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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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Choose three events describe the impact each one has had on the history of the conflict in Ireland. In your answer try to explain which event has the greatest influence on the conflict
In 1695 the Penal Laws are made and are very severe on the Catholics. Contemporaries referred to laws restricting the rights of Catholics as 'popery laws', and may not have viewed the legislation spread over three decades as a systematic code. The Irish Parliament after 1691 almost exclusively represented the landed interest of the Church of Ireland - that is, the Established or Anglican Church. The Protestant elite was convinced that the fruits of victories won between 1689 and 1691 could only be enjoyed if Catholics were kept in subjection.
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All these sources Refer to one city in Northern Ireland. Why did This City Become the Centre of the Civil Rights Movements in Northern Ireland?
this worked against the Catholics because the Protestant council gave the majority of the council houses to the Protestants and most of the businesses and houses were owned by the Protestants. Still Catholics should have won control of the city. In Source E you can see Catholics had the largest vote of 14 429 and Protestants only had 8781. Despite this 12 Union councillors were elected and only 8 Nationalists. This was unfair. Source F shows where different populations live in Londonderry.
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It is also a primary source, so it is his true perspective, and nobody else's. However, it is not particularly useful as it doesn't explain the events that actually took place during the march of b****y Sunday, or why it happened. Source B however, is useful as it too is a primary source, and is a first hand and eyewitness account. It describes the peaceful intentions that the marchers had, and how the Cossacks shot at the marchers and people were seen dead, dying and wounded on the street.
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These centuries of discontent and tension preceded the uprising in 1916. Easter Rising In September 1914 the Great War broke out. Before this time Irish Catholics had been promised a Home Rule, however this had been suspended because of the war. The Catholics were not happy as the Home Rule meant finally that the Catholics might have some say in the ruling of Ireland. This lead to the formation of so-called terrorist groups in Ireland. Organisations such as Sinn Fein were part of the set up of the Easter rising.
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Only seven of the Seventy five bus drivers were Catholic" this was in a town where "The population was more than half Catholic" This Source however does not provide sufficient detail to prove that statement. The source is very reliable as it came from a broadsheet newspaper as opposed to a tabloid, this substantially raises it's credibility. I think that Source A is attempting to convince the reader that the Catholics in Northern Ireland during the 1960s are an oppressed minority.
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Do You Agree With This Portrayal Of The Reasons Why The Troubles Continued Into The 1990's? Explain Your Answer Using The Source And Your own Knowledge.
The leader of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) Reverend Ian Paisley had a strong influence in the 1960's 70's and 80's that caused violence. The republicans wanted a split from Great Britain and become part of the republic of Ireland. Gerry Adams, the president of Sinn Fein and Pat Doherty, vice President both were strong advocates of this. Gerry Adams was involved with the Irish Republican Army in the seventies, along with Martin McGuinness. The unionists and republicans didn't want to work together even in the early and mid-90's.
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But as the Protestants were a majority of the population, the Catholics were neglected. The majority of Protestants was controlling the government and the parliament. Before 1969 every member of the Northern Ireland Cabinet were Protestant and almost all of them were members of the Orange Order. Catholics didn't have a say in the government or the parliament. The laws that were passed therefore favoured the Protestants. Political disadvantages were also apparent in local government politics. Unionists moved local government boundaries so that they could win control of local councils as well. This was called Gerrymandering.
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It was really a resting point of the holiday after the long journey from home to here. It was where we got ready for the next two and half weeks ahead of us; planned our routes and worked out how long it would take us to get the places, none of which worked. Nobody had told us about Irish roads and the likelihood that you would wait half an hour while two farmers, in tractors with a flock of sheep, would block the road for half an hour, completely unaware of the queue of traffic building up behind them. The strange thing was that nobody in line of traffic complained or tooted a single horn in frustration.
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If decommissioning is an obstacle to peace, then why doesn’t the I.R.A. agree decommission its arms?
He had been helping Catholics on Bombay Street escape before Protestants came and burnt them out of their homes. Unable to protect the Catholic community the I.R.A. gained the hurtful nickname the 'I Ran Away'. A plaque marks the spot where Mc Auldy was murdered, and the memory of the incident remains with many Catholic Nationalists. The I.R.A. does not trust the other involved parties to keep their side of the deal or to decommission. It is suspicious of the British Government, since, the last time the I.R.A. were close to decommissioning, the Government of Great Britain decided that it was taking too long and halted proceedings, provoking the I.R.A.
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At the time the Catholics were outraged and the IRA increased its bombing. By this year (1972) specialist private armies were fighting against each other to try and get what they wanted. To try and restore peace and order Britain removed control of Northern Ireland from Stormont and placed it under direct rule, this meant that Britain controlled what happened in N. Ireland. The Catholics and the IRA saw this as Britain trying to take control of a country that they did not have any right to, and the IRA again stepped up its violent campaigns. The most IRA bombs exploded in 1972, with around 1000 bombs going off in that year alone.
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Why has it taken so long for the different groups in the peace process to agree to a new power sharing government in Northern Ireland?
* They have found it difficult to trust the Unionists who have never been willing to share power before. When Ireland was first split, the North was given its own Government, Stormont. This had been intended to be run by both Protestants and Catholics however, from 1921 to 1970, Protestants were in a majority and they took advantage of the power. They created laws to suit themselves. For instance, they passed the Special Powers Act and created an armed Protestant force to protect themselves.
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How effectively did Irish Catholic and nationalist leaders advance their cause in the years 1801 – 1921?
Daniel O' Connell a professional Barrister set out to advance the Catholic cause. The British government seen Catholic's as a threat and felt loyalty lay with their Catholic Pope rather than the Hanoverian dynasty, O' Connell set out to change this with setting up the Catholic Association in Dublin to mass an Emancipation campaign. Britain offered a quick concession of a "veto" yet O' Connell rejected stating, "20 years have passed and we are still slaves". O' Connell stepped up his campaign by famously introducing "Catholic Rent", which created strong connections with Irish peasantry.
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Study the recent newspaper article provided. Choose one of these articles and explain in your own words what it is about.
The Protestants argued that their reasons for the dispute were justified. They claimed that, 'Protestant homes have been attacked over the summer' and that, 'known republicans mixed provocatively with those taking the children to school.' They believed that their community was under siege and felt that their community was being encroached by Catholics and the Catholics were taking liberty of the situation. They insisted that the blockade had been the only way to get a message across. 'The school's problem is that it is in the wrong place, situated in a Protestant district just outside the confines of nationalist Ardoyne...The result is a classic self-inflicted Protestant public relations disaster.'
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Use the sources, and your own knowledge, to explain why this city became a centre of the civil Rights movement in Northern Ireland?
In source E we can see that 14,429 Nationalists voted, whereas only 8,781 Unionists voted. This gives an indication of the religious as well as political range. There are almost twice as many Catholics as Protestants living in the area. Despite this the Protestants had more jobs as we can see in Source A.
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have the majority, whereas the Catholics in Northern Ireland feel they are only an oppressed part of the whole of Ireland, therefore a majority. Neither party is willing to accept the dominance of the other. Is Nationalism in Northern Ireland similar to elsewhere? YES NO The Scottish, Welsh and Irish nationalist movements all erupted in the 1960's The militant sector of the Northern Ireland nationalist movement is much more violent than Scottish post-box burnings or Welsh burning of British owned holiday homes.
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and if it's Saint something, then all of a sudden the boy isn't good enough. He kicks with the wrong foot.' The Education Authority in county Fermanagh most sought after job, was the school bus driver because of the rest and holidays. Of a total of 75 bus drivers, seven were Catholic, that's 9% a staggeringly small amount. The political disadvantages for Catholics were large as well. As shown in source A, the Education Authority, a source of employment as well as part of the local government system still would prefer to give jobs to Protestants instead of Catholics.
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Protestants owned most industries in Ulster; this meant that Protestants controlled a lot of the employment. In 1933, Sir John Davidson, The Grand Master of the Orange Order said... " I suggest the slogan should be, Protestants employ Protestants." Sir Basil Brooke, the minister of agriculture in Ulster also supported the discrimination. Protestants respected both of these men, and their messages would have definitely affected the allocation of employment. An official government report on Northern Ireland said... "Unemployment is experienced at a much higher level by Roman Catholics than by Protestants, there was a tendency for those industries which had the highest weekly manual wage tin 1971 to be predominantly Protestant."
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Patrick's Anglican Church was burnt down five years later by convicts. Catholic priests were denied entry to the colony. The Irish Catholics were suspected of being anti-British, so they received a lot of prejudice. Back in Britain, Catholics were persecuted, using methods such as not being allowed to go to University, being excluded from Parliament, being denied the right of voting, and being excluded from many positions of influence. This led to the 1798 rebellion. Many Irish people were arrested, and shipped out to the Australian settlement.
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According to source B, which is based on a census, Roman Catholics than by Protestants experience unemployment at a higher level. This might not mean they are prejudiced against but it can mean the Catholics did not have good qualifications for the jobs. In addition to source B from C there are only five industries with records with records of employees therefore this cannot be used to generalise all companies although they do have similar patterns. In addition, source D is only an evidence form only one-football club that catholic children were discriminated against.
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Compare the language and content of an article from a broadsheet newspaper and a tabloid newspaper. Both articles should refer to the same subject.
The newspaper (The Daily Mail 20th September 2001) forms the issue into a political scandal rather than a problem with culture. This particular approach is shown by the use of ideas and concepts from known politicians - this allows the readers to become influence by the opinions of the politicians and of other public figures before they have finished reading. The use of continual and often repetitive comments and quotations help to ensure that this is the case: 'More of the same tired old rhetoric' 'This is always issued by the IRA in the run up to a deadline in this process and they come out with more words and more verbiage but no indication that they are prepared to do anything in terms of action.'
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It was seen as an act of 'Catholic encroachment' or growth in a protestant area and so the loyalists want to close the entrance to the school as it is far short of nationalist grounds. The term nationalist is applied to those citizens of Northern Ireland who are Catholic and/or want Ireland to be re-united as one Republic. The article tells of warnings that have been issued by The Red Hand Defenders, a group of militant pro-protestants, that the gate will have to be closed or they will continue the intimidation.
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marches re-routed in order for them not to go through Catholic land. They are very annoyed about this, as they believe they have the route to march through the Catholic land but they are denied this. In January 1996 the Catholics objected to an Orange Order march which broke into violence. The next year there were further clashes. b****y Sunday is the name given to Sunday, 30th January 1972. An unarmed civil rights anti internment march was taking place in the Bogside, Londonderry in Northern Ireland. Members of the British Parachute Regiment opened fire on the march and thirteen of the troops were killed by British troops.
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“Why has it proved so difficult to reach agreement about what happened on b****y Sunday? Use the sources and your knowledge to explain your answer.”
In July, in the Bogside area of Londonderry (Where the b****y Sunday March took place 3 years later) violence broke out following a March by the "Apprentice Boys". These riots broke out into what was to be known as the Battle of the Bogside. This was not just to avenge the Protestant marches. It was unleashing all their hate for the poor conditions they had to live in, and all the prejudice directed against them: against the Royal Ulster Constabulary and the 'B' specials. It is interesting to compare the reactions the Orange marches are still having where they go into Catholic territories.
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Strikes and demonstrations followed after Unionists and Loyalists outraged over Dublin been given a role in government of Ireland, but the British government gave little sympathy to the Unionists, After this campaign ran out of steam because Loyalists and Nationalists felt treaty was wrong and wouldn't compromise, violence continued and got worse. Another attempt at peace in my lifetime is the Good Friday agreement in 1998 this was a new Northern Ireland Assembly with 108 members would be set up.
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The assembly will be suspended if it does not establish the co-operative body within a year. * There would be a new British Irish council. Members will be drawn from the Northern Ireland assembly, the British and Irish governments, and devolved bodies in Wales and Scotland. *The Irish government will amend 2 and 3 of its constitution, which lay claim to Northern Ireland. London will repeal the 1920 Government of Ireland Act. *The British Government will reduce numbers of police and armed forces and remove security installations.
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