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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85

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  1. Ireland - Describe the reported incident in your own words with explanation of the content.

    The reactions to this meeting were very positive with Ulster's first minister David Trimble stating that it was a great meeting and the future looks very bright because of the friendliness of all the people involved. The Ulster unionist leader had no complaints about sitting at the same table with ex-IRA (Irish republic army) and Nationalist Martin McGuinnes dissipate them being sworn enemies. This suggests that times are changing for the better and peace is perhaps starting to be achieved because these two sworn enemies are having a civil conversation.

    • Word count: 769
  2. Explain the development of Catholic grievances and Protestant attitudes in Northern Ireland from partition to the 1960s.

    was divided between the people who were in favour of the treaty and those who were against it. The two sides battled it out and a vicious civil war in 1922. The people who supported the Partition Treaty won it. Since then, there have always been two political parties in the South: Fianna Fail and Fine Gael. Fianna Fail members were those who rejected the treaty, whilst Fine Gael consisted of the people who accepted the treaty. For the first ten years, Fine Gael were in control both in 1932 they were defeated and Fianna Fail came to power, who were lead by Eamon de Valera.

    • Word count: 1115
  3. Northern Ireland has had a volatile and tortured history. In 1969 began the conflict, which today is known as

    Dublin Unionist MP Edward Carson threatened armed resistance if Ulster was governed from Dublin. Between 1912 and 1914 Unionists signed the Solemn League and Covenant and formed the UVF, an armed Protestant militia to fight against Home Rule. The spectre of civil war hung over Ulster. The Bill was passed in parliament but suspended for the duration of the Great War. The possibility of Home Rule stemmed the campaign for an independent Ireland but the 1916 Easter Rising changed this. The execution of its leaders inflamed nationalist opinion and by 1918 Home Rule was no longer an option.

    • Word count: 2282
  4. "Since 1972 the British Government has tried a number of solutions to the crisis in Northern Ireland." How successful has this process been?

    and the DUP (Democratic Unionist Party). The UUP are the most powerful Protestant party. They, like the SDLP are opposed to violence. The Rev. Ian Paisley founded the DUP in 1971; they are not opposed to violence but will not condemn it. The Ulster Democratic Army and the Ulster Volunteer Force are the main Protestant paramilitary groups; they were set up in the early 70's to oppose IRA violence. In order to answer the question however, we need to study the background of Northern Irelands History and the beginning of the troubles. In 1968 northern Irish Catholics started a Civil rights march, inspired by Martin Luther King in America and French University students.

    • Word count: 1219
  5. The Irish question - What are the chances of peace in 2002?

    At the other end of the spectrum is Sinn Fein, they are perceived as being the main nationalist fundamental political party in Northern Ireland. They also have strong links to the IRA. The IRA (Irish republican army) are a paramilitary group. They are people who are committed to using more extreme, often violent methods 'fight' their cause. Examples of the IRA's attacks include the now infamous bombing of the Manchester City centre in 1996. They also carried out a b**b attack in Omagh, Northern Ireland, killing many innocent people.

    • Word count: 1331
  6. It has proved hard to bring peace to Northern Ireland.

    This peace process caused problems because the IRA refused to decommission their arms. They use these arms as their power to protect themselves. They also feel at war with Britain and don't want Britain to overpower them. It hasn't been until recently very recently that the IRA have begun to decommission. There has also been a problem with the fact that some members of the Northern Ireland assembly are ex-paramilitary members e.g. Martin McGuiness, the current Education Secretary, has openly admitted to being an ex-IRA member.

    • Word count: 2155
  7. Why Did the IRA step up their campaign in 1972?

    This did not please nationalists as they saw the move as a plan for the British Government to gain more power in Ireland again. The Provisional IRA stepped up their campaign in numerous ways during and after 1972. In this essay I aim to give examples of the methods they used and highlight the main reasons for using those methods. One of the most widely known and arguably the most unsuccessful IRA tactics has been the use of explosive devices.

    • Word count: 1197
  8. Can There Be Peace in Northern Ireland?

    These regular searches have annoyed mainly Catholics as they feel that they are targeted much more often than Protestants. The UVF, Ulster Volunteers Force, was set up to defend Protestants from Catholics as was the UFF, Ulster Freedom Fighters. These are paramilitary groups that forced Catholics out of Protestant estates and mobbed Catholic areas. The RUC (Royal Ulster Constabulary) was formed after the partition but it was only 10% Catholic. The current peace process has hit an obstacle as it has many times before. David Trimble, the elected First Minister, wants the IRA to decommission its weapons but the IRA won't decommission its weapons until complete demilitarisation of the British Army from Northern Ireland.

    • Word count: 3525
  9. What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Republicans / Nationalists and the Loyalists / Unionists?

    The Unionists can be slip into four major segments; The UVP or Ulster Unionist Party, The DUP or The Democratic Unionists Party, The Orange Order and The UDA/UVF or Ulster Defence Associations and the Ulster Volunteer Force. Each segment has its own differentiated beliefs t the beliefs of their religion/group. The SDLP is almost all Catholic. It wants Irish Unity but does not believe violence is the answer. It is very peaceful and represents Parliamentary Nationalism. Sinn Fein is a strong traditional Revolutionary party, with a long past of violence.

    • Word count: 926
  10. The Good Friday Agreement.

    North-South bodies where also setup as well as a British-Irish council. The Northern Ireland Human Rights Commision is also drafting a Bill Of Rights for N.Ireland. Decommissioning of weapons was also a term to the agreement, those accepting the agreement would do all in their power to bring about decommissioning by April 2000, Unions argued that this means that weapons should have been decommissioned by this date, whereas Sinn Fein argues that that doing all in their power doesn't necessarily mean succeeding, small amounts of LVF weapons have been destroyed while Republicans have opened arm dumps for inspection - they see this as part of decommissioning.

    • Word count: 573
  11. Which of these two sources would a historian studying 'b****y Sunday' find the more useful?

    The words 'how painful and sad' seem to suggest this. However, he also says that the troops 'had to' open fire, this sounds like he was saying the marchers started the violence and seems to contradict himself. Source A is less useful in describing the events of 'b****y Sunday' but it is useful in painting a picture of how the Tsar saw those events. I think that the fact that on 21st January he put the events of his life before what was happening in Russia and that even on 22nd January he talked about everyday events such as 'mama

    • Word count: 3689
  12. "How important was Catholic Emancipation in religion and politics in Englandand Ireland between c1820 and 1829?"

    It was strongly opposed by reactionaries, like, Duke of Wellington, Liverpool and Peel. Opponents of Emancipation were strong on the whole in the country, including the House of Lords, who felt that since Protestantism was the religion of the country, Anglicans should receive certain privileges over the non-conformists and Roman Catholics. After Liverpool's death in 1827, Canning became the Prime Minister, which acknowledged his power and influence in the Liverpool's government. Duke of Wellington and Peel refused to serve under him, as they feared that he would propose a Bill to grant freedom to the Catholics.

    • Word count: 1312
  13. Partition. The Unionists believed that Partition was better than a united Ireland, as they were still separate from the U.K, and there was the feeling of betrayal from the Catholics

    This was this was profusely opposed and was quickly shut down. This led to a guerrilla war between the IRA and Britain. A civil war looked likely, but neither side was well enough equipped to have a huge effect. In 1921 Sinn Fein sent representatives to London to talk with the British Government. They agreed to set up a partition of Ireland, establishing an Irish Free State in the southern 26 counties that became separate from the UK but still within the commonwealth.

    • Word count: 648
  14. Has the Good Friday agreement meant that Northern Irelands problems are over?

    Other parts to the Good Friday agreement included the decommissioning of terrorist weapons, reform of the 'Royal Ulster Constabulary to stop persecution from the mainly Protestant police force and the release of paramilitary prisoners. This was hopefully the start of equal rights for everybody in Northern Ireland. When the vote for the Good Friday agreement was held, 71% of people voted for it. The vast majority of people wanted peace and communication and it was mainly the hard-line unionists who were against the agreement, as they had had the power of the Catholics.

    • Word count: 555
  15. Boyle monologue - creative writing.

    But I suppose you wouldn't remember em days would ye. In em days Ireland was truly a great nation. Everyone was united and always happy to help out a fallen comrade, I can remember going for a whole week without food jus so a neighbours daughter could go and see a doctor. But nobody was keen to help me where they. when I had no money and couldn't get a job because of me terrible pains in me legs. I think of the tings I have done for Ireland's people and look at the way I am repaid I tell ye the whole place is in a state of chassis.

    • Word count: 545
  16. Did Daniel O' Connell deserve the name 'The Great Liberator'?

    By accepting such Acts as the proposed compromise 'Emancipation Bill' (basically a 'corrupt' Emancipation Act allowing Catholics Civil Rights, but only because loyalist clerics could be appointed), O'Connell felt that the Catholic cause would only be taking a step back to the days of the Penal Laws. In his efforts to rid Ireland of English (and thereby Protestant) domination, he became known as the 'Great Liberator'. He was a man of great political ambition - one who could win support and reign supreme with his gifted tongue.

    • Word count: 901
  17. Why should an American president like bill Clinton have so much interest in the events in Ireland?

    Another reason that Bill Clinton helped out the Irish immigrants was because he came from an Irish background, both of his grandparents were Irish so he naturally wants to use his power to sort out the problems in Ireland.

    • Word count: 378
  18. b****y Sunday

    The marchers were to march from the Creggan estate into the center of Derry. At about 2:00pm, the crowd began to gather in the Creggan estate and the march commenced. As they got closer to the center of Derry, the march had attracted about 25,000 supporters. It was about 4:00pm when the civil rights marchers turned onto William Street and into a tragic situation that would forever be in the minds Irish people. Unknown to the peaceful marchers, the British Government fearing the worst, thought that the march would become a massive riot. The British Government called upon its 1st Parachute Regiment to back up the Royal Green Jackets and other battalions.

    • Word count: 658
  19. Outline the main features of Direct Rule and discuss its strengths and weaknesses.

    The role Northern Ireland Office is to support the Secretary of State for Northern Ireland in securing a lasting peace, based on the Good Friday Agreement, in which the rights and identities of all traditions in Northern Ireland are fully respected and safeguarded and in which a safe, stable, just, open and tolerant society can thrive and prosper. This involves the work of the Junior ministers at the moment there are four and they are also dedicated to helping the Secretary of State through his work.

    • Word count: 617
  20. Source D is form an Irish Roman Catholic who describes (B Devlin) her school days, which implies a degree of bias because her Vice Principle "mother Benignus" had her family suffer at the hands of the British. Her view on Protestants

    There is a message portrayed by the cartoon and it is that Catholicism has control of Ireland. But this could be portraying the truth, as Catholicism was the main religion in Ireland. This source is limited but it helps to show how conflict between Catholics and Protestants came about. But this could also be a Propaganda Against the Catholics to try and gain support for Protestants. Source F is a map showing the Gerrymander in Derry in 1966. It is obvious that the Protestants have deliberately placed themselves at an advantage in places where they get the most votes apart from the South Ward, where Catholics had the majority.

    • Word count: 1213
  21. Describe the disadvantages faced by the Catholics in Northern Irelandin the mid 1960's

    If a protestant and a catholic apply for the same job, no matter how many qualifications and/or experience the catholic had, the protestant would always get the job. Another description of the discrimination directed at the Catholics is that the Harland and Wolff shipyard had 10,000 employees and yet only 400 of those were catholic. Catholics had no fair treatment or equal opportunities compared to the p protestants in the housing either.

    • Word count: 372
  22. Why Northern Ireland faces conflict today

    After the War of Independence, in 1919, the country of Ireland was divided into two parts; The North, here there was a large Protestant Majority, each of the six Ulster counties had their own parliament and their own government.

    • Word count: 317
  23. What have the IRA done to unite Eire and Northern Ireland since 1972

    This caused Internment to be brought into action. This meant any Catholic who caused any protest; violence or disruptions in Northern Ireland were imprisoned. This resulted in more people disliking the British and supporting the IRA. In 1972 an illegal Civil Rights March held in Derry against the use of Internment ended in great violence with many injured and 13 dead, many of these being catholic marchers. After the events of b****y Sunday on the 30th of January 1972, support for the IRA rapidly increased. In 1972 the British government imposed directed rule of Northern Ireland.

    • Word count: 770
  24. The destruction of Ireland.

    This is what is causing all the commotion. Catholics are over populated by Protestants so everytime they try to be heard the Protestants become louder which over rules the Catholics. In 1985 James II became King, which was a drastic disappointment for Protestants. They knew they had to do something and fast, otherwise they would loose all control. In 1688 Protestants decided that they had to take action, they managed to overthrow James II but they weren't out of danger yet as there was more up the Catholics sleeve.

    • Word count: 2080
  25. Why is Daniel O'connell considered to be a great nationalist leader?

    In 1823, O'Connell formed the Catholic Association, this was an extremely successful movement, and drew on support from huge numbers, with a fundamental aim of Catholic emancipation. The organisation was mobilised by a subscription fee which was collected throught the Catholic church. Not only was the church vital in funding the association, it also played a prominent role in expanding interest in the organisation within communities. This was accentuated by the fact that the Church played a major part in the lives of Catholics, particularly the peasantry masses.

    • Word count: 1170

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