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GCSE: Russia, USSR 1905-1941
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What problem did Russia face after the1905 Revolution? How effective was Nicholas II in dealing with these problems?4 star(s)
Poor livelihood, no franchise of general Russians and the insult of Russo-Japanese War all these were reasons to cause the 1905 Revolution. The Bloody Sunday Incident was an immediately cause to lead the outbreak of 1905 Revo lution. After the 1905 Revolution, the Czar still had to face the above problems. IN order to prolong his rule, he was forced to reform Russia. At first, he agreed to set up parliament, Duma. It made Russia became a constitution country like Britain.
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Bolshevik was not communist due to the Laws that were changed, and the way that the country changed. Because the of War Communism, people became pushed aside again. Grain requisitioning, this is when the Bolshevik were sending units of the Red guard into the country side to find grain for the hard-pressed cities. The banning of private, All private trade were banned, but the state trading was very chaotic and was not producing enough products, so the black market started in
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They could get loans from the government. However most of the peasants had to pay these loans off over a long period of time. As a result most of the peasants got into heavy debt. This was made worse by the fact that after 1861 the landowners had large estates. Many of the peasants were forced to work on the estates of nobles so they could earn extra money. However more and more people were becoming peasants as the population of Russia increased by 50% between 1860 and 1897 with more and more peasants competing with each other for the little amount of land available making lots of the peasants dissatisfied with the government.
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The Provisional Government was only a temporary government. Do you think it could have made decisions about the land and war issues facing Russia?
On the other hand, the Soviets were creating problems for the Provisional Government, as they wanted to take control. Firstly, there was the First World War. Russia was loosing badly and the public was demanding the government to pull out of the war. There were lack of resources in major cities, lack of workers and soldiers were dying by millions every week. Many people believe that the provisional government didn't have the power to pull Russia out of the war.
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The people had got a parliament, but it wasn't going to improve their lives at all. This was a carrot, but a rotten one, as it seemed good, but wasn't all it was cut out to be. Stolypin changed a number of things. His first change was a stick, in the form of military courts. These courts could sentence and hang a person on the spot, no questions asked. And if the dead were found not guilty, the grieving family would get an apology, and if they were lucky, a small amount of compensation.
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Economic Crises of Revolutionary Russia. Economic crises were the lone factor that created a revolutionary situation. To what extent do you agree?
In the October Manifesto, issued by Nicholas II on 17 October 1905, the establishment of a Duma was granted. The Duma was the Russian parliament which existed from 1906 to 1917 and was dismissed four times. The first Duma was active from April to July 1906 and the second, February to June 1907; these Dumas were dominated by radical deputies with demands which were considered too extreme. They demanded universal and free education, greater equality of all citizens before the law and major land reforms.
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This petition asked for their selves and all other Russians in their situation to be granted basic human rights and given the right to elect their own leader to represent them politically. This march resulted in approximately 200 marchers' deaths and the wounding of 800 others.
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Marx's idea was that there would be two revolutions. The first would be the middle-class taking control from the monarchy and aristocracy. The second revolution would be the proletariats taking control from the middle-class. Then a temporary government structure would oversee the Communism settle into society. There were other causes which led to the second Bolshevik revolution, Marxism was the final consequence of a rulers system riddled with faults. The Provisional Government in February 1917 promised elections which were to be held in December of the same year. To many starving Russians, 10 months isn't even a foreseeable future, let alone would they even have the care to think about the provisional government while they had to concentrate on surviving.
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3. The Russian Empire contained many people, the Majority of them non-Russian e.g. 22 million Ukrainians in the south and 8 million Poles in the west. Many of these peoples disliked the Russian rule and wanted independence. B. The government of Russia 1. The head of the government was Tsar Nicholas II. He ruled as an autocrat, a ruler who does not have to share power. 2. The work of the government as done by a large and corrupt civil slaves.
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Trotsky was later discredited for his work however as the Bolsheviks ganged up on after the death of Lenin, not wanting him to become the new party leader. Kerensky: On October 24th Kerensky attempted to put a stop to the forthcoming seize which he and the rest of the Provisional Government were said to of known was going to happen. He ordered the army to prepare for the Bolshevik attempt to seize power.
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the October Manifesto, his not being willing to accept a more democratic and representative form of government after the scare of the 1905 Revolution and of course the decisions he made during the First World War all added significantly to the initially pressures eventually leading to his downfall.. The vastness of Russia, although perhaps an advantage if managed well, did not make matters easy for Nicholas II. His grandfather, Alexander II, was largely responsible for the implementation of the mostly unpopular policy of Russification, forcing non-indigenous citizens of the Empire to speak Russian, dress Russian, even adopt Russian customs.
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Whilst this was happening, the Tsar wasn't even in the palace. This was called "Bloody Sunday" and it was all blamed on the Tsar, even though he didn't give the order to shoot those people. This made him look very sinister to all of Russia. Bloody Sunday wouldn't have happened if there weren't any problems with the workers. Russia was an 18th century country living in a 20th century world insinuating that they were behind in technology and people's rights. There were a lot of problems in Russia, for example, the population of Russia was rapidly increasing, therefore food supply was running short.
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Another reason why Russia was unsuccessful in the war was because there weren't enough weapons, so soldiers fought with whatever they could find. For example, they would use a brick or a plank of wood if they were lucky. They were told to pick up there comrades rifle if he died. However, Russia's prime minister at this time was Stolypin and he could have made things better for Russia and the Tsar's reputation. He had the idea of creating a rich peasant which he called a "Kulak".
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and progressed to the publicised show trials of high party officials in 1934. Stalin ordered these purges for a number of reasons, foremost was the need to remove his rivals from positions of power. One such rival was Kirov and it's entirely possible, though unproven, that Kirov's murder was actually ordered by Stalin himself. There were many 'old Bolsheviks' within the party who simply knew too much about him, the fact that he had very little to do with the actions of 1917 and also that they knew the truth about his relationship with Lenin, a relationship that was not as close as Stalin led people to believe, indeed in the photograph of
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Why was the Kronstadt rising, March 1921, considered so important? When the communist revolution started in 1917, the sailors of the Kronstadt naval base had been between the most important supporters of this event, even firing artillery shells over Petrograd the night of the revolution. However, three years later, these strong supporters of communism now considered that 'life under the yoke of the Communists dictatorship has become more terrible than death'. In March 1921, the sailors of the Kronstadt naval base revolted against the communist government, because they had not received what they expected from the government they had put into power.
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This, in Marx's eyes was Utopia. I'm going to look at the links between this theory and the Bolshevik Revolution. Lenin read this theory and did use this as a basis for the Bolshevik revolution but there were other factors that also led to the revolution; starvation, weak governments, poor decisions by Tsar Nicholas II, failures in WW1 and many other factors that contributed to the Bolshevik revolution. Tsar Nicholas was a bad leader and made a fatal decision in 1915 to take control of the Russian army after a quarter of their men had died in the first year; this meant any defeat he could be blamed for.
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There are many different reasons why Stalin and not Trotsky became Lenins successor. When Lenin died he left no clear successor to lead the Communist Party, so it was assumed that Trotsky was going to be Lenins successor,
On the other hand Trotsky was highly educated and he was a thinker, this raised jealousy and suspicious among the communist party. Trotsky was so arrogant, people were afraid of Trotsky by most of the seniors in the Bolshevik party, because Trotsky offended most of them. Trotsky failed to realise that he needed them to support him when they voted for one of them for a new successor.
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In 1940, even Trotsky was murdered in Mexico by one of Stalin's agents. After the show trials, Stalin turned his attention to the army, specifically its officers. It is believed about 25,000 officers were removed, about 1 in 5, including the commander of the army, Tukhachevsky, who was simply removed as Stalin saw him as one of the few remaining people with the power to oppose him. By 1937 an estimated 18 million people had been transported to gulags and nearly 10 million had died.
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Bad weather also iced over the railway lines in 1916. This in turn made import of food into such cities as Petrograd extremely difficult. The slow import of food meant that food which was able to reach the cities, rose sky high in price. Unfortunately the workers weren't able to afford these amounts and so many starved through the cold months. Often queues formed for bread however, there was no bread to be bought. The weather also affected soldiers fighting in the war. This led the soldiers to side with the workers during strikes and with their help, the workers were able to overthrow the Tsar.
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Firstly, Hitler chose to invade Russia on the date, 22nd of June because in Russia the winters can become extremely cold and the temperature of Russia will usually drop to below -30C. These temperatures are very bad for warfare and the German soldiers certainly wouldn't have been able to deal with them and still achieve a successful invasion of Russia. So Hitler chose the date of 22nd of June because the temperatures would have been more bearable for the German troops.
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The following were all equally important reasons why the Bolsheviks won the Civil war of 1918-21: - Bolshevik Strengths - Foreign Intervention - White deficiencies Explain how far you agree with this statement.
They were committed and it paid off with them finally winning the civil war in 1917. Another Bolshevik strength was their very effective propaganda. Examples of this were the 8 hour (maximum) day and the free education for all, which were policies they never intended to stick to but just to increase their popularity. The Bolsheviks were very good at using propaganda and saw it as an opportunity to win over supporters and get more men fighting for them. There was also the decree to give equality to women, the nationalities and all religions. This was very successful propaganda as it targeted women, who were half the population and nationalities of which there were many in Russia for example Ukrainians and Estonians.
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Stalin - Source E and Source F are completely different to one another. One is biased in favour of Stalin and one is highly critical of him.
The content is mythical and portrays a cult worship of Stalin. The writer starts by thanking Stalin for making him so happy and for the inspirational meeting with the great leader. It is over the top. What baby would utter Stalin as its first word! It was written in 1935 which was a year after the purges had begun. It is utterly one sided and does not tell us anything about the meeting with Stalin or what was going on at that time. Source F talks about how unhappy Stalin was and how narrow minded, malicious and dangerous he was.
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How important a reason for the outbreak of revolution in 1917 was Russias involvement in the First World War?
The medium term causes included, the effects of World War 1 on Russia, also economic problems in Russia were to blame along with food shortages in Russia and political problems also affected Russia. The trigger factors which contributed to the 1917 revolution included the shortages of bread in the Russian capital and different forms of weather.
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Photographs and history books were changed to eliminate even the memory of people who had been arrested. Propaganda and personality cult was used to show Stalin as the true heir to Lenin, and the only man capable of defending the USSR. Everybody had to praise Stalin, all the time. Newspapers credited him with every success. Poets thanked him for bringing the harvest. People leapt to their feet to applaud every time his name was mentioned. His picture was everywhere parents taught their children to love Stalin more than themselves. They dared not do anything else. Stalin did this to create unity, and certainly strong control was needed to modernise Russia. He was also at least homicidally paranoid.
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In Russia both revolutions happened in the same year and this fact can only be understood through an analysis of Russian society in the early twentieth century. 2. The contrasts in Russian society: her need to develop the economy in order to be a Great Power; state capitalism and industrialisation; the contribution of Sergei Witte; conversely, the problem of the land and the peasantry - capitalist-run estates were the exception; rapid, but localised, industrial development was taking place in a society where the majority of the population were largely self-sufficient peasants.
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