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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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There are two main political parties; Unionists and Nationalists. Let's look at the unionists to start with. Unionists is said to be a belief in the continuation of the 1800 Act of Union so that Northern Ireland
They stand against sectarianism and r****m. The SDLP is the more moderate of the two nationalist parties. SDLP has always supported peaceful methods and have opposed both the (provisional) IRA and state violence. They are committed to peaceful, democratic and non violent means. Their long term aim is ultimately for a united Ireland. They are prepared to accept less in the short term. The SDLP are prepared to work with British and cooperate. They support the Good Friday Agreement. They also support the police and sit on the policing board.
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Explain the role and nature of Paramilitary groups in the Troubles of Northern Ireland from 1968-1998
The nature of the paramilitary groups within the Troubles was seen to differ dramatically between the organizations, yet the notion of using force and terror as a means of political leverage was common in each. According to C.Coulter, 'those who have taken up arms over the last three decades have apparently been animated by an ambition to become, or remain, part of the state which they consider to lend political expression to the existence of that national community to which they imagine themselves to belong.'
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All of these sources refer to a single city in Northern Ireland. Use the sources, and your own knowledge, to explain why this city became a centre of the Civil Rights movement in Northern Ireland.
The name Londonderry has its own little bit of significance. The first half of the word is the same as the English capital London. This name has been adapted by the Protestants because they are loyalists and want to be connected to Britain, unlike the Catholics who call the city Derry. There were also many different political arguments that were staged on Londonderry. The main one was Austin Curries argument about the housing of Catholics. In Londonderry, at the time, Protestants were allocated houses more often then Catholics. Catholics were forced to live in slums as it shows in source D.
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Sinn Fein was offered a seat provided that IRA violence was ended. As a result the IRA declared a cease fire in August 1994 and were followed a month later by a cease fire declaration from Loyalist groups. The Joint Framework Document was drawn up and published in February 1995 as an agreement to set out a plan for a peace process in Northern Ireland. The greatest significance of the Framework Document was that it secured any developing political process to a steady pace and as source 2 shows this plan included a new assembly for Northern Ireland and a North-South council of ministers with powers over a range of issues.
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Who are the main paramilitary groups in Northern Ireland today? How are they both similar & different from each other?
Official IRA: The Official IRA dates from January 1970, after the split of the IRA. It had to deal with taunts from republicans that it was unprepared to defend Catholics. Cathal Goulding, its leader, wanted to steer the Official IRA away from militant republicanism, but the introduction of internment in 1971 caused quite uproar. It continued to use violence and three weeks after b****y Sunday, they planted a b**b which killed seven people. The Official IRA called a ceasefire in May 1972 after admitting it had shot dead a soldier in Derry. In 1992, the governments in Dublin and Belfast claimed that the Official IRA was still an active organisation.
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One political reason that the Protestants opposed the CRA was because they thought it might be a cover for the IRA. The Cameron Report, ordered by the British government in 1969, was to find out about the CRA membership.
But why did Protestants oppose the CRA? The reasons for this can be split into three categories- social, political and economic. One political reason that the Protestants opposed the CRA was because they thought it might be a cover for the IRA. The Cameron Report, ordered by the British government in 1969, was to find out about the CRA membership. Here are their findings: "The membership... was politically varied... included persons of... extreme Republican views as well as members of the Northern Ireland and Liberal Parties...
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This was a change for the Republicans and they announced a ceasefire on 31 August. This was the beginning of a new debate; the Unionists did not want this as they wanted to see the Republicans hand over the weapons and produce evidence that they were doing this. It was really harsh on the Republicans as this would humiliate them in front of the public and the ministers and then they would be labeled and probably targeted. The Good Friday Agreement was set up in 1998, Tony Blair Prime Minister of the UK appointed Mo Mowlam to be secretary of Northern Ireland this was a important part in the Agreement as she was a a
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How far are Unionist and Nationalist views in Northern Ireland the product of history rather than of recent events? Events in Ireland's history have generated violent conflict
These plantations were mainly in the North of Ireland, called Ulster. There are six counties in Ulster; Londonderry, Antrim, Armagh, Tyrone, Down and Fermanagh. Eire is the name for the rest of Ireland, which remained an independent republic since the partition in 1921. From 1820 onwards, Ireland divided further as two groups, the Unionists and the Nationalists, emerged. Unionists in Northern Ireland want to remain part of the UK, they are Protestants and some are descendants of the Protestant settlers from the plantations. Unionists live mainly in Ulster, and although there are Catholics in Ulster, Protestant Unionists form the majority.
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The IRA is prepared to give up their weapons in return for all their prisoners being released. However the release of any individual who has committed murder is bound to cause controversy. Magee committed the crime because he was part of the IRA. He joined the IRA because his father had been killed by loyalist policemen. He joined to get revenge for his fathers death and because his farther was also in the IRA. The IRA stands for a united Ireland. They are Republicans and want both North and South Ireland to join to form one independent country.
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How effectively did Irish Catholic and nationalist leaders advance their cause in the years 1801-1921
Other Historians however believe Peel's government feared a revolt from the rural classes which had been growing ever stronger since the late 1700' with more groups emerging for the same cause, for example the Whiteboys. Unfortunately when the 1829 Catholic Relief Act was passed, the movement actually took a step backwards as the whole point was to allow more people to vote regardless of religion however the �10 fee meant even less people could vote than before, thus the electorate shrank dampening his earlier success.
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How did the Protestant politicians explain the social, economic and political differences between Catholic and the Protestant?
They therefore received lower pay which links back to why they were living in poorer homes. They were also more politically disadvantaged as the majority of politicians were Protestant, who were inclined to help their own people. Catholics were seen as 'traitors' and were stopped from having any political power by gerrymandering. Protestants felt they had the right to make all the important decisions due to their numerical advantage. They were afraid of granting the Catholics power in case it was then used against them. This was a strong argument that brought the Protestants together. The Unionist politician, Basil Brooke, summed up many of his people's feelings by saying, "How can you give somebody who is your enemy, a higher position in order to allow him to destroy you."
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How effectively did Irish Catholic and nationalist leaders advance their cause in the years 1801-1921? (44 marks)
However, other factors also influenced Peel's fear of a revolution such as the revival of localised violence known as Whiteboyism. Moreover, the Emancipation was practically ineffective as the voting qualification was increased from 40 shillings to �10 so most Catholics could not exercise their right to vote. However, despite this, R. Foster describes it as a "formal constitutional revolution" which effectively started the gradual diminishing of the power of the Protestant Ascendancy by securing political concessions. Moreover, Robert Kee argues it showed how "the down trodden Catholic masses had taken on the government and won".
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The settlers were mainly situated in the North, where Catholic land was seized by the British, becoming protestant land, making the North a more Protestant land. During the English civil war, there was an Irish rebellion against the English rule in Ulster, 1641, restoring Ireland under Irish rule. In 1649 Oliver Cromwell killed Irish Catholics. On both sides there was murders, causing tensions between Catholics and Protestants. This links to the battle of the Boyne, which Protestants remember the Victory of William of Orange.
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Many considered their demands exaggerated and they also believed that NICRA was an IRA front. . Protestants viewed these events with concern and feared Catholics were engaged in a conspiracy to undermine their political hegemony. Paisley exploited these fears and mounted counter-demonstrations that provoked riots between civil rights marchers and Protestants. Internment Many of NICRA's marches protested against internment, one of these being on b****y Sunday. On Monday 9 August 1971, 3,000 soldiers backed up by RUC Special Branch officers using out-of-date intelligence, swooped on houses throughout Northern Ireland and arrested over 300 men.
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One way to measure Ireland's success is through Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In 1987 Irish GDP per person was 69% of the EU average, by 2003 it had reached 136%2. Unemployment in Ireland fell from 17% in 1987 to 4% in 2003 and government debt shrank from 112% of GDP to 33%.3 Another means of measurement for Ireland is Gross National Product (GNP). Although GNP does not show Ireland in as favourable a light as GDP Paul Sweeney notes that from 1993 until the end of 1997 GNP growth averaged over 7.5 per cent a year which shows that according to GNP national income rose by an amazing 44% in just five years4.
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The 1913 lockout, 1916 rising, the treaty of 1921 and the causes of the civil war, 1922 John Redmond became the leader of the Home rule party when the English election was a draw
These were transported to Howth. Women took them from there, up their dresses, past the British checkpoints. There were now 2 private armies in Ireland and looking at civil war. The British didn't know what to do but they got lucky and didn't have to anything. World War 1 started and home rule was postponed. The Ulster and Irish Volunteers joined the British army to fight the Germans. Both joined as the Irish Volunteers wanted home rule and Ulster Volunteers wanted it to be forgotten about. Out of the 200,000 Irish Volunteers that joined the British army, 60,000 died.
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The Irish are naturally an open-minded and accepting people who have great respect for other cultures and traditions. The best example of this mentality is the spread of Christianity which St. Patrick introduced there beginning in 432AD. It must be noted that the spread of Christianity in Ireland was bloodless, unlike in many other parts of the world.4 By peacefully accepting the new faith, elements of openness and tolerance are evident in their natural character. The Irish people's actions were morally based on tradition and precedents set by their ancestors.
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The people in Dublin thought the rebels were crazy; nobody supported their rising. The small group of rebels managed to hold the buildings for 5 days. On the fifth day they were rounded up, they had been under constant fire from artillery during the five days. After the British had regained control of the buildings the leader of the group and 13 other rebels were shot by the British troops. Before this event had taken place Patrick pearse had said that 'doing this would be a blood sacrifice'. In other words, he knew that he would die but he thought that something had to be done about it.
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The events that occurred in Derry on the 30th January 1972 became known as 'b****y Sunday'. Why have these events produced such different historical interpretations?
Therefore on August 9th 1971 all marches in Northern Ireland were banned under the Special Powers Act 1922. At dawn on that same day British soldiers entered a number of Catholic homes and took away suspected IRA men, which of hundreds were put in internal camps. A march was then organised on January 30th 1972 by a Catholic group, although it was illegal they said so was interning. The final decision was to allow the march to go ahead but to contain it within the Bogside and Creggan estate to prevent rioting in the city centre.
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Northern Ireland Assignment Section 1: How have groups within each community tried to achieve their aims between 1968 and the present day?
Both groups are equally passionate about their aims for the future of Northern Ireland. Between 1968 and the present day they have used a number of different violent, peaceful, persuasive, threatening, and contentious methods to achieve their specific aims. There were many different sub groups of the Republicans/Nationalists and the Loyalists. Some of the main ones were the Sinn Fein a Political Party who supports the militant campaigns to achieve a united Ireland. The Social Democratic & Labour Party (SLDP)
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Long term causes of the conflict can be traced back to the 1100's when the Normans conquered Ireland. However the more predominant conflict started in the 1500's when Tudor Stuarts re-conquered Ireland and began the plantations of Protestants
To prevent this happening, a decision to make a line of Protestant defence was made and put in place in Ireland, especially the North, so that if such an invasion were to take place, England would not be caught off guard and battles could be prevented from taking place on English soil. It is important however to realise that the conflict in Northern Ireland is not a religious battle but instead a political battle in which the people who are in conflict belong to one of two religious groups.
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However, just one week later, the rebellion failed at the hands of British troops, who re-took Dublin from the rebels, and executed the rebel leaders. James Connolly, the last leader to be executed, had been wounded in the leg when fighting. The wound had become infected with gangrene, and Connolly was already dying when he was executed. Wounded, dying and unable to stand, Connolly was sat down on a chair in the center on Dublin and executed. In my opinion, this was the most important event in the recent history of Ireland.
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It was not just the civil right movements who were against discrimination so too were the Mps. Austin Currie was one of the Mps who decided to protest against discrimination. She decided to protest due to the fact 19-year-old women (Miss Emily Beattie a Secretary to the Ulster Unionist Party) was given more priority over housing rather than a catholic mother with children. Many Protestant were angry with the civil rights movements because they believed it was only looking out for Catholics without taking into consideration some protestant who were in working class position and faced numerous disadvantages.
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How Did Protestant Politicians Explain The Social, Economic And political Differences Between Catholics And Protestants?
For these reason politicians like Ian Paisley thought that Catholics could never be loyal to the government of Ulster and were in fact traitors. Politicians explained that Gerrymandering was simply done to stop the popish traitors from entering local councils where they would betray the people of Ulster by forging strong links with southern Ireland. It was also believed that if Catholics had a greater voice they would enact laws that would alienate protestant for example the in the south divorced was banned in 1925.
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Describe the disadvantages faced by Catholics in Northern Ireland in the mid 60's? The partition of Ireland took place in Ireland in the 1920's,
Gerrymandering is the practice of dividing the constinivces of a voting area so as to give one party an unfair disadvantage. The Protestant used this method so to cheat the Catholics by giving those who have more property and business more votes, because most Protestant were better of than Catholics it meant they would have more votes and Protestant already being a majority meant they would have much more votes than Catholics. Catholics also faced disadvantages in housing as they lived in very poor houses.
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