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GCSE: Russia, USSR 1905-1941

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 6
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    What problem did Russia face after the1905 Revolution? How effective was Nicholas II in dealing with these problems?

    4 star(s)

    Poor livelihood, no franchise of general Russians and the insult of Russo-Japanese War all these were reasons to cause the 1905 Revolution. The Bloody Sunday Incident was an immediately cause to lead the outbreak of 1905 Revo lution. After the 1905 Revolution, the Czar still had to face the above problems. IN order to prolong his rule, he was forced to reform Russia. At first, he agreed to set up parliament, Duma. It made Russia became a constitution country like Britain.

    • Word count: 922
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Both The Bolshevik Revolution and the subsequent society created by the Bolshevik

    3 star(s)

    Bolshevik was not communist due to the Laws that were changed, and the way that the country changed. Because the of War Communism, people became pushed aside again. Grain requisitioning, this is when the Bolshevik were sending units of the Red guard into the country side to find grain for the hard-pressed cities. The banning of private, All private trade were banned, but the state trading was very chaotic and was not producing enough products, so the black market started in

    • Word count: 487
  3. Peer reviewed

    What were the causes of the 1905 Revolution in Russia?

    3 star(s)

    They could get loans from the government. However most of the peasants had to pay these loans off over a long period of time. As a result most of the peasants got into heavy debt. This was made worse by the fact that after 1861 the landowners had large estates. Many of the peasants were forced to work on the estates of nobles so they could earn extra money. However more and more people were becoming peasants as the population of Russia increased by 50% between 1860 and 1897 with more and more peasants competing with each other for the little amount of land available making lots of the peasants dissatisfied with the government.

    • Word count: 772
  4. The Provisional Government was only a temporary government. Do you think it could have made decisions about the land and war issues facing Russia?

    On the other hand, the Soviets were creating problems for the Provisional Government, as they wanted to take control. Firstly, there was the First World War. Russia was loosing badly and the public was demanding the government to pull out of the war. There were lack of resources in major cities, lack of workers and soldiers were dying by millions every week. Many people believe that the provisional government didn't have the power to pull Russia out of the war.

    • Word count: 451
  5. How did the Tsar control the Russian people between 1905 and the First World War?

    The people had got a parliament, but it wasn't going to improve their lives at all. This was a carrot, but a rotten one, as it seemed good, but wasn't all it was cut out to be. Stolypin changed a number of things. His first change was a stick, in the form of military courts. These courts could sentence and hang a person on the spot, no questions asked. And if the dead were found not guilty, the grieving family would get an apology, and if they were lucky, a small amount of compensation.

    • Word count: 586
  6. Economic Crises of Revolutionary Russia. Economic crises were the lone factor that created a revolutionary situation. To what extent do you agree?

    In the October Manifesto, issued by Nicholas II on 17 October 1905, the establishment of a Duma was granted. The Duma was the Russian parliament which existed from 1906 to 1917 and was dismissed four times. The first Duma was active from April to July 1906 and the second, February to June 1907; these Dumas were dominated by radical deputies with demands which were considered too extreme. They demanded universal and free education, greater equality of all citizens before the law and major land reforms.

    • Word count: 663
  7. "Tsar of All the Russias" cartoon. Document Analysis & Bloody Sunday Historiography

    This petition asked for their selves and all other Russians in their situation to be granted basic human rights and given the right to elect their own leader to represent them politically. This march resulted in approximately 200 marchers' deaths and the wounding of 800 others.

    • Word count: 468
  8. 'Explain How Marxism contributed to the Bolshevik Revolution'

    Marx's idea was that there would be two revolutions. The first would be the middle-class taking control from the monarchy and aristocracy. The second revolution would be the proletariats taking control from the middle-class. Then a temporary government structure would oversee the Communism settle into society. There were other causes which led to the second Bolshevik revolution, Marxism was the final consequence of a rulers system riddled with faults. The Provisional Government in February 1917 promised elections which were to be held in December of the same year. To many starving Russians, 10 months isn't even a foreseeable future, let alone would they even have the care to think about the provisional government while they had to concentrate on surviving.

    • Word count: 609
  9. Russia Revision Guide

    3. The Russian Empire contained many people, the Majority of them non-Russian e.g. 22 million Ukrainians in the south and 8 million Poles in the west. Many of these peoples disliked the Russian rule and wanted independence. B. The government of Russia 1. The head of the government was Tsar Nicholas II. He ruled as an autocrat, a ruler who does not have to share power. 2. The work of the government as done by a large and corrupt civil slaves.

    • Word count: 511
  10. The Bolshevik Coup

    Trotsky was later discredited for his work however as the Bolsheviks ganged up on after the death of Lenin, not wanting him to become the new party leader. Kerensky: On October 24th Kerensky attempted to put a stop to the forthcoming seize which he and the rest of the Provisional Government were said to of known was going to happen. He ordered the army to prepare for the Bolshevik attempt to seize power.

    • Word count: 489
  11. What Led to the Downfall of the Tsar?

    the October Manifesto, his not being willing to accept a more democratic and representative form of government after the scare of the 1905 Revolution and of course the decisions he made during the First World War all added significantly to the initially pressures eventually leading to his downfall.. The vastness of Russia, although perhaps an advantage if managed well, did not make matters easy for Nicholas II. His grandfather, Alexander II, was largely responsible for the implementation of the mostly unpopular policy of Russification, forcing non-indigenous citizens of the Empire to speak Russian, dress Russian, even adopt Russian customs.

    • Word count: 913
  12. Why was there a revolution in Russia in 1905?

    Whilst this was happening, the Tsar wasn't even in the palace. This was called "Bloody Sunday" and it was all blamed on the Tsar, even though he didn't give the order to shoot those people. This made him look very sinister to all of Russia. Bloody Sunday wouldn't have happened if there weren't any problems with the workers. Russia was an 18th century country living in a 20th century world insinuating that they were behind in technology and people's rights. There were a lot of problems in Russia, for example, the population of Russia was rapidly increasing, therefore food supply was running short.

    • Word count: 859
  13. Explain how far Nicholas II was to blame for March 1917 revolution.

    Another reason why Russia was unsuccessful in the war was because there weren't enough weapons, so soldiers fought with whatever they could find. For example, they would use a brick or a plank of wood if they were lucky. They were told to pick up there comrades rifle if he died. However, Russia's prime minister at this time was Stolypin and he could have made things better for Russia and the Tsar's reputation. He had the idea of creating a rich peasant which he called a "Kulak".

    • Word count: 871
  14. Why did Stalin carry out the purges?

    and progressed to the publicised show trials of high party officials in 1934. Stalin ordered these purges for a number of reasons, foremost was the need to remove his rivals from positions of power. One such rival was Kirov and it's entirely possible, though unproven, that Kirov's murder was actually ordered by Stalin himself. There were many 'old Bolsheviks' within the party who simply knew too much about him, the fact that he had very little to do with the actions of 1917 and also that they knew the truth about his relationship with Lenin, a relationship that was not as close as Stalin led people to believe, indeed in the photograph of

    • Word count: 585
  15. Revision on Russia

    Why was the Kronstadt rising, March 1921, considered so important? When the communist revolution started in 1917, the sailors of the Kronstadt naval base had been between the most important supporters of this event, even firing artillery shells over Petrograd the night of the revolution. However, three years later, these strong supporters of communism now considered that 'life under the yoke of the Communists dictatorship has become more terrible than death'. In March 1921, the sailors of the Kronstadt naval base revolted against the communist government, because they had not received what they expected from the government they had put into power.

    • Word count: 575
  16. Was Rasputin a cause or consequence of Russias Problems?

    This, in Marx's eyes was Utopia. I'm going to look at the links between this theory and the Bolshevik Revolution. Lenin read this theory and did use this as a basis for the Bolshevik revolution but there were other factors that also led to the revolution; starvation, weak governments, poor decisions by Tsar Nicholas II, failures in WW1 and many other factors that contributed to the Bolshevik revolution. Tsar Nicholas was a bad leader and made a fatal decision in 1915 to take control of the Russian army after a quarter of their men had died in the first year; this meant any defeat he could be blamed for.

    • Word count: 923
  17. There are many different reasons why Stalin and not Trotsky became Lenins successor. When Lenin died he left no clear successor to lead the Communist Party, so it was assumed that Trotsky was going to be Lenins successor,

    On the other hand Trotsky was highly educated and he was a thinker, this raised jealousy and suspicious among the communist party. Trotsky was so arrogant, people were afraid of Trotsky by most of the seniors in the Bolshevik party, because Trotsky offended most of them. Trotsky failed to realise that he needed them to support him when they voted for one of them for a new successor.

    • Word count: 578
  18. Stalins controll of Russia

    In 1940, even Trotsky was murdered in Mexico by one of Stalin's agents. After the show trials, Stalin turned his attention to the army, specifically its officers. It is believed about 25,000 officers were removed, about 1 in 5, including the commander of the army, Tukhachevsky, who was simply removed as Stalin saw him as one of the few remaining people with the power to oppose him. By 1937 an estimated 18 million people had been transported to gulags and nearly 10 million had died.

    • Word count: 597
  19. The Russian Revolution Was Ultimately Caused By Bad Weather

    Bad weather also iced over the railway lines in 1916. This in turn made import of food into such cities as Petrograd extremely difficult. The slow import of food meant that food which was able to reach the cities, rose sky high in price. Unfortunately the workers weren't able to afford these amounts and so many starved through the cold months. Often queues formed for bread however, there was no bread to be bought. The weather also affected soldiers fighting in the war. This led the soldiers to side with the workers during strikes and with their help, the workers were able to overthrow the Tsar.

    • Word count: 581
  20. Why did Hitler order the German invasion of the Soviet Union on 22 June 1941?

    Firstly, Hitler chose to invade Russia on the date, 22nd of June because in Russia the winters can become extremely cold and the temperature of Russia will usually drop to below -30C. These temperatures are very bad for warfare and the German soldiers certainly wouldn't have been able to deal with them and still achieve a successful invasion of Russia. So Hitler chose the date of 22nd of June because the temperatures would have been more bearable for the German troops.

    • Word count: 776
  21. The following were all equally important reasons why the Bolsheviks won the Civil war of 1918-21: - Bolshevik Strengths - Foreign Intervention - White deficiencies Explain how far you agree with this statement.

    They were committed and it paid off with them finally winning the civil war in 1917. Another Bolshevik strength was their very effective propaganda. Examples of this were the 8 hour (maximum) day and the free education for all, which were policies they never intended to stick to but just to increase their popularity. The Bolsheviks were very good at using propaganda and saw it as an opportunity to win over supporters and get more men fighting for them. There was also the decree to give equality to women, the nationalities and all religions. This was very successful propaganda as it targeted women, who were half the population and nationalities of which there were many in Russia for example Ukrainians and Estonians.

    • Word count: 760
  22. Stalin - Source E and Source F are completely different to one another. One is biased in favour of Stalin and one is highly critical of him.

    The content is mythical and portrays a cult worship of Stalin. The writer starts by thanking Stalin for making him so happy and for the inspirational meeting with the great leader. It is over the top. What baby would utter Stalin as its first word! It was written in 1935 which was a year after the purges had begun. It is utterly one sided and does not tell us anything about the meeting with Stalin or what was going on at that time. Source F talks about how unhappy Stalin was and how narrow minded, malicious and dangerous he was.

    • Word count: 507
  23. How important a reason for the outbreak of revolution in 1917 was Russias involvement in the First World War?

    The medium term causes included, the effects of World War 1 on Russia, also economic problems in Russia were to blame along with food shortages in Russia and political problems also affected Russia. The trigger factors which contributed to the 1917 revolution included the shortages of bread in the Russian capital and different forms of weather.

    • Word count: 428
  24. Explain the effects of Stalins purge in the Soviet Union in the 1930s

    Photographs and history books were changed to eliminate even the memory of people who had been arrested. Propaganda and personality cult was used to show Stalin as the true heir to Lenin, and the only man capable of defending the USSR. Everybody had to praise Stalin, all the time. Newspapers credited him with every success. Poets thanked him for bringing the harvest. People leapt to their feet to applaud every time his name was mentioned. His picture was everywhere parents taught their children to love Stalin more than themselves. They dared not do anything else. Stalin did this to create unity, and certainly strong control was needed to modernise Russia. He was also at least homicidally paranoid.

    • Word count: 725
  25. Why were there two revolutions in Russia in 1917?

    In Russia both revolutions happened in the same year and this fact can only be understood through an analysis of Russian society in the early twentieth century. 2. The contrasts in Russian society: her need to develop the economy in order to be a Great Power; state capitalism and industrialisation; the contribution of Sergei Witte; conversely, the problem of the land and the peasantry - capitalist-run estates were the exception; rapid, but localised, industrial development was taking place in a society where the majority of the population were largely self-sufficient peasants.

    • Word count: 614

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent have revolutionary Socialists followed the teachings and doctrines of Marx?

    "In conclusion, no socialist revolutionary faithfully followed the communist manifesto and Marx's ideology because it is almost impossible to implement an ideology written half a century ago under totally different conditions and a totally different situation. Every revolutionary had a their own adaptation of Marxism, this is evident with all the varying 'isms' developed out of Marxism like Trotskyism, Leninism, Stalinism and Maoism."

  • To what extent was Stalin's economic policy successful? In the 1920's the soviet economy was failing disastrously the revolution and the civil war had devastated the soviet economy and the economic output

    "Stalin's right hand man Khrushchev backs the argument of collectivisation as a failure. Khrushchev states: 'Stalin's brand of collectivisation brought nothing but brutality and misery'. This source is a quote from Khrushchev after Stalin's death. This is a source of good utility and reliability as it is said by Khrushchev after Stalin's death when he was in power so he could say what he wanted to, secondly Khrushchev was Stalin's right hand man so he was present around the time of collectivisation and would probably have know as much as Stalin. This source has a good level of validity because it is on collectivisation and what Khrushchev believed it achieved. It is trustworthy as it is a direct quote from Khrushchev himself. The motives of this source can be slightly questioned. As it is post Stalin, when Khrushchev encouraged openness on Stalin, plus he criticised and distanced himself from him. So it might have been said by Khrushchev to enhance his popularity and show him as less of a tyrant than Stalin was. This source shows a view of collectivisation agreed on by a great many people in the Soviet Union and it is also the view of historians. Figures do not support any success in collectivisation theses figures taken from a history learning site from the UK:"

  • Assess the strengths & weakness of Russia around 1855

    "In conclusion, when Alexander II came to the throne in 1855 he faced many problems, the most drastic I think was the existing serfdom system. Alexander decided to resolve these problems b introducing new reforms, the most famous and most needed in my opinion is the abolishment of serfdom. But as actual abolishment was after 1855, Russia's serfdom community was still very much alive consequently was still a huge weakness, and illustrated their backwardness in 1855. So overall after weighing up the strengths and weakness of Russia at that time, I would definitely consider there to be more weakness in the Russian empire. I do acknowledge that Alexander II employed some key reforms; however Russia remained 50 - 100 years behind the west in sheer development of the country in 1855."

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