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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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Their land was confiscated and distributed to colonists from Britain. By 1703, less than 5 per cent of the land of Ulster was still in the hands of the Catholic Irish. The Plantation of Ulster was unique among Irish plantations in that it set out to attract colonists of all classes from England, Scotland and Wales by generous offers of land. Essentially it sought to transplant a society to Ireland. The native Irish remained, but were initially excluded from the towns built by the Planters, and banished to the mountains and bogs on the margins of the land they had previously owned.
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Firstly he reviews the Hillsborough Treaty, which was signed in 1985. He especially pinpoints one article in this treaty as being a "bulwark against Irish unity". He then proceeds to summarise the failures of the treaty during the three years since after its signing. A few examples of the British acting as arbitrators in justice are also given. Gerry Adams gives a very good definition of peace not simply the absence of war or conflict but that "it is the existence of conditions of justice and equality that eradicate the causes of war or conflict."
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Like the Unionists they also have an extreme party, the Republicans. The main Republican Party is Sinn Fein, which is led by Gerry Adams and Martin McGuiness. Sinn Fein has close links to the IRA who are responsible for most of the bombings and killings. Unlike the Loyalists some groups who belong to the Republicans are willing to attend some peace talks but they wont speak for the IRA. William of Orange In 1688 England was ruled by James II who was a catholic but the problem was England was mainly protestant.
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The new prime-ministers of England and Ulster decided to take terrorists off the streets. This new rule, where terrorists could be detained in a prison indefinitely without trial was called internment. The fact that most people who were arrested under the new internment laws were Catholic led to more violence as it was seen that the government was targeting Catholics. The views against internment culminated in a civil rights march in Derry. On the 30th January 1972 some 10 000 people turned out to march from the Creggan Estate in Derry to the Guildhall.
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On the first glance at this they may be thought of as biased or exaggerated. The content of these sources, however, does not appear at all in this way. A possible reason for this is that the rising has not yet taken place. Another is that there is nothing in the source that could be biased because an actual opinion would be required. Source A indicates that the rising took place due to the fact that there was a war going on in Europe with Britain involved. This was definitely one reason to why the Easter Rising took place because it discusses a meeting between some of the higher figures involved in the rising, such as Patrick Pearce.
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Republicans want a United Ireland, and to sever all ties with Britain in Ulster. But most of the people living in Ulster are Loyalists and want to stay part of Britain, mainly because they're scared of the treatment they'd get from a Catholic ruling. So what must be done in future to make the peace work? Many attempts have been made at peace in Northern Ireland before, and most have either failed or only brought slight success. One major breakthrough was the Good Friday agreement, signed on the tenth of April 1998. Parties involved were the British Government, the Government of the Republic of Ireland, and political parties of Unionists, Nationalists, Republicans and Loyalists.
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What are the chances of peace in Northern Ireland? Choose two events from the last 400 years, which are particularly important in shaping the views of:
English lords asked James II daughter Mary who was a Protestant husband William to rule instead of James II, James then went to France to see Louis XIV who intern gave him troops to fight against William, then in 1689 James went to Ireland to gather more Catholic troops and only Ulster held out against James and Londonderry particularly wouldn't join him, so then James tried to attack Londonderry but wasn't successful, for another 3 months after that a siege followed and many Protestants suffered, but because they suffered for what they believed they became heroes in the Protestant community,
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But this had not always been the case, Catholics had been continually protesting against the British Protestants taking over Ireland and they had tried many forms of protesting. An example of this would be the Easter Rising in 1916 where they tried to take over the Post office in Dublin. There had also been growing tension during the 1960s. There were many reasons that made the Catholics feel insecure in Northern Ireland during this time. Ireland was facing economic difficulties of high unemployment, with both Catholics and Protestants affected, but the Catholics were most affected.
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and the real I.R.A. these groups are still actively violent. The following factors are all equally important reasons for the continuing conflicts between Unionists and Nationalists in Northern Ireland. a) Battle of the Boyne 1690 b) Creation of an Irish free state in 1922 c) b****y Sunday in 1972 d) Republican violence 1968 to present day e) Orange Order marches 1996 to present Do you agree with this statement? I think the most important reason for the continuing conflict today is Republican violence since 1968. The battle of the Boyne was the beginning of all troubles in Northern Ireland but that was over 300 years ago, events that long ago hardly affect people's attitudes today, we can see this in other conflicts.
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Those who lived in the wrong area were forced out. The Protestants set up the RUC, which was a slack police that allowed arms to be carried. There were terms of the RUC called "special powers" that allowed them to search houses without a warrant, arrest people for suspicion and whip them. These laws were taken for granted and Catholics were discriminated against very badly: "The area was peaceful and deserted at 2am when a mob of policeman came from the city shouting and singing: Hey, hey we're the monkees, And we're still going to monkey around, Till we see your blood flowing, All along the ground They broke windows
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The orange order encouraged Protestants to discriminate against Catholics. In 1933 sir John Davison (the grandmaster of the orange order) said "...Protestants should employ Protestants." Discrimination was even at the highest levels; Catholics rarely got jobs in the civil service. Richard Dawson Bates (the Minster for home affairs) refused to use his own telephone until the Catholic operator in his department had been changed to a Protestant one. The socialist party was in control and they were making education available and free for everyone.
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Finally source C shows English soldiers interrogating and holding Irish citizens at gunpoint. This would have been drawn by an Irish person it shows the English to be bad, evil people. However, these sources may be useful in telling the truth of what the English and Irish though of each other. This is because in each source the side that the artist isn't on is shown worse than the side that the artist is on. In source A the artist must be English because it shows a huge blindfolded man in peasant clothes attacking a small man in upper class clothes who is probably English.
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Is there sufficient evidence in sources A to G to explain why the troubles broke out in Northern Ireland?
The Irish history learned by the Catholics was very different to that learned by the Protestants. This emphasised the fact that Ireland was split even in knowledge of their history. This view cannot provide sufficient evidence as to why the troubles broke out because it is a biased view. It is a biased view because it is also written by B Devlin who strongly supported the Catholic cause. She was a main part of the campaign to gain home rule. Some of these prejudice views are why Northern Ireland is still in trouble in modern times.
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Post office and declared Ireland dependant this was called the Easter Rising, but the British sent in troops and executed the main leaders. Then in 1919 Ireland is 'temporarily divided into North and south' and governed separately, some hardliners in the north reject this and the violence still continued. When Terence O'Neil took control of the government of Ulster in 1963 and it looked as though the Catholics and Protestants were starting to bury their old differences. In the 1969's British troops were brought into Northern Ireland to keep the peace between the Catholics and the Protestants.
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How did the attitudes of the Protestants develop in the 19th Century? (eg towards issues such as Home Rule)
This meant that in the 19th Century the industrial revolution in Britain also developed in the North of Ireland were great industrialization took place. Such as shipyards were built were the biggest ship in the world was made the Titanic.
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Fear was not the only reason for many young catholics joining the IRA - peer pressure and a feeling of responsibility were strong factors behind joining: Cal's attempt to learn Gaelic "?for the sake of the movement" and Crilly's opinion that "If you're not part of the solution, you're part of the problem." illustrate this. There was also the fear of the consequences of not becoming a member: "What you have done is called desertion. You know the penalties". Cal's situation is simple - either he joins the IRA and suffers from guilt or he does not and suffers the consequences.
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A Protestant will usually get a job just because they are Protestant, even if they are less qualified. This is the same for Protestants if the boss is Catholic. Ireland was separated in 1920. Six of the nine counties of the province of Ulster, northernmost of the four Irish provinces, were given the opportunity to separate politically from the rest of Ireland and remain part of the United Kingdom. Under the Government of Ireland Act of 1920, the six counties became a separate political division of the United Kingdom, known as the province of Northern Ireland, with its own constitution, parliament, and administration for local affairs. The Irish Free State (later Eire, and now the Republic of Ireland)
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Source A, written in 1961, shows evidence of employment discrimination in urban and rural areas; like Belfast and Fermanagh, within private and public organisations; like Belfast Shipyard and the local Education Authority, and concerning the most desirable jobs, for example school bus drivers. Source B, showing wage and employment figures favouring Protestants, demonstrates such a high level of agreement with Source A that I can infer anti-Catholic prejudice was taking place at a national level. Source B is a report based on the 1971 census, making it a highly reliable source.
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They included no moustaches, caps had to be dyed orange and houses built similar to English ones. Many Irish people didn't like this and probably hated Henry for placing himself as Irelands king. He tried to totally change their lives to adopt an English, protestant one. Any Catholic isn't going to change their life and religion just because someone told them to. Plantation Elizabeth I was scared Ireland would ally with England's Catholic enemies. She was determined to rule Ireland firmly. Her attempt ended in 1601. To reward her supporters, the lands taken from Catholics was given to the English and Scottish, if they swore an oath of loyalty.
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This was even more occurring in areas where Catholics were the majority. Source j is evidence of this, where it shows that there were more Nationalist votes, but there were still more Unionist councillors. Council boundaries were redrawn so that as many protestants as possible were elected. This shows that gerrymandering was in use. Northern Ireland is a democratic country, but it still uses these methods of voting. Gerrymandering is undemocratic.
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They made the most Of b****y Sunday by using it as propaganda. Suddenly they found more support in southern Ireland and funding from the USA increased The main targets of the violence were Loyalists and the British Government but many innocent people would suffer along the way. They hoped that by using violence the British would get fed up and leave Ireland to the Irish people. They also ruled by fear in the areas that they controlled to ensure that they kept up the number of people who would support them.
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The British government led by Edward Heath sent more troops into Ulster because the violence was increasing. The Ulster PM James Chichester-Clark resigned and Brian Falkner replaced him. The increase in violence in Northern Ireland led to the government introducing `Internment'. Internment meant that anyone the security forces suspected of terrorism could be arrested without being charged or put on trial. In August 1971, Internment was introduced. It had been used against the IRA in 1956-62 and was very effective, but this time round it was a disaster. Instead if reducing the violence, it increased it. It was supposed to be used against terrorists but it was only used against Catholics, none of the IRA leaders were arrested.
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Peace, law and order is maintained by the RUC (Royal Ulster Constabulary). It is governed by West Minster. This area of Ireland is known to be the richer. EIRE: This is the rest of Ireland. This area is mostly Catholic. It is largely rural with poor quality soil and is known to be the poorest part of Ireland. Since 1921 it has been an independent country away from British rule. It has its own government and parliament based in Dublin. The head of state is the president. One of the main arguments between the Unionists and Nationalists is whether Ulster should remain part of the U.K or whether it should join Eire as part of a united and independent Ireland.
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The underlying cause of the conflict between Northern Ireland (Ulster) and The Republic of Ireland (Eire) is religion
Northern Ireland call themselves Unionists as they are happy to be a part of the UK. They use the British Pound and in some cases, extreme unionists ? usually referred to as loyalists, regularly volunteer to serve in the British Army. On the other hand, those living in The Republic of Ireland are generally referred to as Nationalists, or simply Republicans. They are all for Ireland, and only Ireland, and hence they do not believe in the separatism of Northern Ireland.
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In a sense, he was getting the opinion across to people that non-violent action could still generate enormous public attention. However what drew more public attention was Bobby sand?s own death in May 1981 when he succumbed to starvation after his sixty sixth day of his hunger strike. A source showing a picture taken in May 1981 during his funeral shows thousands of people surrounding and marching behind his coffin as it is carried down a street. This source tells us that Bobby Sand?s death proved very significant in the IRA actions as his death grasped the publics, and media?s, full attention.
- Word count: 1389