegation that met with the British government in London; he was 24 years of age.
- Word count: 1045
This did not happen; unfortunately the two sides of Ireland drifted further apart becoming more and more entrenched in their own positions. After the treaty was signed the active Unionists held power in the north, they wanted to keep Ulster British and Protestant, this was to contribute to the longstanding conflict as they tended to see all Catholics that lived in Ulster as traitors, and this meant the Catholics were treated badly and discriminated against at all levels. Fear and distrust existed and grew in strength between the two divisions, dividing them further. In the Irish Free State (The South)
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Were there was a mighty rebellion, which Oliver reacted in a very harsh and b****y way killing everyone. Before the British settled the country was one country all owned by Ireland with 26 counties, but when they came most went to Ulster the top half and made it British land. This split the country into two, which as you can imagine the Irish, didn't like and they have tried to rebel ever since. In 1969 the army under control of king James tried to take the town of Derry, when they got there the Apprentice Boys locked the town gates.
- Word count: 763
The blame lies more with the way the two sides have used Ireland's history to enforce their arguments. Due to the potato famine (1846) many Catholics died as the crops they grew were given to their Protestant landlords as keep. Farmers unable to pay their rents were made homeless. Many Catholics felt the British government failed to help and that things would have been different if the people of Ireland had been the landlords. The famine had many long-term consequences. It led many Catholics to emigrate to America and Canada, thus gaining foreign support. Anti-British feeling that came from the famine, the erosion of the Penal Laws giving the vote to Catholics, and the industrial links between the north of Ireland and Britain raised the question of who owned land.
- Word count: 1733
It was here when members of the First Battalion of the Parachute Regiment stepped in to control the situation. The events from here on in are somewhat cloudy; no one knows exactly what happens from here. What is clear is that the soldiers came under fire from petrol bombs and stones, they responded by shooting 13 unarmed men. This event made global news, and a united global anger. If the 13 that were shot unarmed, then how could the Army justify their deaths?
- Word count: 683
Describe the efforts that have been made to reach a political solution to the problem of Northern Ireland since 1969.
By 1972, the British Government was still faced with the task of governing the province of Northern Ireland, where two communities lived in fear and hatred among each other. To this day there have been four main attempts to reach a reasonable solution. There was a conference held at Sunningdale on the 6, 7, 8 and 9 of December of 1973, between the British and Irish Governments and the parties involved in the Northern Ireland Executive. The results of these conferences were summarised in the "Sunningdale Agreement"; it aimed to introduce power sharing between the nationalist and unionist communities in Northern Ireland.
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The other majority of men remained loyal to Redmond and were known as the National Volunteers. The leaders of the Irish volunteers were revolutionaries who were highly influenced by the historical and religious roots of Irish nationalism. The leader MacNeill was a professor of Irish history and "...passionately committed to a free and independent Ireland." This fits in with one of the aims of the Easter Rising in that the main aim was to gain power in Ireland and with the support of the Irish people proclaim Ireland independent. However, the other group of the Irish volunteers were prepared to go ahead with an armed rebellion.
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The following factors are all equally important reasons for the continuing conflicts between Unionists and Nationalists in Northern Ireland
This concern was brought to the forefront with the closing of the well-known prison to accommodate these convicts; the Maze Prison. There is an article in the Telegraph stressing this matter dated 17th September 2000. "Ulster Unionists are also infuriated by the way Mr Adams produced a list of 41 people for whom he wants amnesty from prosecution. The list is said to include IRA suspects wanted for such atrocities as the Enniskillen Poppy Day bombing and attacks on army bases in Germany and Northern Ireland."
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"QUALITY PEOPLE": Ireland is quite proud of its population as it is one of the youngest among the EU. With 702 per cent of them aged under 25 and 40 percent under 44 years-old of age ( future estimations : 35.5 per cent in 2010), the working population is one of the youngest in the Community. It also means that people are more flexible and movable. Furthermore, the education system is well valued by companies with a great proportion of students with scientific and engineering degrees3.
- Word count: 1366
Between 1921 and the mid 1960s Catholics in Northern Ireland faced many problems. The South, largely occupied by Irish Catholics, most opposed the idea of dividing Ireland, but in 1921 a group of Sinn Fein, and IRA members signed an treaty with the British, accepting the seperation of Ireland. This was known as 'Northern Ireland' was created, dominated by Protestants. However, Catholics had wanted a united and Independent Ireland, so resentment grew. For many years after the split, it was the Unionists in the north, many hardliners who held the power, so when the elections came round, the Protestants fixed the elections, so no Catholics could get into power.
- Word count: 636
He knew that he would lose the Whigs' support, but knew that he would lose them under almost any policy anyway. Also, he knew that Chamberlain had spoken previously of some greater independence for Ireland within a federal structure, so thought that he may have Chamberlain's support. However, Gladstone made the huge error of not involving his party in his consideration of Home Rule, and instead his son Herbert Gladstone leaked information of Gladstone's intentions to the press in December 1885, in what was known as the 'Hawarden Kite'.
- Word count: 759
How far do these sources support the veiw that Irish Nationalism was a 'curious blend of conservative Catholicism and political radicalism' between c1820 and 1921?
better lives for catholics,e.g catholic universities, and political radicalism, which were policies which were a break from tradition and thus deemed radical. Source 1 encapsulated this idea of the popular blend of conservative catholicism and political radicalism through Catholic Emancipation, led by Daniel O'Connell in 1829. A politically radical idea fought on the basis of advancing the interestsof the whole catholic community, for the Irish nationalist cause. John Mitchel, a member of Young Ireland reluctantly acknowledges that the blend was strong with O'Connell and at that time, extremism was not in the popular blend.
- Word count: 1482
How realistic is a United Ireland in the context of past and present events? Support your answer by using your knowledge of the current situation and key historical events.
Edward VI was Henry VIII's only son, he succeeded the throne in 1547. Edward favoured the belief of the reformation and did much to establish Protestantism into England. Although Edward tried to establish Protestantism he died in 1553 and Mary I succeeded the throne. As a Roman Catholic Mary began her reign by sweeping away the religious improvements of her father and her brother. When Mary died Elizabeth I took over the throne. In 1558, Elizabeth became Queen, at this time England was torn by religious strife. As Elizabeth was a Protestant, her religion was her initial problem as queen.
- Word count: 5162
The final Agreement was posted to every household in Northern Ireland and a referendum was held in May 1998. A referendum was also held in the Irish Republic. The result was overwhelmingly in favour of the Agreement. 71.1% of people in Northern Ireland and 94.4% in the Republic voted to accept the Agreement. An Assembly was elected in September that year. The Ulster Unionists won the largest share of the vote and 28 seats. The SDLP took 24 and Sinn Fein won 18. It consists of three strands. Strand One deals with the internal arrangement of N.I, and includes a 108 member assembly voted in by PR, and an Executive Committee consisting of 12 members.
- Word count: 1076