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GCSE: Northern Ireland 1965-85
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'Even if the Saville Enquiry does find out the truth about what happened on b****y Sunday, why are Protestants and Catholics so firmly set in their views that there will be people in northern Ireland who will not accept the Enquiries finding'
Ironically the majority catholic area 'Bogside' was the place where they marched. The government used soldiers from the 1st parachute regiment, a questionable group to use as they are trained to kill in battlefield situations, not generally used in "Riot control", there mission was to go in and "scoop up" anybody causing trouble in the march, basically trying to cause a riot. The soldiers held back firing as resistance unfolded at the barricades, though tear gas, water hoses and rubber bullets where fired at the people inciting a fight at the barricades, though these were a select few, the majority of the marchers carried on through until they arrived at where the speeches were to be given.
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These divides strengthened further after the Act of Union because the Irish Protestants and Ulster Presbyterians gained both economically and religiously from the Act. They continued to control Ireland and run its policies; therefore became pro-union. Whereas the Catholics in Ireland felt betrayed, because they had not been granted Emancipation like they had hoped and the Ascendancy had been made stronger and it still controlled Irish Politics. Another downfall of the Act was that it failed to address the other issues in Ireland at the time, which made up the Irish Question and created new ones as well, such as, Catholic Emancipation, Parliamentary Reform and Equality for Religion.
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They felt threatened, as they didn't want to risk the north re-joining with the south because of Nationalist supremacy. Therefore they held massive strikes across Ulster and practically brought the country to a standstill; with economic paralysis the country couldn't function. Naturally this was a disaster for the peace initiative as the government couldn't afford to have the majority of the population on strike and thus were forced to abandon the plan. Perhaps the most underlying factor in the failure of the peace initiatives is the fact there are deep divisions between the two communities, Protestants and Catholics. The segregation of these communities produce fear and hatred between the two 'sides'.
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And if it's Saint something, then all of a sudden the boy isn't good enough. He kicks with the wrong foot." Now although this shows clear discrimination against Catholics in sports: Protestant Linfield scouts would find a problem with any player no matter how good they were on the basis that they were catholic. The context it was in leads to problems, the quote is from a talking in 1984. Unfortunately we do not know what preceded this quote or what followed it so we have no idea why he talked about this and what the point he was actually trying to make was.
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The Loyalist/Unionist main celebration takes place every eleventh evening and the twelfth day of July. This is because community celebrates King William's victory at the Battle of the Boyne. This celebration reinforces their Britishness and they claim also their religion. Another common belief that the Unionist and Loyalists share is that they do not place their trust in the British government. They know that the North of Ireland is a large drain on the British purse strings, and that this is probably the main reason why Britain would retreat from the North of Ireland for it to become a one nation Ireland, or as the Nationalists call it 'A United Ireland'.
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There are deep divisions within the official unionist party. There is continual disagreement over how many concessions can be made to nationalists. David Trimble the party leader has remained committed to the agreement despite bitter criticism from fellow unionists and himself also feeling uneasy over some elements of it. He has faced leadership challenges and recent defections to the DUP by Geoffrey Donaldson, Arlene Foster and Norah Beare have reduced the number of seats held by the UUP. David Trimble must have the support of his own party and of grass roots unionists before he can make a major move.
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"In the years 1865-1868 the Fenians did not pose a serious threat to British Rule in Ireland" To what extent do the extracts support this view?
The peaceful methods that had originally been used by various groups (i.e. mass meetings and campaigns) had been unsuccessful in achieving the aims of the Irish; therefore the Fenian's employed alternative methods and they intended to create a mass uprising for revolution. This was not successful because the informants notified the government of the Fenian's plans and the there was a lack of organisation. The uprising was therefore postponed until March. However due to the lack of communication news of the postponement failed to reach other areas, such as Kerry where a small uprising took place.
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Decommissioning by the IRA would require a great deal of trust towards the British Government and the Unionists. The simply do not have any for either because of the years of violence and hatred. The IRA see it as if they decommission they would become very weak giving the opposition a great chance to attack or exploit them. They are not willing to take that risk. The IRA have no trust for the other side because the Roman Catholic's have always been treated as second class citizens, for example, The Ulster police force was made up of Protestants and would discriminate against the Catholics.
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He enjoyed no luxuries, nor did his family. In his day-to-day life he rarely, if ever, handled money. He had no means of buying food if his store of potatoes ran out. He was well accustomed to hunger and poverty. In his lifetime he had hardly known anything else. In the early decades of the 19th century there had been a population explosion in Ireland with the number of people rising from four million to eight million. Yet the amount of land available to them had not increased.
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How Accurate is it to say that the Causes of the Demonstrations outside the Holy Cross Primary School in August 2001 date back to only 1968?
The reason for this protest could be just an excuse for the loyalists to cause another conflict between the two sides or it could be a nationalist tactic to wind up the loyalists by not using the back entrance. Either way, the fact that children were used as a tool to cause violence & conflict is an example of the vicious hatred between the two sides. The causes of the conflict can be separated into four main areas: * Political * Economic * Social * Religious The most obvious cause if the conflict and came during 1968-1972 when an event called the 'The North Exploding' occurred.
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There was also Civil Rights Movement of the 1960's; Northern Ireland hoped to put pressure on the British Government. Their aim was to hold peaceful demonstrations and ask the government to give them: * The vote for everybody as in the rest of the United Kingdom. * The redrawing of electoral boundaries to ensure fair representation. * Laws against discrimination. * Fair allocation of housing. * The repeal of the Special Powers Act which allowed internment. * The disbanding of the B specials.
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The third and final reason for the reformation of Protestants in Ireland was because the English Monarchs wanted to control the Catholics living in Ireland. The reformation added to the partition in Ireland in 1921 because the Catholics didn't like idea of the reformation in Ireland and rebelled. There were two main rebellions in Ireland because of the 16th century reformation of Protestants in Ireland. These were the battle of Boyne in 1689 and the 1798 rebellion. Protestants and Catholics were partitioned into two political categories of person which were known as Unionists and Nationalists.
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One of the ways in which Catholics addressed they demands were Civil Rights marches and demonstrations but the police, that were 99.9% Protestants, sometimes led the Catholic marchers into a traps and this ended up in violence and so Catholic marches were banned. This angered the Catholics, they felt that if the Protestants should get to march they why shouldn't they. In trapping and stopping the Catholics march the Protestants had caused the Catholics to become angrier and more determined to fight, so the troops were send in to restore order with the Catholics and the Protestants because even if the troops only restore order with the Catholics the Protestants would still provoke the Catholics into another battle.
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If the player says a school with a saint's name, suddenly the manger think this player not good enough. Because he may be Catholic. In source C concerns the Ian Paisley and other Unionists. He said that keep Protestant and loyal worker in times of depression. This mean Catholics are unloyal workers. They remember that Ireland refused to join Second World War to help the British against the German army. In Northern Ireland many people think the Catholics are unloyal workers and worse than Protestant. Their status is like black American in 1950s in the Southern Status. These sources are both useful because the source B is talking about his personal experiences over a long period of time.
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Unfortunately the British whose military capabilities were among the best in the world crushed all of these rebellions. The rebellions may have failed but the flame of independence was not extinguished and the example that was left led to the establishment of the Irish Republic. The revival of the Irish language and Irish culture was also a factor that led to the rising. The Irish people began to become increasingly different from the British both ideologically and culturally. The Growth of the Irish language and the Gaelic Athletic Association (Cumann Luthchl�as Gael) began giving people a sense of patriotism.
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Discrimination in housing, jobs and welfare and benefits caused a lot of anger and hate between the two conflicting communities and lastly, people were angry at the partition of Ireland into (legally) two separate countries. The Good Friday Peace Agreement was signed in 1998. Its main provisions were that: the principle that the constitutional future of Northern Ireland should be determined by the democratically expressed wish of its people; a commitment by all parties to 'exclusively peaceful and democratic means'; the establishment of a Northern Irish Legislative Assembly; a 'Power-sharing' Executive, made up from the main parties in proportion to
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Study sources D,E and F; all these source refer to a single city in Northern Ireland. Use the sources and your own knowledge, to explain why this city became a centre of the civil rights movement in Northern Ireland.
This electoral fixing is also proven by the fact that in 1966, protestant elect more councilors with 10,000 votes in comparison to the Protestants 20,000 votes. This is also reinforcing by source F which shows even thou nationalists had by far and away the majority of votes, they still had less councilors. Gerrymandering aided the start of the civil rights movements due to its byproducts and the consequences of Protestants having the important posts in the local council including the chairman because this power that the Protestants had, increased the discrimination catholic had to endure.
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Study source J; do you agree with this portrayal of the reasons why troubles continued into 1990s? Explain your answer using the sources and your own knowledge.
were strongly contrasting to this until 1990s; . This strong opposition was conspicuous in both the power sharing initiative (1970's) and later on in 1985 with the Anglo Irish agreement since they both failed due to this. Catholics had what they had fought for in political equality on these occasions. But in May 1974; when power sharing initiative was enforced, a group of foremost working-class Protestants, called the Ulster workers council started a general strike. Which main aim was to 'break' the power sharing initiative?
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However, Source B states how "there was a shooting in the morning" and "trouble was expected." This infers that the demonstrators did have a warning. Both Sources give different statistical evidence about the ratio of police men and protestors. In Source A, Tyler said, "There were crowds in the streets...there were plenty of policemen too, well armed." This portrays an equal balance in numbers. However, Source B states there were "A dozen Saracens... thousands of Africans." This infers that there were too many demonstrators for the small police force to handle. Both Sources also seem to have a contrasting opinion as to who initiated the violence.
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Why does sectarian conflict like that seen at the Holy Cross Primary School in the Ardoyne, North Belfast in October 2001 still happen, when Northern Ireland is meant to be going through a peace process?
"BBC Reporter: And what about the notions that Catholics get more than Protestants do? Do you feel that Catholics do better? Protestant School Girl Well Catholics get more money from the government, so they do, for doing nothing - they just sit there and don't even work. We have to go out to work to earn our money. Them ones earn the same money, like, sitting in the house as what we do working." A lot has been done to help the two communities to come to an agreement where they are both happy. But anything that happens to one community and not to the other, that community would feel that they were threatened.
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With What Success has the British Government Attempted to Deal with the 'Irish Troubles' since 1972.
Power sharing failed as it was introduced to soon after one party rule. Strike action was growing increasingly common in the 1970's. This was known as the decade of strike as a lot of groups were taking this action. The second attempt was the Northern Ireland Assembly that was set up in 1982. This was another good idea but again the timing was wrong causing this attempt to fail. In 1982 Catholics refused to attend the assembly as in 1982 members of the IRA were being arrested and imprisoned without trial. They were angry and went on hunger strikes.
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In 1968 a civil rights movement emerged to protest against discrimination, often provoking violent reactions within the protestant community. One of the main problems which they had to face up to was the police who were also discriminating Catholics as th majority of the police force at that time was made up of mostly Protestants. "The area was peaceful and deserted at 2a.m. when a mob of policemen came from the city centre through Butcher Gate and surged down Faban Street into St Columb Wells and Lecky Road, shouting and singing: 'Hey, hey we're the monkeys. And we're going to monkey around Till we see your blood flowing All along the ground' They broke windows with their batons, kicked doors and shouted..."
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The events that occurred in Derry on 30th January 1979 became known as b****y Sunday. Why have these events produced such different historical interpretations?
It concluded that, "there is no credible evidence that any of the 14 people killed by the army in Londonderry in January 1972 had been handling firearms." The premature release of this evidence "incensed" the paratroopers and their supporters. The paratroopers have always claimed that every person shot appeared to be armed and that "nail bombs and acid bombs" were thrown at them. The Widgery Enquiry cleared them of any criminal charge, but this new evidence could pave the way to charges being brought against them.
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The Home Rule Bill of 1912, however, was not as far reaching as many think it could, or should have been. The Irish Nationalist party would have expected complete independence and separation but instead got a bill that was fundamentally the same as the bill Gladstone tried to introduce almost 20 years prior to this. In fact, some aspects of the 1912 bill were even more limiting that those in the 1893 bill. Liberals proposed giving the Irish government influence rather than powers.
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How important was Henri IV's handling of the issue of religion in the establishment of a settled kingdom by 1598?
Although two attempts to capture Paris from the Catholics proved unsuccessful and Henri saw that in order to seize what he wanted he had to adapt the politique style. A style that had progressed over the years, which Calvinists and Catholics had began to write about. It was a view that believed in the best interests of France and how stability could only be achieved by the presence of one power (the King) and co-operation with him. This was why, in 1593, Henri converted to Catholicism.
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