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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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there were less Catholic householders for example gerrymandering which is the changing of the election boundaries to influence results so the protestants would win the vote every time. Catholics responded to this by wanting civil rights in Northern Ireland and so they set up a civil rights movement in 1968 and this led to outbreaks of violence and paramilitary groupings such as the Irish Republican Army (IRA) clashed with 'loyalist' militant organizations such as the Ulster Defense Association (UDA) and the Ulster Defense Force (UDF).
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So you can see by just the power of this poem where the seed has grown for the fight for an independent Ireland and you can see how easy it is for the Irish to resent the English crown. Bearing all that in mind when we see the great protestant catholic divide a lot of people would be willing to blame religion for all the friction in Ireland. The label of protestant and catholic is just that a label the native Irish being the Catholics and the settlers from Britain being the protestants.
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And on the other side is the date, "1916", when the Easter Rising took place. There have been a few attempts at peace in Northern Ireland and all have been unsuccessful, such as the Sunningdale Agreement (1973-1974), The Anglo-Irish Agreement (1985), The Downing Street Declaration (1993), but the present agreement, The Good Friday Agreement (1998) has so far to the present time has been successful. One of the reasons why violence kicks off between the Catholics and the Protestants is that in July and August known as the "marching season" creates a lot of tension between the two.
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Northern Ireland - Source A tells us about employment in 1961. At the Belfast shipyard, which we are told is the "biggest single source of employment in the city" Only 400 out of 10,000 employees, are catholic
He tells us that a Linfield scout (someone who looks out for good players) would be interviewing a 'lad' whose good, and one of the first questions would be "What school did you go to"? Most schools that began with Saint... were catholic, and if the child replied Saint something or other, then all of a sudden "the boy isn't good enough" They made excuses like "he kicks with the wrong foot" Source C is from a document published by Ulster protestant action (organisation formed in 1959 by unionists, including Ian Paisley).
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Also they may be threatened with violence by the IRA to become a part of the Republic of Ireland. If we delve deeper, we come to partition in 1920, Protestants remained part of the UK and the Roman Catholics, who wanted independence. In Northern Ireland, 66% of the republicans were Protestants and 34% were Roman Catholics. This partition, which introduced Protestants settlers from England and Scotland into an over whelming Roman Catholic country, establishing a Protestants control over the settlers and the native population in politics and society.
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Choose two events from the last 100 years, which are particularly important in shaping the views of today's Protestants and Catholics.
A number of Irish people had put their hatred and views behind them and gone to war with Germany in order to support the British people. Everything seemed to be fine for the Protestants. It wouldn't have seemed as though all of the problems between Protestants and Catholics had gone away but, it may have seemed at the time that the Protestants and Catholics were getting along better with no other motives. So, when the British ceased a ship containing fire arms intended for the IRB, the Protestants would have felt extremely betrayed and disappointed with the Catholics.
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The tension in Northern Ireland had been rising for a long while before b****y Sunday. In the June of 1968 a nationalist mp called Austin Currie organized a sit in protest in order to highlight the discrimination happening within Northern Ireland. Marches followed the sit in protest and the RUC had break up a march in the centre on Londonderry, this cause the Nationalist party at Stormont to withdraw its mp's. This was the first of many such sequences leading up to b****y Sunday.
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How useful are sources A, B, C and D to someone trying to find out the truth about the situation in Northern Ireland in January 1972 before b****y Sunday?
For this reason it can be used as a direct source of information when trying to learn about the situation before b****y Sunday because there are many parallels between the two. Source B is a cartoon from the English point of view condemning the IRA. It was published in an English newspaper ten years after the events of b****y Sunday. It shows an English man walking past an advertisement for a film entitled 'The Irish - The ultimate in psychopathic horror'.
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The events that took place on b****y Sunday, 30th January 1972 have been discussed frequently and certain aspects of the event highly debated.
The role of the Army was supposedly to keep the peace, defending the Catholic population from Protestant attacks, a scenario that has turned out to be somewhat ironic. The British also reintroduced the use of internment in August 1971, which allowed the government to arrest and imprison anyone without trial. Many rumours surrounded the event before it took place and the results were not hugely shocking to those who were already expecting a gunfight to take place. It was thought by some that the IRA wanted a major gun battle, although others thought that if similar events to those that
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After the Civil war (1918-1921) and the partition of North and South, the 'Irish Free State' (the Republic) had its own army. The Unionists were anxious because this army may be used against them. The Sinn Fein leader, named Emmon de Valera, then became the first Prime Minister for the Irish Free State. De Valera was a very devout Catholic, which may have worried at the Unionists because if Ireland were to form an independent country, again the Catholics would rule. However, Auther Griffith replaced De Valera shortly after, when De Valera found that the majority of people were in support of the new treaty - something of which he strongly disagreed with.
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Describe and explain the reactions of Unionist groups to the Anglo-Irish Agreement of 1985 and the idea of further links with Southern Ireland.
However in 1985, the 'Anglo-Irish Agreement was signed by the British and Republic. (The full agreement is shown in the Personal Research section of this project.) A joint committee was set up with the two governments to decide matters such as justice, the laws in Northern Ireland and security forces. They all hoped to find ways of getting the Unionists and Nationalists to respect each other's rights and views. Although, the Unionists claimed that since the partition in 1921, the British were allowing the government of the Republic to have a say in the running of the North for the first time.
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To what extent does the "Good Friday Agreement" represent a turning point for the Northern Ireland peace process?
The IRA hunger strikes played a key role in this process. In 1980 and 1981, republican prisoners in the Maze went on a hunger strike, and demanded they be treated as political prisoners rather than criminals. Many Nationalists sympathized with the strikers and believed that the current Prime Minister in Britain at that time, Margaret Thatcher, was making no evident effort. They were concerned that justice was not always done. Many Nationalists pointed out the inconsistencies in a system, which regarded suspects as mere criminals, but responded to these criminals with juryless court and a large military presence.
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O'Neill resigned in 1969 and British troops were sent to restore the order. Four reforms were also introduced: - 1. Gerrymandering was stopped 2. The 'B Specials' were abolished 3. Houses were allocated more fairly 4. Financial grants were given to new industry All four reforms were unsuccessful and so in 1971 Internment was introduced. This allowed suspected terrorists to be imprisoned without trial. However, this also failed to stop the violence. By 1972 the IRA, the Ulster Volunteer force (UVF)
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There has been conflict in Northern Ireland for many centuries. But I am specifically going to look at how troubles broke out in Northern Ireland in 1969. I am going to look though sources D to I and use my own knowledge to work this out.
At the end of the source B Devlin talks about how the interpretations of Irish History they were taught were different to the interpretations Protestants were taught. This seems to be another on going trouble, where the Protestants and Catholics see things differently. E.G. The Catholics would say they were badly treated by the British Soldiers, the Protestants would say they and the Catholics were treated fairly by the British Soldiers. As children were brought up differently they have different views on things, so these differences are what cause the trouble and separation between people like the Catholics and Protestants.
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Describe and explain the reactions of unionist groups to the influence of the Catholic Church on life in Ireland since 1921.
The bans remained in place until the 1960's. In 1987, the church's total assets in Dublin alone amounted to �100 million. It owned 234 churches, 473 houses, 713 schools, and 100 community centres in Dublin. In 1979, in the middle of appalling poverty, they spent �2.5 million on the Pope's visit! As well as it's wealth; it has a massive amount of control in State institutions. The Catholic Church worked hand in glove with the British government, while engaging in nationalist posturing to keep its credibility with the masses, and after 1921 worked to prop up the weak Irish ruling class.
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However the leaders in Europe largely ignored Sinn F�in and they returned home again empty-handed. On 21 January 1919, the IRA shot dead two Irish policemen in county Tipperary, and this marked the beginning of what is now known as the War of Independence. With the post-war British army in a shambles, they were only willing to send over groups of ex-First World War solders to fight. The combination of black police uniforms and tan army outfits gave them the name 'Black and Tans' for these men. The 'Black and Tans' were undisciplined and often shot innocent civilians in revenge for attacks on them.
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In April 1994, the IRA declared a ceasefire in response. However, the talks on how Northern Ireland should be run did not move forward quickly (this was partly because the IRA refused to be disarmed). The frustration grew and the ceasefire was called to and end in February 1996. Sinn Fein was then expelled from the peace talks. It was not until Tony Blair and Labour came to power that hopes for peace re-surfaced. Tony Blair appointed the unconventional Mo Mowlam as Secretary for Northern Ireland. Mowlam's evident good will and directness gave a new drive to the peace process.
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How did Protestant politicians explain the social economic and political differences between Catholics and Protestants?
Not all politicians felt this way, Terrence O'Neill, for example, even being a Protestant realised that the political differences was not simply about their supposed allegiance to Rome. He admitted that the electoral system was in favour of the Protestants and that I was unfair to the Catholics. This is why he introduced amendments to change it. Politicians like Ian Paisley assumed that the RUC, the courts and the B'Specials did not treat the Catholics unfairly. They claimed that the Catholics were treated more severely because they committed more crimes.
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Previous attempts at peace in Northern Ireland have failed. What problems need to be overcome if the current peace initiative is to succeed?
Politicians on both sides have been trying to sort this situation for years. For years there were no agreements, just severe punishment for suspected or convicted terrorists. Some religious traditions got in the way of peace too, like the marching of the Orange Order through Nationalist areas. The terrorists on both sides refused to decommission their weapons to help stop the violence. This led to distrust and suspicion of each other. Then, in 1973, William Whitelaw proposed The Power Sharing Executive which involved electing a new assembly to govern Northern Ireland making sure that there were representatives from both the Loyalist and Nationalist sides.
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The Civil Rights Movement was not only a republic movement, but it also attracted support from Catholics, Protestants and socialists. The Catholics supported it because it was the Catholics who faced the most discrimination; they wanted to see it stopped. The Protestants supported the Civil Rights Movement to end discrimination. The main reason that the socialists supported it was because one of their aims as socialists was to build a society where wealth was shared out equally among all people.
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"Many a fine Sunday I'd put him together for fun, and he with shiny bones" This seems to be a bizarre practice, but it shows the lengths Philly had to go to find entertainment. Pegeen, with her tedious life working on a farm and in a remote pub, finds her escapism through Christy- she idolises him, although she barely knows him; she builds up an image of Christy as a brave, courageous, warrior, and an eloquent poet and storyteller. "Any girl would walk her heart out before she'd meet a young man was your like for eloquence or talk."
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He committed suicide in prison before his execution. Ever since the United Irishmen have been important heroes of the Irish Republican mythology and are considered by some as the forefathers of the Irish Republican Army (IRA). Other early examples of Irish military resistance against British Rule are the Irish Republican Brotherhood, who started a rebellion in 1865, or the Irish Volunteers, which played a major role in the famous Easter Rising of 1916. In the 1919-1922 war of independence, which was aimed at preventing a partition of Ireland into a British-Protestant North and an independent Catholic Republic in the South,
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One particular aspect of this political climate was the Liberal dependence on the Irish nationalists in the House of Commons. According to Lowe, in 1910 the Irish question had once again been bought up to the top on the political agenda. Lowe argues that the "Irish Nationalists once again were holding the balance of power." The fact that the Liberals were only able to reduce the powers of the Lords with the help of the Nationalists meant that question of Home Rule, as Searle recalls, "would again be bought out of the cold storage."
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Consequently, James I expelled all priests and Jesuits and recusancy fines were reintroduced. Bitterly disappointed, English Catholics prepared to swallow the fines and live their double lives as best they could. This passive approach had not however suited all: Robert Catesby was a committed Catholic, familiar with the price of faith. He possessed immense personal magnetism, crucial in recruiting and leading his band of conspirators. Catesby had joined with his friends Thomas Wintour, Jack Wright and Thomas Percy at the Duck Drake, in the Strand. The fifth person was Guy Fawkes originally coming from York, he had been recruited in Flanders where he had been serving the Spanish Army.
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Industries had not changed their employment policies. According to a Sunday Times newspaper article (Source1) written in 1961 it tells us that in a Belfast shipyard that had 10,000 workers that was 'the biggest single source of employment in them city -just 400' were Catholics. During this time the Civil service mostly employed Protestants. The newspaper article also states 'the population of Fermanagh was more than half Catholic.' The article tells us despite the more Catholic population the City Council employed 370 people in which, '322 of the posts, including the top ones were filled by Protestants.'
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